click links in text for more info

Satanic Verses

Satanic Verses refers to words of "satanic suggestion" which the Islamic Prophet Muhammad is said to have mistaken for divine revelation. The alleged verses can be read in biographies of Muhammad by al-Wāqidī, Ibn Sa'd and Ibn Ishaq, the tafsir of al-Tabarī. While Muslim scholars reject the historicity of the incident on the basis of the theological doctrine of moral infallibility of Muhammad; some secular scholars on the other hand have accepted the historicity, citing the implausibility of early Muslim biographers fabricating a story so unflattering about their prophet. The first use of the expression is attributed to Sir William Muir in 1858. There are numerous accounts reporting the alleged incident, which differ in the construction and detail of the narrative, but they may be broadly collated to produce a basic account; the different versions of the story are all traceable to one single narrator Muhammad ibn Ka'b, two generations removed from biographer Ibn Ishaq. In its essential form, the story reports that Muhammad longed to convert his kinsmen and neighbors of Mecca to Islam.

As he was reciting these verses of Sūrat an-Najm, considered a revelation from the angel Gabriel, Have you thought of al-Lāt and al-‘Uzzá and Manāt, the third, the other? Satan tempted him to utter the following line: These are the exalted gharāniq, whose intercession is hoped for. Allāt, al-'Uzzā and Manāt were three goddesses worshipped by the Meccans. Discerning the meaning of "gharāniq" is difficult, as it is a hapax legomenon. Commentators wrote; the Arabic word does mean a "crane" - appearing in the singular as ghirnīq, ghurnūq, ghirnawq and ghurnayq, the word has cousin forms in other words for birds, including "raven, crow" and "eagle". According to Muslim orthodoxy, the actual account of events holds that a group of some of the chiefs of the Quraish happened to be passing by as The Prophet was reciting verses from the Qur'an, it moved their hearts so much, that they fell down on their faces in prostration, bore witness it was from Allah alone. Some of their peers happened by, began to accost them and threaten them, made them feel ashamed, so they denied what had happened, said that they only fell down in prostration, because The Prophet gave a concession allowing for them to keep their idol worship yet still be Muslim.

The Satanic Verses incident is reported in the tafsir and the sira-maghazi literature dating from the first two centuries of Islam, is reported in the respective tafsīr corpuses transmitted from every Qur'anic commentator of note in the first two centuries of the hijra. According to Ibn Taymiyyah: "The early Islamic Scholars collectively considered the Verses of Cranes in accordance with Quran, and from the coming scholars, who followed the opinion of the early scholars, they say that these traditions have been recorded with authentic chain of narration and it is impossible to deny them, Quran is itself testifying it." The earliest biography of Muhammad, Ibn Ishaq is lost but his collection of traditions survives in two sources: Ibn Hisham and al-Tabari. The story appears in al-Tabari, who includes Ibn Ishaq in the chain of transmission, but not in Ibn Hisham, who admits in the preface of his text that he omitted matters from Ibn Ishaq's biography that "would distress certain people". Ibn Sa'd and Al-Waqidi, two other early biographers of Muhammad relate the story.

Scholars such as Uri Rubin and Shahab Ahmed and Guillaume hold that the report was in Ibn Ishaq, while Alford T. Welch holds the report has not been present in the Ibn Ishaq. Due to its unreliable chain of narration, the tradition of the Satanic Verses never made it into any of the canonical hadith compilations; the reference and exegesis about the Verses appear in early histories. In addition to appearing in Tabarī's Tafsīr, it is used in the tafsīrs of Muqātil, ‘Abdu r-Razzāq and Ibn Kathir as well as the naskh of Abu Ja‘far an-Nahhās, the asbāb collection of Wāhidī and the late-medieval as-Suyūtī's compilation al-Durr al-Manthūr fil-Tafsīr bil-Mathūr. Objections to the incident were raised as early as the fourth Islamic century, such as in the work of an-Nahhās and continued to be raised throughout generations by scholars such as Abu Bakr ibn al-‘Arabi, Fakhr ad-Din Razi as well as al-Qurtubi; the most comprehensive argument presented against the factuality of the incident came in Qadi Iyad's ash-Shifa‘.

