Bihar is state in eastern India. It is the thirteenth-largest Indian state, with an area of 94,163 km2; the third-largest state by population, it is contiguous with Uttar Pradesh to its west, Nepal to the north, the northern part of West Bengal to the east, with Jharkhand to the south. The Bihar plain is split by the river Ganges. Three main regions converge in the state: Magadh and Bhojpur. On 15 November 2000, southern Bihar was ceded to form the new state of Jharkhand. Only 11.3% of the population of Bihar lives in urban areas, the lowest in India after Himachal Pradesh. Additionally 58% of Biharis are below the age of 25, giving Bihar the highest proportion of young people of any Indian state. In ancient and classical India, the area, now Bihar was considered a centre of power and culture. From Magadha arose India's first empire, the Maurya empire, as well as one of the world's most adhered-to religions, Buddhism. Magadha empires, notably under the Maurya and Gupta dynasties, unified large parts of South Asia under a central rule.
Another region of Bihar is Mithila, an early centre of learning and the centre of the Videha kingdom. Since the late 1970s, Bihar has lagged far behind other Indian states in terms of social and economic development. Many economists and social scientists claim that this is a direct result of the policies of the central government, such as the Freight equalisation policy, its apathy towards Bihar, lack of Bihari sub-nationalism, the Permanent Settlement of 1793 by the British East India Company; the state government has, made significant strides in developing the state. Improved governance has led to an economic revival in the state through increased investment in infrastructure, better health care facilities, greater emphasis on education, a reduction in crime and corruption; the name Bihar is derived from the Sanskrit and Pali word vihāra, meaning "abode". The region encompassing the present state was dotted with Buddhist vihara, the abodes of Buddhist monks in the ancient and medieval periods.
Medieval writer Minhaj al-Siraj Juzjani records in the Tabaqat-i Nasiri that in 1198 Bakhtiyar Khalji committed a massacre in a town identified with the word known as Bihar Sharif, about 70 km away from Bodh Gaya. Chirand, on the northern bank of the Ganga River, in Saran district, has an archaeological record from the Neolithic age. Regions of Bihar—such as Magadha and Anga—are mentioned in religious texts and epics of ancient India. Mithila gained prominence after establishment of the Videha Kingdom in Āryāvarta. During the late Vedic period, Videha became one of the major political and cultural centers of South Asia, along with Kuru and Pañcāla; the kings of the Videha Kingdom were called Janakas. Sita, a daughter of one of the Janaks of Mithila is mentioned as the consort of Lord Rama, in the Hindu epic, written by Valmiki; the Videha Kingdom became incorporated into the Vajji confederacy which had its capital in the city of Vaishali, in Mithila. Vajji had a republican form of government. Based on the information found in texts pertaining to Jainism and Buddhism, Vajji was established as a republic by the 6th century BCE, before the birth of Gautama Buddha in 563 BCE, making it the first known republic in India.
The region of modern-day southwestern Bihar called Magadha remained the centre of power and culture in India for 1000 years. The Haryanka dynasty, founded in 684 BC, ruled Magadha from the city of Rajgriha; the two well-known kings from this dynasty were Bimbisara and his son Ajatashatru, who imprisoned his father to ascend the throne. Ajatashatru founded the city of Pataliputra which became the capital of Magadha, he conquered the Vajji. The Haryanka dynasty was followed by the Shishunaga dynasty; the Nanda Dynasty ruled a vast tract stretching from Bengal to Punjab. The Nanda dynasty was replaced by India's first empire; the Maurya Empire and the religion of Buddhism arose in the region. The Mauryan Empire, which originated from Magadha in 325 BC, was founded by Chandragupta Maurya, born in Magadha, it had its capital at Pataliputra. The Mauryan emperor, born in Pataliputra is believed to be one of the greatest rulers in the history of the world; the Gupta Empire, which originated in Magadha in 240 AD, is referred as the Golden Age of India in science, astronomy, commerce and Indian philosophy.
