Sarnath is a place located 10 kilometres north-east of Varanasi city near the confluence of the Ganges and the Varuna rivers in Uttar Pradesh, India. The deer park in Sarnath is where Gautama Buddha first taught the Dharma, where the Buddhist Sangha came into existence through the enlightenment of Kondanna. Singhpur, a village one kilometer away from the site, was the birthplace of Shreyansanath, the Eleventh Tirthankara of Jainism. A temple dedicated to him is an important pilgrimage site. Referred to as Isipatana, this city is mentioned by the Buddha as one of the four places of pilgrimage to which his devout followers should visit, it was the site of the Buddha's Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, his first teaching after attaining enlightenment, in which he taught the four noble truths and the teachings associated with it. Sarnath has been variously known as Mrigadava, Migadāya, Rishipattana and Isipatana throughout its long history. Mrigadava means "deer-park". "Isipatana" is the name used in the Pali Canon, means the place where holy men landed.
The legend says that when the Buddha-to-be was born, some devas came down to announce it to 500 rishis. Another explanation for the name is that Isipatana was so-called because, sages, on their way through the air, alight here or start from here on their aerial flight. Pacceka Buddhas, having spent seven days in contemplation in the Gandhamādana, bathe in the Anotatta Lake and come to the habitations of men through the air, in search of alms, they descend to earth at Isipatana. Sometimes the Pacceka Buddhas come to Isipatana from Nandamūlaka-pabbhāra. Xuanzang quotes the Nigrodhamiga Jātaka to account for the origin of the Migadāya. According to him, the Deer Park was a forest given by the king of Benares of the Jātaka, where deer might wander unmolested; the Migadāya was so-called. Sarnath derives from the Sanskrit Sāranganātha, which means "Lord of the Deer", relates to another old Buddhist story in which the Bodhisattva is a deer and offers his life to a king instead of the doe the latter is planning to kill.
The king is so moved. The park is active in modern times. Before Gautama attained enlightenment, he gave up his austere penances and his friends, the Pañcavaggiya monks. Seven weeks after his enlightenment under the Bodhi tree in Bodh Gaya, Buddha left Uruvela and traveled to Isipatana to rejoin them because, using his spiritual powers, he had seen that his five former companions would be able to understand Dharma quickly. While traveling to Sarnath, Gautama Buddha had no money to pay the ferryman to cross the Ganges, so he crossed it through the air; when King Bimbisāra heard of this, he abolished the toll for ascetics. Gautama Buddha found his five former companions and enlightened them with the teachings of the Dharma. At that time, the Sangha, the community of the enlightened ones, was founded; the sermon, Buddha gave to the five monks, was his first sermon, called the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta. It was given on the full-moon day of Asalha Puja. Buddha subsequently spent his first rainy season at Sarnath at the Mulagandhakuti.
By the Sangha had grown to 60 in number, so Buddha sent them out in all directions to travel alone and teach the Dharma. All 60 monks were Arhats. Several other incidents connected with the Buddha, besides the preaching of the first sermon, are mentioned as having taken place in Isipatana, it was here when one day, at dawn, Yasa became an Arhat. It was at Isipatana, that the rule was passed, prohibiting the use of sandals made of talipot leaves. On another occasion when the Buddha was staying at Isipatana, having gone there from Rājagaha, he instituted rules forbidding the use of certain kinds of flesh, including human flesh. Twice, while the Buddha was at Isipatana, Māra had to go away discomfited. Besides the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta mentioned above, several other suttas were preached by the Buddha while staying at Isipatana, among them the Anattalakkhana Sutta, the Saccavibhanga Sutta, the Pañca Sutta, the Rathakāra or Pacetana Sutta, the two Pāsa Suttas, the Samaya Sutta, the Katuviya Sutta, a discourse on the Metteyyapañha of the Parāyana, the Dhammadinna Sutta, preached to the distinguished layman Dhammadinna, who came to see the Buddha.
Some of the most eminent members of the Sangha seem to have resided at Isipatana from time to time. There is a mention of a discourse in which several monks staying at Isipatana tried to help Channa in his difficulties. According to the Udapāna Jātaka, there was a ancient well near Isipatana which, in the Buddha's time, was used by the monks living there. According to the Mahavamsa, there was a large community of monks at Isipatana in the second century B. C. for, we are told that at the foundation ceremony of the Mahā Thūpa in Anurādhapura, twelve thousand monks were present from Isipatana led by the Elder Dhammasena. Xuanzang, a Chinese Buddhist monk, who traveled to India in the seventh century, found fifteen hundred monks studying the Hīnayāna at the Isipatana. In the enclosure of the Sanghārāma was a vihāra about two hundred feet high built, its roof surmounted by a golden figure of the mango. In the center of the vihāra was a life-size statue of the Buddha turning the wheel of the Law and to the south-west were the remains of a stone stupa built by King Ashoka
The 2014–15 Regionalliga was the seventh season of the Regionalliga, the third under the new format, as the fourth tier of the German football league system. The champions of Regionalliga West – Fortuna Köln – and the winner – SG Sonnenhof Großaspach – and third-placed team - FSV Mainz 05 II - of the Regionalliga Südwest were promoted to the 3. Liga. SV Elversberg, Wacker Burghausen and Saarbrücken were relegated from 3. Liga. 18 teams from the states of Bremen, Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein competed in the third season of the reformed Regionalliga Nord. 15 teams were retained from the last season and 3 teams were promoted from the Oberliga – Niedersachsenliga champions Lüneburger SK Hansa and the two Regionalliga North promotion playoff winners VfB Lübeck and FT Braunschweig. 16 teams from the states of Berlin, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia competed in the third season of the reformed Regionalliga Nordost. 13 teams were retained from 2 teams that were promoted from the Oberliga.