The incident was discounted on two main bases. The first was that the incident contradicted the doctrine of isma‘, divine protection of Muhammad from mistakes; the second was that the descriptions of the chain of transmission extant since that period are not complete and sound. Ibn Kathir points out in his commentary that the various isnads available to him by which the story was transmitted were all mursal, or without a companion of Muhammad in their chain. Uri Rubin asserts that there exists a complete version of the isnad continuing to ibn ‘Abbās, but this only survives in a few sources, he claims that the name of ibn ‘Abbās was part of the original isnad, was removed so that the incident could be deprived of its sahih isnad and discredited. Imam Fakhr al-Din al-Razi commenting on Quran 22:52 in his Tafsir al-Kabir stated that the "people of verification" declared the story as an outright fabrication, citing supporting arguments from the Qur’an, Sunnah and reason, he reported that the preeminent Muhaddith Ibn Khuzaymah said: "it is an invention of the heretics" when once asked about

Tewkesbury Museum

Tewkesbury Museum is a small community museum dedicated to the social history and heritage of Tewkesbury in Gloucestershire, England. The museum is housed in a 17th-century half-timbered building at 64 and 64a Barton Street in property, given to the Borough of Tewkesbury in 1956 on the express condition that it be used as a museum. Complications introduced by local government reform in 1974 led to its demise; the ancient Borough of Tewkesbury was dissolved and incorporated into the new District Council covering North West Gloucestershire. The first Clerk for the new Council persuaded Councillors that it should be named Tewkesbury Borough and he transferred as much of the old Borough as he could to the new Borough; this included an attempt to transfer the Museum. After some legal advice, the Museum reverted to the Town Council’s control; the building is Grade II* listed by English Heritage. An active society of Friends of Tewkesbury Museum supports the work of the museum. Exhibits include: Early Roman artefacts discovered when the Roses Theatre was built, including a Roman skeleton A diorama of the Battle of Tewkesbury Exhibits about the Tewkesbury mop fair A 1950s vintage model funfair Pieces relating to the Antarctic explorer Raymond Priestley, from Bredon's NortonIn 2010 excerpts from the diary of the British soldier Lieutenant Mark Evison of the Welsh Guards, who died after being wounded in Afghanistan in 2009, were displayed at the museum alongside letters from previous generations of soldiers.

List of museums in Gloucestershire Official website

Caladenia longicauda subsp. extrema

Caladenia longicauda subsp. Extrema known as the late white spider orchid or Seaton Ross spider orchid is a plant in the orchid family Orchidaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia, it has a single hairy leaf and one or two white flowers with long spreading lateral sepals and petals. It is a rare orchid, similar to the tangled white spider orchid but has larger flowers and a flowering period. Caladenia longicauda subsp. Extrema is a terrestrial, deciduous, herb with an underground tuber and which grows as solitary plants, it has 100 -- 170 mm long and 5 -- 12 mm wide. One or two white flowers 80–110 mm long and 60–90 mm wide are borne on a spike 160–300 mm tall; the dorsal sepal is erect, 50–80 mm long and 2–3 mm wide. The lateral sepals are 60–95 mm long and 5–7 mm wide and the petals are 55–80 mm long and 3–5 mm wide; the lateral sepals and petals are linear to lance-shaped in the lower quarter of their length suddenly taper to downcurved, narrow ends. The labellum is white, 16–21 mm long and 5–12 mm wide with narrow teeth up to 5 mm long on the sides.

There are four or more rows of pale red calli up to 1.5 mm long in the centre of the labellum. Flowering occurs from November to early December; this subspecies is most similar to subspecies redacta and their distributions sometimes overlap but has larger flowers with a larger labellum and a flowering period. Caladenia longicauda was first formally described by John Lindley in 1840 and the description was published in A Sketch of the Vegetation of the Swan River Colony. In 2001 Stephen Hopper and Andrew Brown described eleven subspecies in 2015 Brown and Garry Brockman described three more, including subspecies extrema and the new descriptions were published in Nuytsia; the subspecies had been known as Caladenia longicauda subsp.'Manjimup'. The subspecies name is a Latin word meaning “outermost", "farthest" or "last" referring to the late flowering of this subspecies; the late white spider orchid is only known from a small area near Manjimup in the Jarrah Forest biogeographic region where the type specimen was collected.

It grows in areas that are swampy in winter. Caladenia longicauda subsp. Extrema is classified as "Priority One" by the Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife, meaning that it is known from only one or a few locations which are at risk


Navdanya is an Indian-based non-governmental organisation which promotes biodiversity conservation, organic farming, the rights of farmers, the process of seed saving. One of Navdanya's founders, outspoken members, is Vandana Shiva, an environmental activist and author. Navdanya began in 1984 as a program of the Research Foundation for science and Ecology, a participatory research initiative founded by the environmentalist Vandana Shiva, to provide direction and support to environmental activism. "Navdanya" means "nine crops". Navdanya is a member of the Terra Madre slow food movement. Navdanya is organic producers spread across 16 states in India. Navdanya has helped set up 54 community seed banks across the country, trained over 500,000 farmers in "food sovereignty" and sustainable agriculture over the past two decades, helped set up the largest direct marketing, fair trade organic network in the country. Navdanya has set up a learning center, Bija Vidyapeeth on its biodiversity conservation and organic farm in Doon Valley, north India.

