Sassafras is a genus of three extant and one extinct species of deciduous trees in the family Lauraceae, native to eastern North America and eastern Asia. The genus is distinguished by its aromatic properties. Sassafras trees grow from 9–35 m tall with many slender sympodial branches, smooth, orange-brown bark or yellow bark. All parts of the plants are fragrant; the species are unusual in having three distinct leaf patterns on the same plant: unlobed oval and trilobed. Three-lobed leaves are more common in Sassafras tzumu and Sassafras randaiense than in their North American counterparts, although three-lobed leaves do sometimes occur on Sassafras albidum; the young leaves and twigs are quite mucilaginous, produce a citrus-like scent when crushed. The tiny, yellow flowers are six-petaled; the fruit is a drupe, blue-black when ripe. The largest known sassafras tree in the world is in Owensboro, is over 100 feet high and 21 feet in circumference; the genus Sassafras was first described by the Bohemian botanist Jan Presl in 1825.
The name "sassafras", applied by the botanist Nicolas Monardes in 1569, comes from the French sassafras. Some sources claim it originates from the Latin saxifraga or saxifragus: "stone-breaking". Sassafras trees are not within the family Saxifragaceae. Early European colonists reported that the plant was called winauk by Native Americans in Delaware and Virginia and pauane by the Timucua. Native Americans distinguished between white sassafras and red sassafras, terms which referred to different parts of the same plant but with distinct colors and uses. Sassafras was known as fennel wood due to its distinctive aroma; the genus Sassafras includes three extant and one extinct. Sassafras plants are endemic to North America and East Asia, with two species in each region that are distinguished by some important characteristics, including the frequency of three-lobed leaves and aspects of their sexual reproduction. Taiwanese sassafras, Taiwan, is treated by some botanists in a distinct genus as Yushunia randaiensis Kamikoti, though this is not supported by recent genetic evidence, which shows Sassafras to be monophyletic.
Sassafras albidum Nees – sassafras, white sassafras, red sassafras, or silky sassafras, eastern North America, from southernmost Ontario, Canada through the eastern United States, south to central Florida, west to southern Iowa and East Texas Wisconsin †Sassafras hesperia – western North American, from the Eocene Klondike Mountain Formation of Washington and British Columbia. Sassafras tzumu Hemsl. – Chinese sassafras or tzumu and southwestern China Sassafras randaiense Rehd. – Taiwan Many Lauraceae are aromatic, evergreen trees or shrubs adapted to high rainfall and humidity, but the genus Sassafras is deciduous. Deciduous sassafras trees lose all of their leaves for part of the year, depending on variations in rainfall. In deciduous tropical Lauraceae, leaf loss coincides with the dry season in tropical and arid regions. In temperate climates, the dry season is due to the inability of the plant to absorb water available to it only in the form of ice. Sassafras is found in open woods, along fences, or in fields.
It grows well in moist, well-drained, or sandy loam soils and tolerates a variety of soil types, attaining a maximum in southern and wetter areas of distribution. Sassafras albidum ranges from southern Maine and southern Ontario west to Iowa, south to central Florida and eastern Texas, in North America. Sassafras tzumu may be found in Anhui, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hunan, Sichuan and Zhejiang, China. Sassafras randaiense is native to Taiwan; the leaves, twigs and fruits are eaten by birds and mammals in small quantities. For most animals, sassafras is not consumed in large enough quantities to be important, although it is an important deer food in some areas. Carey and Gill rate its value to wildlife as their lowest rating. Sassafras leaves and twigs are consumed by white-tailed porcupines. Other sassafras leaf browsers include groundhogs, marsh rabbits, American black bears. Rabbits eat. American beavers will cut. Sassafras fruits are eaten by many species of birds, including bobwhite quail, eastern kingbirds, great crested flycatchers, wild turkeys, gray catbirds, northern flickers, pileated woodpeckers, downy woodpeckers, thrushes and northern mockingbirds.
