In the late sixth century, Sasanian Empire of Persia and the Ethiopia-based Aksumite Empire fought a series of wars over control of the Himyarite Kingdom in Yemen, Southern Arabia. After the Battle of Hadhramaut and the Siege of Sana'a in 570, the Aksumites were expelled from the Arabian peninsula, they had re-established their power there by 575 or 578, when another Persian army invaded Yemen and re-established the deposed king on his throne as their client. It marked the end of Ethiopian rule in Arabia. Around 520, Kaleb of Axum had sent an expedition to Yemen against the Jewish Himyarite king Dhu Nuwas, persecuting the Christian community there. Dhu Nuwas was deposed and killed and Kaleb appointed a Christian Himyarite, Esimiphaios, as his viceroy. However, around 525 this viceroy was deposed by the Aksumite general Abraha. After Abraha's death, his son Masruq ibn Abraha continued the Axumite vice-royalty in Yemen, resuming payment of tribute to Axum. However, his half-brother Ma'd-Karib revolted.
After being denied by Justinian, Ma'd-Karib sought help from Khosrow I, the Sasanian Persian Emperor. Khosrau sent his general Vahrez and his son Nawzadh to Yemen at the head of a small expeditionary force of eight hundred cavalrymen of Dailamite origin, in one version men of good birth, consigned to prison but were now given a chance to redeem themselves by achieving victory; the Persian army, onboard eight ships, sailed around the coasts of the Arabian peninsula. During the invasion, Nawzadh was killed, which made Vahriz furious at Masruq, the Ethiopian ruler of Yemen. Vahriz met Masruq in battle and killed the latter with an arrow at Battle of Hadhramaut, which made the Ethiopians flee, he approached Sana'a, where he is known to have said: "My banner shall never enter lowered! Break down the gateway!" After having captured Sana'a, Vahrez restored Sayf ibn Dhi-Yazan to his throne as a vassal of the Sasanian Empire. Al-Tabari reports that the main reason behind victory of Vahrez over the Axumites was the use of the panjigan, a piece of military technology with which the local peoples were utterly unfamiliar.
After having conquered Yemen, Vahrez returned to Persia with a great amount of booty. However, in 575 or 578, the vassal king was killed by the Ethiopians, which forced Vahrez to return to Yemen with a force of 4000 men, expel the Ethiopians once again, he made Maʿdī Karib, the son of Sayf, the new king of Yemen. Vahriz was appointed as governor of Yemen by Khosrau I, which would remain in Sasanian hands until the arrival of Islam. Vahriz was succeeded by his son Marzbān as governor of Yemen. Vahrez made the son of Sayf, the new king of Yemen. Vahrez was appointed as governor of Yemen by Khosrau I, which would remain in Sasanian hands until the arrival of Islam. Vahriz was succeeded by his son Marzbān as governor of Yemen. Abna' Iberian War Zakeri, Mohsen. Sasanid Soldiers in Early Muslim Society: The Origins of'Ayyārān and Futuwwa. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. Pp. 1–391. ISBN 3447036524. Bosworth, C. E.. "Abnāʾ". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. I, Fasc. 3. Pp. 226–228. Potts, Daniel T.. "ARABIA ii. The Sasanians and Arabia".
Sasanian architecture refers to the Persian architectural style that reached a peak in its development during the Sasanian era. In many ways the Sasanian Empire period witnessed the highest achievement of Persian civilization, constituted the last great pre-Islamic Persian Empire before the Muslim conquest. In fact part of Sasanian architecture was adopted by Muslims and became part of Islamic architecture; the Sasanian dynasty, like the Achaemenid Empire, originated in the province of Persis. They saw themselves as successors to the Achaemenians, after the Hellenistic and Parthian dynasty interlude, perceived it as their role to restore the greatness of Persia. In reviving the glories of the Achaemenian past, the Sasanians were no mere imitators; the art of this period reveals an astonishing virility. In certain respects it anticipates features developed during the Islamic period; the conquest of Persia by Alexander II had inaugurated the spread of Hellenistic art into Western Asia. In the Parthian period Hellenistic art was being interpreted by the peoples of the Near East and throughout the Sasanian period there was a continuing process of reaction against it.