Bihar and Bengal was invaded by Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty in the 11th century. Buddhism in Magadha went into decline due to the invasion of Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji, during which many of the viharas and the famed universities of Nalanda and Vikramashila were destroyed, it was claimed. D. N. Jha suggests, that these incidents were the result of Buddhist-Brahmin skirmishes in a fight for supremacy. After fall of Pala Empire, Chero dynasty ruled some parts of Bihar from 12th century to 16th century till Mughal rule. In 1540, the great Pathan chieftain, Sher Shah Suri, from Sasaram, took northern India from the Mughals, defeating the Mughal army of Emperor Humayun. Sher Shah declared Delhi his capital. From the 11th century to the 20th century, Mithila was ruled by various indigenous dynasties; the first of these were the Karnatas, followed by the Oinwar dynasty and Raj Darbhanga. It was during this period that the capital of Mithila was shi
Prakriti or Prakruti, means "nature". It is a key concept in Hinduism, formulated by its Samkhya school, refers to the primal matter with three different innate qualities whose equilibrium is the basis of all observed empirical reality. Prakriti, in this school, contrasts with Purusha, pure awareness and metaphysical consciousness; the term is found in the texts of other Indian religions such as Jainism, Buddhism. In Indian languages derived from Indo-European Sanskrit roots, Prakriti refers to the feminine aspect of all life forms, more a woman is seen as a symbol of Prakriti. Prakriti is a Vedic era concept, which means "making or placing before or at first, the original or natural form or condition of anything, original or primary substance." The term is discussed by Yāska in Nirukta, found in numerous Hindu texts. It connotes "nature, matter, phenomenal universe" in Hindu texts. In the Samkhya school, it is contrasted with Purusha, Prakriti refers to "the material world, matter and psychological character, temper, disposition".
According to Knut Jacobsen, in the dualistic system of the Samkhya school, "Purusha is the principle of pure consciousness, while Prakriti is the principle of matter", where Purusha is the masculine in every living being as consciousness, while Prakriti is the feminine and substrate which accepts the Purusha. In Hindu mythologies, Prakṛti is the feminine aspect of existence, the personified will and energy of the Supreme. In Samkhya-Yoga texts, Prakriti is the potency that brings about evolution and change in the empirical universe, it is described in Bhagavad Gita as the "primal motive force". It is the essential constituent of the universe and is at the basis of all the activity of the creation. Prakriti is associated with the concept of Maya within Hindu texts. In Jainism the term Prakriti is used in its theory of Karma, is considered "that form of matter which covers the perfections of the soul and prevents its liberation". According to Samkhya and the Bhagavad Gita Prakrti or Nature is composed of the three gunas which are tendencies or modes of operation, known as rajas and tamas.
Sattva encompasses qualities of goodness and harmony. Rajas is associated with concepts of energy and passion. Tamas is associated with inertia, insensitivity. Souls who are more tamasic are considered imbued in darkness and take the longest to reach liberation. Akasha Dvaita Bhagavad Gita 13.1-2 Prakrti and Ayurveda
Urdu —or, more Modern Standard Urdu—is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language. It is the official national lingua franca of Pakistan. In India, it is one of the 22 official languages recognized in the Constitution of India, having official status in the six states of Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, as well as the national capital territory of Delhi, it is a registered regional language of Nepal. Apart from specialized vocabulary, spoken Urdu is mutually intelligible with Standard Hindi, another recognized register of Hindustani; the Urdu variant of Hindustani received recognition and patronage under British rule when the British replaced the local official languages with English and Hindustani written in Nastaʿlīq script, as the official language in North and Northwestern India. Religious and political factors pushed for a distinction between Urdu and Hindi in India, leading to the Hindi–Urdu controversy. According to Nationalencyklopedin's 2010 estimates, Urdu is the 21st most spoken first language in the world, with 66 million speakers.
According to Ethnologue's 2017 estimates, along with standard Hindi and the languages of the Hindi belt, is the 3rd most spoken language in the world, with 329.1 million native speakers, 697.4 million total speakers. Urdu, like Hindi, is a form of Hindustani, it evolved from the medieval Apabhraṃśa register of the preceding Shauraseni language, a Middle Indo-Aryan language, the ancestor of other modern Indo-Aryan languages. Around 75% of Urdu words have their etymological roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit, 99% of Urdu verbs have their roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit; because Persian-speaking sultans ruled the Indian subcontinent for a number of years, Urdu was influenced by Persian and to a lesser extent, which have contributed to about 25% of Urdu's vocabulary. Although the word Urdu is derived from the Turkic word ordu or orda, from which English horde is derived, Turkic borrowings in Urdu are minimal and Urdu is not genetically related to the Turkic languages. Urdu words originating from Chagatai and Arabic were borrowed through Persian and hence are Persianized versions of the original words.