It has criticised genetic engineering. Navdanya claims to be a women centred movement for the protection of biological and cultural diversity. 20th Century farming revolutionised traditional food production methods by using cheap hydrocarbon fuels and agricultural chemical products which make a major contribution to greenhouse gas emissions, blamed for causing climate change. These new methods together with cheap transport and fuel led to the optimisation and industrialization of food production. Navdanya's Seeds of Freedom campaign is intended to provide a source or exchange of diverse occurring crop-seed. Since 1991 they have been campaigning against GM crops and food in India. Working with citizens' movements, grassroot organisations, NGOs and governments, they have made significant contributions to the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Biosafety Protocol. During the WTO Hong Kong Ministerial, Navdanya joined 740 other organisations in presenting their opposition to the WTO's stance on GMOs.

RFSTE/ Navdanya started the campaign against biopiracy with the Neem Campaign in 1994 and mobilised 1,00,000 signatures against neem patents and filed a legal opposition against the USDA and WR Grace patent on the fungicidal properties of neem in the European Patent Office at Munich, Germany. Along with RFSTE, the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements of Germany and Ms. Magda Alvoet, former Green Member of the European Parliament were party to the challenge; the patent on Neem was revoked in May 2000 and it was reconfirmed on 8 March 2005 when the EPO revoked in entirety the controversial patent, adjudged that there was "no inventive step" involved in the fungicide patent, thus confirming the'prior art' of the use of Neem. The next victory against "biopiracy" for Navdanya came in October 2004 when the European Patent Office in Munich revoked Monsanto's patent on the Indian variety of wheat "Nap Hal"; this was the third consecutive victory on the IPR front after Basmati.

Monsanto was assigned a patent on wheat on 21 May 2003 by the European Patent Office in Munich under the simple title "plants". On January 27, 2004 Research Foundation for Science Technology and Ecology along with Greenpeace and Bharat Krishak Samaj BKS) filed a petition at the European Patent Office, challenging the patent rights given to Monsanto on Indian Landrace of wheat, Nap Hal; the patent was revoked in October 2004. Navdanya Website Watch the film

Tertius Bosch

Tertius Bosch was a South African cricketer who played in one Test and two ODIs in 1992. He appeared on the cricket scene while studying for a dental degree at the University of Pretoria in the 1986/1987 season. Bosch's official cause of death was Guillain–Barré syndrome, but there were allegations made of poisoning by his wife Karen Anne. In 2003, Bosch's sister applied to the supreme court to stop his widow from inheriting the estate. In 2005, his body was removed from Queensburgh cemetery for exhumation, his siblings hired private investigators and there were claims he suspected his wife of infidelity and had hired investigators to monitor her. Van Wetten v Bosch Tertius Bosch at ESPNcricinfo Tertius Bosch at CricketArchive

HannĊ Station

Hannō Station is a railway station on the Seibu Ikebukuro Line in Hannō, Japan, operated by the private railway operator Seibu Railway. Hannō Station is served by the Seibu Ikebukuro Line from Ikebukuro in Tokyo, with some services inter-running via the Tokyo Metro Yurakucho Line to Shin-Kiba and the Tokyo Metro Fukutoshin Line to Shibuya and onward via the Tokyu Toyoko Line and Minato Mirai Line to Motomachi-Chukagai. Located between Motokaji and Higashi-Hannō, it is 43.7 km from the Ikebukuro terminus. Hannō is a terminating station, with trains continuing to Seibu-Chichibu reversing here. All train services stop at this station; the station consists of one ground-level side platform and two island platforms, serving a total of four terminating tracks. The station opened on 15 April 1915. Station numbering was introduced on all Seibu Railway lines during fiscal 2012, with Hannō Station becoming "SI26". Through-running to and from Yokohama and Motomachi-Chukagai via the Tokyu Toyoko Line and Minatomirai Line commenced on 16 March 2013.

In fiscal 2014, the station was the 29th busiest on the Seibu network with an average of 32,087 passengers daily. The passenger figures for previous years are as shown below. Higashi-Hannō Station National Route 299 Seibou Gakuen High School & Junior High School Saitama Prefectural Hannō High School Surugadai University Iruma River List of railway stations in Japan Hannō Station information Hannō Station information