Sasanian art revived traditions native to Persia. The splendour in which the Sasanian monarchs lived is well illustrated by their surviving palaces, such as those at Firouzabad and Bishapur in Fars, the capital city of Ctesiphon in modern Iraq. In addition to local traditions, Parthian dynastic architecture must have been responsible for a great many of the Sasanian architectural characteristics. All are characterised by the barrel-vaulted iwans introduced in the Parthian period, but now they reached massive proportions at Ctesiphon; the arch of the great vaulted hall at Ctesiphon attributed to the reign of Shapur I has a span of more than 80 ft, reaches a height of 118 ft. from the ground. This magnificent structure fascinated architects in the centuries that followed and has always been considered as one of the most important pieces of Persian architecture. Many of the palaces contain an inner audience hall which consists, as at Firuzabad, of a chamber surmounted by a dome; the Persians solved the problem of constructing a circular dome on a square building by the squinch.
This is an arch built across each corner of the square, thereby converting it into an octagon on which it is simple to place the dome. The dome chamber in the palace of Firouzabad is the earliest surviving example of the use of the squinch and so there is good reason for regarding Persia as its place of invention; the early palaces of the Sassanid have ceased to exist. Ardashir I and Shapur I, their immediate successors, undoubtedly erected residences for themselves exceeding in size and richness the buildings which had contented the Parthians, as well as those in which their own ancestors, the tributary kings of Persia under Parthia, had passed their lives, but these residences have wholly disappeared. The most ancient of the Sassanid buildings which admit of being measured and described are assigned to the century between 350 and 450 CE. We come upon it when it is beyond the stage of infancy, when it has acquired a marked and decided character, when it no longer hesitates or falters, but knows what it wants, goes straight to its ends.
Its main features are simple, are uniform from first to last, the buildings being enlargements of the earlier, by an addition to the number or to the size of the apartments. The principal peculiarities of the style are, that the plan of the entire buildding is an oblong square, without adjuncts or projections; the oblong square is variously proportioned. The depth may be a little more than the breadth. In either case, the front occupies ends of the edifice; the outer wall is sometimes pierced by one entrance only. The great entrance is in the exact centre of the front; this entrance, as noticed, is by a lofty arch, of the full height of the building, constitutes one of its most striking, to Europeans most extraordinary, features. From the outer air, we look; the effect is strange when first seen by the inexperienced traveller. In the mosques "lofty and deeply−recessed portals," "unrivalled for grandeur and appropriateness," are rather the rule than the exception.
A crown is a traditional symbolic form of headwear, not hat, worn by a monarch or by a deity, for whom the crown traditionally represents power, victory, triumph and glory, as well as immortality and resurrection. In art, the crown may be shown being offered to those on Earth by angels. Apart from the traditional form, crowns may be in the form of a wreath and be made of flowers, oak leaves, or thorns and be worn by others, representing what the coronation part aims to symbolize with the specific crown. In religious art, a crown of stars is used to a halo. Crowns worn by rulers contain jewels. A crown is an emblem of the monarchy, a monarch's government, or items endorsed by it; the word itself is used in Commonwealth countries, as an abstract name for the monarchy itself, as distinct from the individual who inhabits it. A specific type of crown is employed in heraldry under strict rules. Indeed, some monarchies never had a physical crown, just a heraldic representation, as in the constitutional kingdom of Belgium, where no coronation took place.