For instance, the Arabic ta' marbuta changes to te. Contrary to popular belief, Urdu did not borrow from the Turkish language, but from Chagatai, a Turkic language from Central Asia. Urdu and Turkish borrowed from Arabic and Persian, hence the similarity in pronunciation of many Urdu and Turkish words. Arabic influence in the region began with the late first-millennium Muslim conquests of the Indian subcontinent; the Persian language was introduced into the subcontinent a few centuries by various Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties including that of Mahmud of Ghazni. The Turko-Afghan Delhi Sultanate established Persian as its official language, a policy continued by the Mughal Empire, which extended over most of northern South Asia from the 16th to 18th centuries and cemented Persian influence on the developing Hindustani; the name Urdu was first used by the poet Ghulam Hamadani Mushafi around 1780. From the 13th century until the end of the 18th century Urdu was known as Hindi.
The language was known by various other names such as Hindavi and Dehlavi. Hindustani in Persian script was used by Muslims and Hindus, but was current chiefly in Muslim-influenced society; the communal nature of the language lasted until it replaced Persian as the official language in 1837 and was made co-official, along with English. Hindustani was promoted in British India by British policies to counter the previous emphasis on Persian; this triggered a Hindu backlash in northwestern India, which argued that the language should be written in the native Devanagari script. This literary standard called "Hindi" replaced Urdu as the official language of Bihar in 1881, establishing a sectarian divide of "Urdu" for Muslims and "Hindi" for Hindus, a divide, formalized with the division of India and Pakistan after independence. There have been attempts to "purify" Urdu and Hindi, by purging Urdu of Sanskrit words, Hindi of Persian loanwords, new vocabulary draws from Persian and Arabic for Urdu and from Sanskrit for Hindi.
English has exerted a heavy influence on both as a co-official language. There are over 100 million native speakers of Urdu in India and Pakistan together: there were 52 million and 80.5 million Urdu speakers in India as per the 2001 and 2011 censuses respectively. However, a knowledge of Urdu allows one to speak with far more people than that, because Hindustani, of which Urdu is one variety, is the third most spoken language in the world, after Mandarin and English; because of the difficulty in distinguishing between Urdu and Hindi speakers in India and Pakistan, as well as estimating the number of people for whom Urdu is a second language, the estimated number of speakers is uncertain and controversial. Owing to interaction with other languages, Urdu has become localized wherever it is spoken, including in Pakistan. Urdu in Pakistan has undergone changes and has incorporated and borrowed many words from region
Simara is a village development committee in Sarlahi District in the Janakpur Zone of south-eastern Nepal. The total population of simara VDC of Sarlahi district is 5971 and total individual household is 1051 but according to National Population and Housing Census 2011, total individual household is 1365, the total population of simara VDC of sarlahi district is 8,925, where total male population is 4,694 and total female population is 4,231. East - Bhadsar vdc West - Madhubangoth vdc North - Sakraul vdc South - Mudaha dih village of Sitamarhi district of Bihar India. Lakhandei river passes from east side of this VDC into India. Pakadi village of simara VDC has one higher secondary school affiliated to Higher Secondary Education Board named Shree Janata Tejnarayan Dayawati Higher Secondary School
The Sivalik Hills known as Churia Hills, are a mountain range of the outer Himalayas that stretches from the Indus River about 2,400 km eastwards close to the Brahmaputra River. It is 10–50 km wide with an average altitude of 1,500–2,000 m. Between the Teesta and Raidāk Rivers in Assam is a gap of about 90 km. In some Sanskrit texts, the region is called Manak Parbat. Sivalik means'tresses of Shiva’. Geologically, the Sivalik Hills belong to the Tertiary deposits of the outer Himalayas, they are chiefly composed of sandstone and conglomerate rock formations, which are the solidified detritus of the Himalayas to their north. The remnant magnetization of siltstones and sandstones indicates that they were deposited 16–5.2 million years ago. In Nepal, the Karnali River exposes the oldest part of the Shivalik Hills, they are the geologically youngest east-west mountain chain of the Himalayas. They have many sub-ranges and extend west from Arunachal Pradesh through Bhutan to West Bengal, further westward through Nepal and Uttarakhand, continuing into Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir.