Some small mammals consume sassafras fruits. All parts of sassafras plants, including roots, twig leaves, bark and fruit, have been used for culinary and aromatic purposes, both in areas where they are endemic and in areas where they were imported, such as Europe; the wood of sassafras trees has been used as a material for building ships and furniture in China and the United States, sassafras played an important role in the history of the European colonization of the American continent in the 16th and 17th centuries. Sassafras twigs have been used as toothbrushes or fire starters. Sassafras albidum is an important ingredient in some distinct foods of the United States, it is the main ingredient in traditional root beer and sassafras root tea, ground leaves of sassafras
58 is the natural number following 57 and preceding 59. Fifty-eight is the sum of the first seven prime numbers, an 11-gonal number, a Smith number. Given 58, the Mertens function returns 0. There is no solution to the equation x -- φ making 58 a noncototient. However, the sum of the totient function for the first thirteen integers is 58; the atomic number of cerium, a lanthanide Messier object M58, a magnitude 11.0 galaxy in the constellation Virgo The New General Catalogue object NGC 58, a barred spiral galaxy in the constellation Cetus. It is the object designated as NGC 47 John Cage CD "Fifty-Eight" Fifty-Eight Now Nine, a collection of songs by Esther Lee 58 was the name of a side project involving Nikki Sixx of Mötley Crüe, they covered the song "Alone Again" Band "Spur 58" "58 Poems" by Chicago In the NBA, the most points scored in a fourth quarter was 58 by the Buffalo Braves, Oct. 20, 1972. The most points in a game by a rookie player: Wilt Chamberlain, 58: Philadelphia vs. Detroit, Jan.
25, 1960, Philadelphia vs. New York Knicks, Feb. 21, 1960. In MotoGP, 58 was the number of Marco Simoncelli who died in an accident at the Malaysian Round of the 2011 MotoGP season. MotoGP's governing body, the FIM, are considering to retire number 58 from use in MotoGP as they did before with the numbers 74 and 48 of Daijiro Kato and Shoya Tomizawa, respectively; the retirement, from all motorcycle racing classes occurred in 2016, joining Kato's 74, the 34 of inaugural MotoGP champion Kevin Schwantz and the 65 of Loris Capirossi. On the PGA Tour, 58 is the lowest score in an 18-hole round, achieved by Jim Furyk in the final round of the 2016 Travelers Championship at TPC River Highlands. In Formula One, 58 is the number of laps of the Australian Grand Prix since 1996, when the Grand Prix held in Albert Park. Belief in the existence of 58 original sins by several civilizations native to Central America or South America caused the number to symbolize misfortune. Aztec oracles stumbled across the number an unnaturally high number of times before disaster fell.
One famous recording of this, though discredited as mere folktale, concerned the oracle of Moctezuma II, who counted 58 pieces of gold scattered before a sacrificial pit the day prior to the arrival of Hernán Cortés. The Alabama county code for Shelby County The Ohio county code for Morgan County The code for international direct dial phone calls to Venezuela The number of usable cells on a Hexxagon game board Book: "58 Lonely Men: Southern Federal Judges and School Desegregation" about 58 judges in the South during the Brown vs. Board of Education decision The number of counties in California The minimum wind speed needed to issue a Severe Thunderstorm Warning; the number of the French department Nièvre In the popular TV show SpongeBob SquarePants, Patrick claims that "58 is like the luckiest number ever." 58 Minutes is a book by Walter Wager, on which the film Die Hard 2 was based I-58 was the name of one of the Type B3 submarines that fought in World War II
Nana Grizol is an American indie folk band based in Athens, signed to Orange Twin Records. In addition to frontman Theo Hilton, Nana Grizol features Laura Carter, Robbie Cucchiaro, Jared Gandy, drummer Matte Cathcart and Kate Mitchell, Ian Rickert, Patrick Jennings and Michael Schneeweis. Solo artist Madeline Adams appears on Love It Love It. Nana Grizol released their debut album, Love It Love It on May 13, 2008, their second album, was released on January 10, 2010. Their third album was released with Ursa Minor, their fourth album was released with Theo Zumm. CurrentTheo Hilton - vocals, electric guitar, acoustic guitar Madeline Adams - vocals, bass Laura Carter - drums, clarinet Matte Cathcart - drums Jared Gandy - bass, guitar Patrick Jennings - piano, rhodes Robbie Cucchiaro - trumpet, guitar, bari sax FormerKate Mitchell - trumpet Ian Rickert - clarinet, harmonica Margaret Child - glockenspiel, tambourine Michael Schneeweis - writing Emily Simpson - vocals Lacey Jon - percussion Nana Grizol page at Orange Twin Records Nana Grizol Official