Costume headgear imitating a monarch's crown is called a crown. Such costume crowns may be worn by actors portraying a monarch, people at costume parties, or ritual "monarchs" such as the king of a Carnival krewe, or the person who found the trinket in a king cake; the nuptial crown, sometimes called a coronal, worn by a bride, sometimes the bridegroom, at her wedding is found in many European cultures since ancient times. In the present day, it is most common in Eastern Orthodox cultures; the Eastern Orthodox marriage service has a section called the crowning, wherein the bride and groom are crowned as "king" and "queen" of their future household. In Greek weddings, the crowns are diadems made of white flowers, synthetic or real adorned with silver or mother of pearl, they are held together by a ribbon of white silk. They are kept by the couple as a reminder of their special day. In Slavic weddings, the crowns are made of ornate metal, designed to resemble an imperial crown, are held above the newlyweds' heads by their best men.
A parish owns one set to use for all the couples that are married there since these are much more expensive than Greek-style crowns. This was common in Catholic countries in the past. Crowns are often used as symbols of religious status or veneration, by divinities or by their representatives, e.g. the Black Crown of the Karmapa Lama, sometimes used a model for wider use by devotees. A Crown of thorns according to the New Testament, was placed on the head of Jesus before his crucifixion and has become a common symbol of martyrdom. According to Roman Catholic tradition, the Blessed Virgin Mary was crowned as Queen of Heaven after her assumption into heaven, she is depicted wearing a crown, statues of her in churches and shrines are ceremonially crowned during May. The Crown of Immortality is common in historical symbolism; the heraldic symbol of Three Crowns, referring to the three evangelical Magi, traditionally called kings, is believed thus to have become the symbol of the Swedish kingdom, but it fits the historical Kalmar Union between the three kingdoms of Denmark and Norway.
Dancers of certain traditional Thai dances wear crowns on their head. These are inspired in the crowns worn by kings. In India, crowns are known as mukuta, have been used in India since ancient times and are described adorning Hindu gods or kings. In pre-Hispanic Philippines, a crown-like diadems or Putong is wore by elite individuals and deities, include array of golden ornaments. Three distinct categories of crowns exist in those monarchies. Coronation: worn by monarchs when being crowned. State: worn by monarchs on other state occasions. Consort crowns: worn by queens consort, signifying rank granted as a constitutional courtesy protocol. Crowns or similar headgear, as worn by nobility and other high-ranking people below the ruler, is in English called a coronet. In some of these languages the term "rank crown" refers to the way these crowns may be ranked according to hierarchical status. In Classical antiquity, the crown, sometimes awarded to people other than rulers, such as triumphal military generals or athletes, was a wreath or chaplet, or ribbon-like diadem.
The precursor to the crown was the browband called the diadem, worn by the Achaemenid Persian emperors. It was adopted by Constantine I and was worn by all subsequent rulers of the Roman Empire. Numerous crowns of various forms were used in antiquity, such as the Hedjet, Deshret and Khepresh of Pharaonic Egypt; the Pharaohs of Egypt wore the diadem, associated with solar cults, an association, not lost, as it was revived under the Roman Emperor Augustus. By the time of the Pharaoh Amenophis III wearing a diadem became a symbol of royalty; the corona radiata, the "radiant crown" known best on the Statue of Liberty, worn by the He
Sasanian Glass is the glassware produced between the 3rd and the 7th centuries AD within the limits of the Sasanian Empire, namely Northern Iraq and Central Asia. This is a silica-soda-lime glass production characterized by thick glass-blown vessels sober in decoration, avoiding plain colours in favour of transparency and with vessels worked in one piece without over- elaborate amendments, thus the decoration consists of solid and visual motifs from the mould, with ribbed and cut facets, although other techniques like trailing and applied motifs were practised. Despite there being a general agreement concerning what Sasanian Glass is, there are no clear criteria to describe it. Therefore, before continuing with a further explanation is necessary to clarify it, it is defined by means of Period and Style. Sasanian glass is referred to with the ambiguous term Pre-Islamic Glass, but some scholars consider the Achaemenid and Sasanian productions as Pre-Islamic whereas others consider only the 7th–8th centuries AD before the Islamic Golden Age and the first Abbasid caliphate.