BFC Dynamo qualified by winning NOFV-Oberliga Nord and Bautzen qualified by winning NOFV-Oberliga Süd. 18 teams from North Rhine-Westphalia competed in the third season of the reformed Regionalliga West: 15 teams were retained from the last season. FC Kray won Oberliga Hennef the Oberliga Mittelrhein. Rödinghausen placed second in the Oberliga Westfalen although Arminia Bielefeld II won the competition but was unable to be promoted as the first team played in the 3. Liga. 18 teams from Baden-Württemberg, Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland competed in the third season of the Regionalliga Südwest. Elversberg and Saarbrücken relegated from the 3. Liga. 13 teams were retained from last season and 3 teams were promoted from the Oberliga: Astoria Walldorf won the Oberliga Baden-Württemberg and Pirmasens won the Oberliga Rheinland-Pfalz/Saar. As no team from the Hessenliga applied for a licence, the second-placed teams of the other Oberligas had a play-off match, won by Nöttingen. 18 teams from Bavaria competed in the third season of the Regionalliga Bayern.
13 teams were retained from the last season. Wacker Burghausen relegated from the 3. Liga. 2 teams were promoted from the Bayernliga. Bayreuth won Bayernliga Nord and Garching - runner-up of the Bayernliga Süd - gained promotion due to the withdrawal from competition of BC Aichach; the draw for the 2014–15 promotion play-offs was held on 12 April, with another draw between the Regionalliga Südwest teams held on 2 May 2015. The first legs were played on 27 May, the second legs were played on 31 May 2015. All times Central European Summer Time 1–1 on aggregate. Würzburger Kickers won 6–5 on penalties. 1. FC Magdeburg won 4–1 on aggregate. Werder Bremen II won 2–0 on aggregate; the Regionalligas DFB.de
Klemm L.25 Klemm Kl 25 was a successful German light leisure and training monoplane aircraft, developed in 1928. More than 600 aircraft were built, manufacturing licenses were sold to the United Kingdom and the United States. With a low cantilever wing, fixed landing gear, two open cockpits, the aircraft was developed by Hanns Klemm, who used his previous design, the Daimler L20, as a starting point, it first flew on a 20 hp Daimler F7502 engine. About 30 different versions of the Kl 25 were made, these were equipped with engines ranging from 32 to 70 kW; the fuselage was covered with plywood. Depending on the model, the aircraft's weight was 620 to 720 kg, it had a 10.5 to 13 m wingspan. Takeoff was achieved at only 50 km/h and the maximum speed was between 150 to 160 km/h. In relation to similar aircraft of the time, assembly was easy, this made it a popular aircraft. According to the sales brochures, only 25% of the engine's power was needed to keep the aircraft flying, compared to biplanes of the period, which required 50% engine power.
About 600 were built in Germany between 1929 and 1936, serving with various flight training organizations, with either wheels, skis, or floats. 15 were sold to Britain before the Second World War, being fitted with a variety of domestic engines, while 28 more were built by British Klemm Aeroplane Company as the B. A. Swallow. Production in the United States was carried out by the Aeromarine-Klemm Company which enjoyed moderate success, as well as developing models for the American market, in isolation from the parent company, with about 120 built of all models. Klemm L 25s took part in many competitions, among others in International Touring Aircraft Competitions in 1929 and in 1930. NB, list not complete Germany L 25 a Built between 1927 and 1929, equipped with a 22 PS Daimler F 7502 engine. L 25 I Built between 1928 and 1929, equipped with a 45 PS Salmson AD.9 engine. L 25 Ia L 25 IW Floatplane version of the Ia, with two wooden floats supported by steel-tube struts in inverted'W' configuration.
L 25 b Built in 1931, equipped with a 22 PS Daimler F 7502 engine L 25 b VII Built in 1931, equipped with a 60 PS Hirth HM 60 engine L 25 d II Built in 1933, equipped with a 88 PS Siemens-Halske Sh 13a engine. L 25 d VII Equipped with a 80 PS Hirth HM 60R engine L 25 IVa Equipped with Armstrong Siddeley Genet engine VL 25 Va: Three-seater variant, with a closed canopy, equipped with 103 PS Argus As 8 straight engine L 25 Ve For Europa Rundflug 1930 L 25E Special competition variant, with a closed canopy, smaller span, equipped with a 103 PS Argus As 8. United Kingdom British Klemm Aeroplane Company B. K. Swallow British Aircraft Manufacturing Co. B. A. Swallow II United States Aeromarine-Klemm AKL-25 Aeromarine-Klemm AKL-26 Aeromarine-Klemm AKL-27 Aeromarine-Klemm AKL-60 Aeromarine-Klemm AKL-70 Aeromarine-Klemm Model 70 Trainer BoliviaBolivian Air Force HungaryRoyal Hungarian Air Force PeruPeruvian Air Force RomaniaRoyal Romanian Air Force South AfricaSouth African Air Force Data from Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1931General characteristics Crew: 1 Capacity: 1 Length: 7.3 m Wingspan: 13 m Height: 1.75 m Wing area: 20.0 m2 Airfoil: Göttingen 387 Empty weight: 285 kg Gross weight: 500 kg Fuel capacity: 50 l in aforward fuselsge tank Powerplant: 1 × Salmson AD.9 9-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engine, 30 kW Propellers: 2-bladed fixed-pitch propellerPerformance Maximum speed: 140 km/h Landing speed: 50 km/h Range: 650 km Service ceiling: 6,500 m Time to altitude: 1,000 m in 8 minutes Wing loading: 25 kg/m2 Power/mass: 0.05978 kW/kg Related lists List of military aircraft of Germany Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome's Aeromarine-Klemm AKL-26 page