Grrrrrrrrrrr!! is a 1965 oil and Magna on canvas painting by Roy Lichtenstein. Measuring 68 in × 56.125 in, it was bequeathed to the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum collection from Lichtenstein's estate, it depicts a head-on representation of an angry dog growling with the onomatopoeic expression "Grrrrrrrrrrr!!". The work was derived from Our Fighting Forces, which served as the source for other military dog paintwork by Lichtenstein; the Lichtenstein foundation notes that the inspiration for this painting is a frame of Our Fighting Forces #66, published by National Periodical Publications. In that frame only a portion of the dog's head is visible and the speech balloon says "Grrrrr!" In addition to the painting itself, Lichtenstein produced a small 5.75 in × 4.5 in graphite on paper study. The painting was bestowed to the Guggenheim Museum after Lichtenstein's 1997 death, following a promise made in 1992; the museum used Grrrrrrrrrrr!! in the promotional posters for the 1993 exhibition "Roy Lichtenstein: A Retrospective", which ran from October 7, 1993 – January 16, 1994.
Other notable exhibitions where this work was shown include "Rendezvous: Masterpieces from the Centre Georges Pompidou and the Guggenheim Museums" which ran from October 16, 1998 – January 24, 1999 at the Guggenheim Museum in New York, as well as "Art in America: 300 Years of Innovation" which traveled to several museums in China between 2007 and 2008. The work appeared on the cover of the November 1993 issue of ARTnews. Although Grrrrrrrrrrr!! is derived from what Guggenheim Senior Curator Susan Davidson calls a "low-grade comic strip", a typical Lichtenstein source, it is representative of Lichtenstein's fascination with "the atomic language of Ben-Day dots, black outlines and the three primary colors as the elementary vocabulary of low-budget commercial imagery."According to Jennifer Blessing of the Guggenheim, "There is an element of humor in creating fine art out of what has customarily been considered'low,' a playfulness, evident in the onomatopoeic caption and bellicose expression of the dog in Grrrrrrrrrrr!!"
In 1962, Lichtenstein created Arrrrrff!, an oil and graphite pencil on canvas painting depicting a dog from a subsequent issue of Our Fighting Forces, the series, the source of Grrrrrrrrrrr!! That source depicts the dog by the name of "Pooch" in profile with a text bubble reading "Sniff--Sniff--Sniff--Sniff--Arrrrrff!" Above his head. The inspiration for this painting came from Our Fighting Forces #69. Arrrrrff! was sold at Christie's in 1996 for $420,500 to an undisclosed buyer. 1965 in art Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum Collection website Lichtenstein Foundation website
Robert Chen is a Taiwanese-born violinist, the Concertmaster of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. He received Bachelor's and Master's of Music degrees from the Juilliard School, where he studied with Dorothy DeLay and Masao Kawasaki. Born in Taipei, Taiwan in 1969, Chen began studying the violin at the early age of seven, he immigrated with his family three years to Los Angeles where he studied with Robert Lipsett. Chen advanced quickly, debuting with the Los Angeles Philharmonic at the age of twelve and participating in the master classes by legendary violinist Jascha Heifetz. Today he is an active musician, working with a number of other projects, he has a personally-edited version of the violin part for Johannes Brahms first symphony, available through the online publisher Ovation Press. His activities as a soloist include performances with the Los Angeles Philharmonic, Swedish Radio Orchestra, Asia Philharmonic Orchestra, Moscow Philharmonic, New Japan Philharmonic, National Symphony Orchestra of Taiwan, Orchestra of the Komische Oper Berlin, NDR Orchestra of Hannover, Bournemouth Symphony.