Sasanian Glass is named Persian Glass, incorporating all the assemblage manufactured in Persia from the 3rd to the 19th centuries AD. The Sasanian Empire spanned a vast area from the Fertile Crescent to the Central Asian steppe, but with periods of expansion and contraction, reaching Damascus, Egypt, Yemen or Pakistan; some of the works were produced in the peripheral regions bordering the Empire and others came from beyond but following Sasanian designs. This creates "uncertainties about the precise place of manufacture of many Sasanian creations" and confusion among terms since Mesopotamia, for instance, can be at the same time Seleucia, Ctesiphon or Baghdad; the stylistic criteria can be tricky due to several reasons. First, there is a considerable difficulty in discerning between the Parthian and Sasanian tradition and Sasanian and Sasanian and Islamic to the extent that ‘Sasanian’ glassware, if analysed, becomes Parthian. Second, the most characteristic method of decoration utilized by Sasanian artisans, the wheel-cut technique was not originated at all by them.
There are splendid examples of wheel-cut vessels at least from the 5th century BC among the Achaemenians that are known both in East and West. "Everything wheel-cut is not Sasanian.". See Roman glass or Anglo-Saxon Glass entries for the differences between glassmaking and glassworking The Sasanian craftsmen smoothly continued the tradition of glassworking, inherited from the Romans and Parthians, transmitting it to the Islamic artisans when their Empire collapsed. Although they began from plain and mould-blown vessels close to the Parthian taste, they soon generated their own genuine style recognizable in the ’typical hemispherical bowls with round or hexagonal deep incised facets’ and expanded it throughout all the Sasanian territory and beyond their borders. However, there is no such continuity in glassmaking. Recent studies have demonstrated that there are clear differences between the composition of Roman and Syro-Palestinian - contemporary to the latest- productions and between Sasanian and Islamic manufactures.
Sasanian glass is a silica-soda-lime composition with high levels of K and Mg: this means the use of plant-ash as a source of soda. The Roman and the Parthian glass, on the other hand, employed mineral salts for this purpose. There is no continuation of the formula. Moreover, Sasanian glasses show differences when compared with other plant-ash soda glasses. Freestone analysis revealed that Syro-Palestinian productions were lower in Mg than Sasanian ones, Brill concluded that there is a general ‘overlapping but no close agreement’ between the Sasanian and the Islamic glass and that the former ‘do not bear a close enough chemical resemblance to any of the particular groups of Islamic glasses’. In fact, the Sasanian glass is different within itself. Three recipes have been identified for the glassmaking; the first one is a silica-soda-lime glass with one evaporite as a flux that appears in the earliest stages of the Empire. The second group is divided into two other subgroups, both using sodic ash but exploiting different plants.
One of them is present from the beginning of the other from the 4th century onwards. A crucial difference between them, apart from the one mentioned, is that the second subgroup always utilised a purer source of silica. Since this third recipe produced more transparent glass, found in more sophisticated objects than the ones worked with the other recipes this has been interpreted as an argument for the existence of diverse formulas to satisfy the demand of different qualities of glass, it is significant that, in the quest for the transparency meeting the taste of the Sasanians, purer silica was occasionally utilised in the first subgroup. The only technological innovation attributed to Sasanian glassw
Arms of Skanderbeg
Gjergj Kastrioti Skanderbeg was a prominent figure in the history of Albania. His weapons have been subjects of mythical adoration. According to legends, his sword was so heavy, it was said to be so sharp that it could slice a man vertically from head to waist with little effort and cut a huge boulder in half with a single blow. Of all of Skanderbeg's belongings, but four objects remain: two swords, a helmet, a prayer book; the weapons are on display in the Collection of Arms and Armour at the Neue Burg in Vienna after having passed through the hands of countless noblemen since the 15th century when they were first brought over to Italy from Albania by Skanderbeg’s wife, Donika Kastrioti. The prayer book is archived at the Shelley Publishing House in London in England. According to Dhimitër Frëngu, Skanderbeg's scribe and one of his biographers, the first sword was curved, with a sharp edge and elegantly made of Damascened steel. There are accounts which report that at one point he kept two swords sheathed in the same scabbard.