The hills are cut through at wide intervals by numerous large rivers flowing south from the Himalayas. They are bounded on the south by a fault system called the Main Frontal Thrust, with steeper slopes on that side. Below this, the coarse alluvial Bhabar zone makes the transition to the nearly level plains. Rainfall during the summer monsoon, percolates into the Bhabar is forced to the surface by finer alluvial layers below it in a zone of springs and marshes along the northern edge of the Terai or plains. North of the Sivalik Hills the 1,500–3,000 meter Lesser Himalayas known as the Mahabharat Range rise steeply along fault lines. In many places the two ranges are adjacent but in other places structural valleys 10–20 km wide separate them. Sivapithecus is among many fossil finds in the Sivalik region; the Sivalik Hills are among the richest fossil sites for large animals anywhere in Asia. The Hills had revealed, they were early ancestors to the sloth bear, Sivatherium, an ancient giraffe, Colossochelys atlas, a giant tortoise named the Sivaliks giant tortoise Megalochelys atlas amongst other creatures.
The remains of the Lower Paleolithic Soanian culture have been found in the Siwalik region. Contemporary to the Acheulean, the Soanian culture is named after the Soan Valley in the Shivalik Hills of Pakistan; the bearers of this culture were Homo erectus. The obscure ratite Hypselornis was found here, it poses a biogeographical mystery as its closest relatives are australian cassowaries. Low population densities in the Sivalik Hills and along the steep southern slopes of the Lower Himalayan Range, plus virulent malaria in the damp forests on their fringes, create a cultural and political buffer zone between dense populations in the plains to the south and the "hills" beyond the Mahabharat escarpment, isolating the two populations from each other and enabling different evolutionary paths with respect to language and culture. People of the Lepcha tribe inhabit the Darjeeling areas; the Indian Navy's Shivalik class frigate is named after these ranges. Margalla Hills — subrange in Islamabad region.
Shivalik Fossil Park Frederick Walter Champion and wildlife photographer was posted here after World War I until 1947 Dundwa Range – subrange separating Deukhuri—an Inner Terai valley in western Nepal—from the Outer Terai in Balrampur and Shravasti districts, Utter Pradesh
Malangwa is a town and municipality and the headquarter of Sarlahi District in the Janakpur Zone of Province No. 2 of Nepal. It is located at 26°52'0N 85°34'0E with an altitude of 79 metres near the border with India at Sonbarsa. There is a customs checkpoint at the border crossing; the name Malangwa is derived from an Islamic Saint. In the name of him, fair is organised in every year near to the border; the people celebrate the occasion in the month of Chaitra. They offer pray for their well-being. At the time of the 2018/8/24 it had a population of 46,516 people residing in about 7,500 individual households. People belong to Madhesi Newari & Marwadi backgrounds; the Malangwa has a tropical climate. The mean annual rainfall at the Malangwa was 2,214 mm between 1995 and 2006. More than 80% of the total annual rainfall occurs during the monsoon season from June to September. Average temperatures ranged from 8.08 °C in January to 34 °C in June. In the past, the inner and outer Terai were a formidable barrier between Nepal and potential invaders from India because marshes and forests were infested by anopheline mosquitos that transmitted virulent strains of malaria during the hot spring and rainy summer monsoon.
There are several differences between the climate on the eastern edge of the Terai at Biratnagar in Nepal and on the western edge of the Terai at Nepaljung in Nepal to that of Malangwa in Nepal although they lies in same plain of Terai. Moving inland and away from monsoon sources in the Bay of Bengal, the climate becomes more continental with a greater difference between summer and winter. In the far western Terai, five degrees latitude further north, the coldest months' average is 4 °C cooler. Total rainfall markedly diminishes from east to west; the monsoon arrives is much less intense and ends sooner. However, winters are wetter in the west.au in Nepal near the central edge although both lies in Terai. It is situated in the Terai Region of Sarlahi district and Province_No._2 of Nepal. It is the Headquarter of Sarlahi district, it is the oldest municipality in Sarlahi district established in 2044 B. S, it is situated 25 km south from Nawalpur on the Mahendra Highway. There are 4 parliamentary constituencies in Sarlahi.