In 2000 he made his Chicago Symphony Orchestra concerto debut with Maestro Daniel Barenboim. In 2003 he gave the Chicago Symphony orchestra premiere of the Elliott Carter Violin Concerto. Chen is a frequent guest at major music festivals including the Marlboro Music Festival, Aspen Music Festival, La Jolla Summerfest, the Schloss-Moritzburg Festival in Dresden, where he has collaborated with Emanuel Ax and Richard Goode, he has toured extensively with Musicians from Marlboro. As a chamber musician, Chen has collaborated with Daniel Barenboim, Itzhak Perlman, Pinchas Zukerman, Yo Yo Ma, both at Orchestra Hall in Chicago and at Carnegie Hall in New York. Chen has won top prize at the 1994 Hanover International Violin Competition and awards at the Taipei International Violin Competition, National Young Musicians Foundation Debut Competition, Aspen Music Festival Concerto Competition, he has recorded works by Tchaikovsky, including the famous violin concerto, with the Berlin Klassics label. Chen received an award at the Coleman Chamber Ensemble Competition in 1985 and is a founding member of the Johannes Quartet.
Robert Chen lives with his wife, Laura Chen, is the father of two children, Beatrice Chen and Noah Chen. Robert Chen, TCHAIKOVSKY, P.: Violin Concerto / Serenade melancolique / Souvenir d'un lieu cher, Berlin Classics Label Seen and Heard International Concert Review: "Debussy and Ligeti", Robert Chen, Pierre Boulez, Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Symphony Center, Chicago Hannover International Violin Competition: First Prize Winner, Robert Chen
Hirtenkäse, or "herder's cheese", is a distinctive cow's milk cheese made in the Allgäu area of Southern Germany. Traditionally, cow herders bring their cows from the Alps into Allgäu each fall in mid-September. September 18 "marks the official start of the Almabtrieb, or descent, a day celebrated with a festival...." Hirtenkäse is made from the milk from these cows. It is aged eight months; this cheese is "golden" and "Buttery yellow in color...." Its texture and taste are "rustic and firm textured... with a rugged, earthy aroma." It has been compared to other hard cheeses of Europe: In texture and flavor, the 14-pound cheese resembles a cross between Parmigiano-Reggiano and aged Gouda, with a firm golden interior and aromas of butterscotch and orange peel.... At eight months, the cheese has developed some of the crunchy protein crystals found in Parmigiano-Reggiano, but additional aging dryer. It has a waxy texture - it smells waxy - but it isn't crumbly like Parmigiano-Reggiano or firm enough to grate.
The flavor is concentrated, with the cooked-milk sweetness of a caramel. Hirtenkäse's nutty, earthy flavors can be contrasted. A reviewer at the San Francisco Chronicle prefers complementing the cheese, writing, "I want a nutty sweet wine with it, such as an oloroso sherry or a Madeira."iGourmet suggests contrasting the cheese: Hirtenkase is wonderful with German whole grain breads and dried fruits, like apples and figs. Excellent when coarsely grated over roasted potatoes, mixed into hot pasta with chucks of ripe tomatoes, shaved over a crisp salad. Enjoy Hritenkase with a glass of wheat beer like a Hefeweizen, or a full bodied red wine. Like the bacon-and-chicken liver rumaki, this cheese can be combined with other foods in interesting ways to mix salty and savory flavors. German cuisine List of German cheeses List of cheeses