Frengu adds, rather colourfully, that Skanderbeg brought a master sword-maker over from Italy, who produced three better swords for him. One of them, "that could cut through steel," he sent it as a present to the Ottoman Sultan, it is known that in Skanderbeg's last visit to the Holy See, Pope Paul II presented the Albanian hero with a sword and a cap. The straight sword, which lies at the Museum of Ambras along with the helmet, is double-edged; the blade is dressed in gold. It is 85.5 centimeters long, 5.7 cm wide, weighs 1.3 kilograms. Its scabbard is made of leather. According to Faik Konitza, who viewed the sword at the beginning of the 20th century, there were still stains of blood on the blade. On the other hand, the curved sword, including the hilt, measures 121 cm in length and weighs 3.2 kg. This sword is fashioned after Ottoman styles of the time, just as Dhimiter Frengu reported five centuries earlier, is a damascene steel ornamented. There is an inscription in Turkish; the inscription reads:.
Still, according to Faik Konica, only the blade belongs to the original sword held by Skanderbeg. The hilt, dressed in silver, the velvet scabbard belong to a subsequent time. Both swords were reproduced for exclusive display in Tirana. Of these two swords, the one which Skanderbeg used in times of war could have been the curved one; the straight sword was rather short for his tall frame, whereas the other one afforded the flexibility required for cavalry charges and the fighting style of the day. In addition, having been trained in Turkey, having learned there his skills in martial arts, it is more that he would have been more comfortable with that sword. Skanderbeg’s helmet is made of white metal, adorned with a strip dressed in gold. On its top lies the head of a horned goat made of bronze dressed in gold; the bottom part bears a copper strip adorned with a monogram separated by rosettes * IN * PE * RA * TO * RE * BT *, which means: Jhezus Nazarenus * Principi Emathie * Regi Albaniae * Terrori Osmanorum * Regi Epirotarum * Benedictat Te.
It is thought that the copper strip with the monogram is the work of the descendants of Skanderbeg and was placed there by them, as Skanderbeg never held any other title but “Lord of Albania”: It should be said however that the correct Latin translation of Regi is Kingdom since it is Rex that refers to King. Thus the inscriptions on the helmet may refer to the unsettled name by which Albania was known at the time, as a means to identify Skanderbeg's leadership over all Albanians across regional denominative identifications. Contemporary sources show that 14th century Albanians were invariably identified as tribal people, with no state of their own. Thus, depending on where they lived - North or South, in the plains or in the mountains, to which civilization they subscribed to - we have Turkish: Arnaut, Greek: Arbanas, Italian: Albanian, Albanensis, Albanian: Arber, Arberesh. According to a report by historian Shefqet Pllana, Sami Frasheri in his Kamus-al-Alam maintains that the wording "Dhu lKarnejn" was an appellative attributed to Alexander the Great of Macedon, the name which Skanderbeg bore in the Islamic form.
At the request of the pre-WWII Albanian government, an identical copy of the helmet of Skanderbeg lies now in the National Museum of Tirana, Albania. The copy was manufactured by an Austrian master in 1937; the helmet is depicted on the reverse of the Albanian 5000 lekë banknote, issued since 1996. The helmet and swords have a confusing history. After the death of Skanderbeg, they were taken to Italy by Skanderbeg’s wife Donika and his son Gjoni. Who inherited them after their death is unknown; the weapons reappeared in the last decade of the 16th century. By 1590 the helmet and one sword were under the ownership of Count Eolfang of Sturnberg while the other sword lay in the inventory of the Arms Museum of the Archduke Karl of Styria, son of the Holy Roman Emperor in Graz, Austria; the person who brought the weapons together was the son of the Emperor and brother of Karl, Archduke Ferdinand of Tyrol, acting under the advice of his Chancellor Jacob Schrenk von Gotzing, bought the weapons and brought them under the same roof.