Malangwa is in parliamentary constituency no. 2. North – Salampur VDC 2 km South –Sonbarsha, Bihar South– Indo-Nepal border East - Tribhuvan Nagar and Belhi VDC East – Indo-Nepal border, Sonbarsha West – Motipur VDC There are various institutions in order to provide quality education; the main campus of here is Sarlahi campus. It has about 2000 students, it is located in ward no. 4 at the southern part of Malangwa. It is the bbiggest campus in Sarlahi, it has CCVT college in western part of it. It is the biggest institute here. God gift English boarding school, Malangwa Padma Ratna Vidya Mandir College, Malangwa S. T. Gabriel's School Modern Science College Sarlahi Campus, Malangwa Shri Mati Krishna Devi Public Higher Secondary, Malangwa-9 Shri Public Higher Secondary School, Malangwa -2 Greenland Higher Secondary English Boarding School, Malangwa Gyankunj Secondary English Boarding School, Malangwa Jaycess Secondary English Boarding School, Malangwa Gyanodaya Higher Secondary English Boarding School, Malangwa Apex Academy English boarding school, Malangwa Toddlers' Secondary English Boarding School Sagarmatha English Boarding School, Malangwa Heritage English boarding school, Malangwa.
Southpoint English boarding school, Malangwa A-One Education Center, Malangwa. Mahasunar Sunrise Academy English Boarding School, Malangwa-9 R R sure success English boarding school, malangwa-3 Nirmal academy English boarding school, malangwa-10 Malangwa has its importance because of its border sharing with Sonbarsa, India also. No documents are required to cross the border. Certain restrictions are enforced on many edible and electronics products and they are properly checked before allowing a transit. There is a custom office which keeps a check on the vehicles entering Malangwa having Indian vehicle registration number. Certain taxes are imposed by the office on heavy products/items entering Nepal. To Promote local culture Malangwa has four FM radio stations Radio Madhesh - 89.3 MHz, Radio Malangwa 93.6 MHZ, Swarnim FM -96.3 MHZ and My FM - 107.4 MHz Which are a Community radio Station. The major daily newspapers are: Madhesh Post Loktantrik Sarlahi Times My fm Sapthaik Times There are two movie theatres in Malangwa named Pushp takij Ac cinema and Rajshree Cinema Hall.
People flock down from adjacent villages to watch movies in Malangwa. People across the border show up in large numbers to watch their favorite movie stars; the theatres show Bollywood as well as Bhojpuri films throughout the year. Malangwa, being the headquarter of Sarlahi district has been subjected to several attacks and bombings; however cooperation between Police and Armed Police Force have yielded positive effect resulting no sort of attacks in recent years. April 5, 2006The town was attacked by Maoists on April 6 at 8:00 pm, they fired at soldiers guarding government offices and security posts and attacked a jail, freeing more than 100 inmates — among them some of their comrades — before fleeing. The night-vision equipped helicopter MI-17 with call sign RAN-37 took off from Kathmandu at 10 pm to foil the Maoist attack. Eyewitnesses said the helicopter hovered for an hour returned after refuelling in Simra but exploded in mid-air at about 1:30 am killing eight of the 10 soldiers on board.
Five police personnel, four Maoist and two civilians were killed during clashes. The figures however vary. Many security perso
Hindus are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism. The term has been used as a geographical and religious identifier for people indigenous to the Indian subcontinent; the historical meaning of the term Hindu has evolved with time. Starting with the Persian and Greek references to the land of the Indus in the 1st millennium BCE through the texts of the medieval era, the term Hindu implied a geographic, ethnic or cultural identifier for people living in the Indian subcontinent around or beyond the Sindhu river. By the 16th century, the term began to refer to residents of the subcontinent who were not Turkic or Muslims; the historical development of Hindu self-identity within the local South Asian population, in a religious or cultural sense, is unclear. Competing theories state that Hindu identity developed in the British colonial era, or that it developed post-8th century CE after the Islamic invasion and medieval Hindu-Muslim wars.