The Sasanian Empire known as the Sassanian, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire, was the last kingdom of the Persian Empire before the rise of Islam. Named after the House of Sasan, it ruled from 224 to 651 AD; the Sasanian Empire succeeded the Parthian Empire and was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire for a period of more than 400 years. The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Eastern Arabia, the Levant, the Caucasus, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani; the Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important, influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam.
In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa and India, it played a prominent role in the formation of both Asian medieval art. Much of what became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world. Conflicting accounts shroud the details of the fall of the Parthian Empire and subsequent rise of the Sassanian Empire in mystery; the Sassanian Empire was established in Estakhr by Ardashir I. Papak was the ruler of a region called Khir. However, by the year 200 he had managed to overthrow Gochihr and appoint himself the new ruler of the Bazrangids, his mother, was the daughter of the provincial governor of Pars. Papak and his eldest son Shapur managed to expand their power over all of Pars; the subsequent events are due to the elusive nature of the sources.
It is certain, that following the death of Papak, who at the time was the governor of Darabgerd, became involved in a power struggle of his own with his elder brother Shapur. Sources reveal that Shapur, leaving for a meeting with his brother, was killed when the roof of a building collapsed on him. By the year 208, over the protests of his other brothers who were put to death, Ardashir declared himself ruler of Pars. Once Ardashir was appointed shah, he moved his capital further to the south of Pars and founded Ardashir-Khwarrah; the city, well protected by high mountains and defensible due to the narrow passes that approached it, became the centre of Ardashir's efforts to gain more power. It was surrounded by a high, circular wall copied from that of Darabgird. Ardashir's palace was on the north side of the city. After establishing his rule over Pars, Ardashir extended his territory, demanding fealty from the local princes of Fars, gaining control over the neighbouring provinces of Kerman, Isfahan and Mesene.
This expansion came to the attention of Artabanus V, the Parthian king, who ordered the governor of Khuzestan to wage war against Ardashir in 224, but Ardashir was victorious in the ensuing battles. In a second attempt to destroy Ardashir, Artabanus himself met Ardashir in battle at Hormozgan, where the former met his death. Following the death of the Parthian ruler, Ardashir went on to invade the western provinces of the now defunct Parthian Empire. At that time the Arsacid dynasty was divided between supporters of Artabanus V and Vologases VI, which allowed Ardashir to consolidate his authority in the south with little or no interference from the Parthians. Ardashir was aided by the geography of the province of Fars, separated from the rest of Iran. Crowned in 224 at Ctesiphon as the sole ruler of Persia, Ardashir took the title shahanshah, or "King of Kings", bringing the 400-year-old Parthian Empire to an end, beginning four centuries of Sassanid rule. In the next few years, local rebellions occurred throughout the empire.
Nonetheless, Ardashir I further expanded his new empire to the east and northwest, conquering the provinces of Sistan, Khorasan, Margiana and Chorasmia. He added Bahrain and Mosul to Sassanid's possessions. Sassanid inscriptions claim the submission of the Kings of Kushan and Mekran to Ardashir, although based on numismatic evidence it is more that these submitted to Ardashir's son, the future Shapur I. In the west, assaults against Hatra and Adiabene met with less success. In 230, Ardashir raided deep into Roman territory, a Roman counter-offensive two years ended inconclusively, although the Roman emperor, Alexander Severus, celebrated a triumph in Rome. Ardashir I's son Shapur I continued the expansion of the empire, conquering Bactria and the western portion of the Kushan Empire, while leading several campaigns against Rome. Invading Roman Mesopotamia, Shapur I captured Carrhae and Nisibis, but in 243 the Roman general Timesitheus defeated the Persians at Rhesaina and regained the lost territories.
The emperor Gordian III's subsequent advance down the Euphrates was defea
Crown of Scotland
The Crown of Scotland is the crown, used at the coronation of the monarchs of Scotland. Remade in its current form for King James V of Scotland in 1540, the crown is part of the Honours of Scotland, the oldest surviving set of Crown jewels in the United Kingdom; the crown dates from at least 1503 when, in an earlier form, it was depicted in the portrait of James IV of Scotland in the Book of Hours commissioned for his marriage to Margaret Tudor. In January 1540, King James V commissioned the royal goldsmith, John Mosman, to refashion the Crown of Scotland; the existing crown was delicate and had been repaired at least twice in the previous 30 years, a 1539 inventory showed further damage, including the loss of one fleur-de-lis. Mosman removed its stones and pearls; the crown was melted down and Mosman added 41 ounces of gold mined at Crawford Moor in Lanarkshire. Constructed of solid gold, the crown consists of a base, with four fleur-de-lis alternating with four strawberry leaves; the four arches of the crown are decorated with gold and red oak leaves.
At the intersection of the arches is a golden monde, painted blue with gold stars. The monde is surmounted by a large cross decorated in gold and black enamel and pearls; the crown is encrusted with 22 gemstones, including garnets and amethysts, 20 precious stones and 68 Scottish freshwater pearls. James V ordered a purple and ermine bonnet from tailor Thomas Arthur of Edinburgh to fit inside the crown. James VII ordered; the bonnet had to be replaced several times, the present bonnet was made in 1993. The completed crown weighs 1.64 kg. The crown was first worn by James V to the coronation of his second wife, Mary of Guise, as queen consort at Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh, in the year of its manufacture, it was subsequently used in the coronations of the child monarchs Mary, Queen of Scots, in 1543 and her son James VI, King of Scots, in 1567. In the absence of a resident Scottish monarch following the Union of the Crowns in 1603, when James VI inherited the throne of England and moved his Royal Household from Edinburgh to London, the Honours were carried to sittings of the Parliament of Scotland to symbolise the sovereign's presence and the Royal Assent to legislation.
The crown was used for the Scottish coronation of both Charles I in 1633 and Charles II in 1651. However, no subsequent Scottish monarchs were crowned with the crown. During the Civil War, having destroyed the ancient English Crown Jewels, Oliver Cromwell sought to destroy the Scottish Crown Jewels. However, the Honours were secretly buried until the monarchy was restored in 1660. Following the Act of Union of 1707, which unified the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, having no ceremonial role to play in the proceedings of the new Parliament of Great Britain in London, the Honours were locked away in Edinburgh Castle. There they remained all but forgotten in a chest until 1818, when a group of people including Sir Walter Scott set out to find them. Since 1819 they have been on display in the Crown Room of Edinburgh Castle from where they are removed only for state occasions; the first was when presented to King George IV, at the Palace of Holyroodhouse in 1822, during his visit to Scotland.
On 24 June 1953, following her coronation at Westminster Abbey, the crown was carried before Queen Elizabeth II in a procession from the Palace of Holyroodhouse to the High Kirk of St Giles, where the Honours of Scotland, including the crown, were presented to The Queen during a National Service of Thanksgiving. More the crown has been present at the official opening ceremonies of sessions of the Scottish Parliament, including the first in 1999 and the official opening of the new Scottish Parliament Building in 2004. On such occasions the crown, carried by the Duke of Hamilton, the hereditary bearer of the Crown of Scotland precedes Her Majesty The Queen in the custom of the ancient opening ceremonial procession known as the Riding of Parliament; as well as appearing in Scottish versions of the Royal Cypher and Royal Coat of Arms, including the version of the arms used by the Scotland Office, stylised versions of the crown appear upon the badges of the Royal Regiment of Scotland, The Royal British Legion Scotland, the Scottish Ambulance Service, Police Scotland and upon the logos of the Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service, RCAHMS, General Register Office for Scotland.
A version of the crown is used upon Royal Mail premises and Scottish pillar and wall boxes. From 1927 until its abolition in 1975, the arms of Kincardineshire County Council featured the crown, together with the sword and sceptre, above an artist's rendering of Dunnottar Castle, to mark the county's status as the 17th century hiding place of the Honours of Scotland during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. Media related to Royal crown of Scotland at Wikimedia Commons Pillar Box War Royal website