A sense of Hindu identity and the term Hindu appears in some texts dated between the 13th and 18th century in Sanskrit and regional languages. The 14th- and 18th-century Indian poets such as Vidyapati and Eknath used the phrase Hindu dharma and contrasted it with Turaka dharma; the Christian friar Sebastiao Manrique used the term'Hindu' in religious context in 1649. In the 18th century, the European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus, in contrast to Mohamedans for Mughals and Arabs following Islam. By the mid-19th century, colonial orientalist texts further distinguished Hindus from Buddhists and Jains, but the colonial laws continued to consider all of them to be within the scope of the term Hindu until about mid-20th century. Scholars state that the custom of distinguishing between Hindus, Buddhists and Sikhs is a modern phenomenon. Hindoo is an archaic spelling variant. At more than 1.03 billion, Hindus are the world's third largest group after Muslims.
The vast majority of Hindus 966 million, live in India, according to India's 2011 census. After India, the next 9 countries with the largest Hindu populations are, in decreasing order: Nepal, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, United States, United Kingdom and Myanmar; these together accounted for 99% of the world's Hindu population, the remaining nations of the world together had about 6 million Hindus in 2010. The word Hindu is derived from the Indo-Aryan and Sanskrit word Sindhu, which means "a large body of water", covering "river, ocean", it was used as the name of the Indus river and referred to its tributaries. The actual term'hindu' first occurs, states Gavin Flood, as "a Persian geographical term for the people who lived beyond the river Indus", more in the 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I; the Punjab region, called Sapta Sindhu in the Vedas, is called Hapta Hindu in Zend Avesta. The 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I mentions the province of Hidush, referring to northwestern India; the people of India were referred to as Hinduvān and hindavī was used as the adjective for Indian in the 8th century text Chachnama.
The term'Hindu' in these ancient records is an ethno-geographical term and did not refer to a religion. The Arabic equivalent Al-Hind referred to the country of India. Among the earliest known records of'Hindu' with connotations of religion may be in the 7th-century CE Chinese text Record of the Western Regions by the Buddhist scholar Xuanzang. Xuanzang uses the transliterated term In-tu whose "connotation overflows in the religious" according to Arvind Sharma. While Xuanzang suggested that the term refers to the country named after the moon, another Buddhist scholar I-tsing contradicted the conclusion saying that In-tu was not a common name for the country. Al-Biruni's 11th-century text Tarikh Al-Hind, the texts of the Delhi Sultanate period use the term'Hindu', where it includes all non-Islamic people such as Buddhists, retains the ambiguity of being "a region or a religion". The'Hindu' community occurs as the amorphous'Other' of the Muslim community in the court chronicles, according to Romila Thapar.
Wilfred Cantwell Smith notes that'Hindu' retained its geographical reference initially:'Indian','indigenous, local', virtually'native'. The Indian groups themselves started using the term, differentiating themselves and their "traditional ways" from those of the invaders; the text Prithviraj Raso, by Chanda Baradai, about the 1192 CE defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan at the hands of Muhammad Ghori, is full of references to "Hindus" and "Turks", at one stage, says "both the religions have drawn their curved swords. In Islamic literature,'Abd al-Malik Isami's Persian work, Futuhu's-salatin, composed in the Deccan in 1350, uses the word'hindi' to mean Indian in the ethno-geographical sense and the word'hindu' to mean'Hindu' in the sense of a follower of the Hindu religion"; the poet Vidyapati's poem Kirtilata contrasts the cultures of Hindus and Turks in a city and concludes "The Hindus and the Turks live close together. One of the earliest uses of word'Hindu' in religious context in a European language, was the publication in 1649 by Sebastiao Manrique.
Other prominent mentions of'Hindu' include the epigraphical inscriptions from Andhra Pradesh kingdoms who battled military expansion of Muslim dynasties in the 14th century, where the word'Hindu' implies a religious identity in contrast to'Turks' or Islam