The Satavahanas, Sādavāhana or Sātavāhana, IAST: Sātavāhana) referred to as the Andhras in the Puranas, were an ancient Indian dynasty based in the Deccan region. Most modern scholars believe that the Satavahana rule began in the late second century BCE and lasted until the early third century CE, although some assign the beginning of their rule to as early as the 3rd century BCE based on the Puranas, but uncorroborated by archaeological evidence; the Satavahana kingdom comprised the present-day Telangana, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. At different times, their rule extended to parts of modern Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka; the dynasty had different capital cities at different times, including Koti Lingala Jagtial District Telangana and Amaravati. The origin of the dynasty is uncertain, but according to the Puranas, their first king overthrew the Kanva dynasty. In the post-Maurya era, the Satavahanas established peace in the Deccan region, resisted the onslaught of foreign invaders. In particular their struggles with the Saka Western Satraps went on for a long time.
The dynasty reached its zenith under the rule of Gautamiputra Satakarni and his successor Vasisthiputra Pulamavi. The kingdom fragmented into smaller states by the early 3rd century CE; the Satavahanas were early issuers of Indian state coinage struck with images of their rulers. They formed a cultural bridge and played a vital role in trade and the transfer of ideas and culture to and from the Indo-Gangetic Plain to the southern tip of India, they supported Brahmanism as well as Buddhism, patronised Prakrit literature. The date and place of origin of the Satavahanas, as well as the meaning of the dynasty's name, are a matter of debate among the historians; some of these debates have happened in the context of regionalism, with the present-day Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Telangana being variously claimed as the original homeland of the Satavahanas. According to one theory, the word "Satavahana" is a Prakrit form of the Sanskrit Sapta-Vahana; this would indicate that the Satavahanas claimed association with the legendary solar dynasty, as was common in ancient India.
According to Inguva Kartikeya Sarma, the dynasty's name is derived from the words vahana. Another theory connects their name to the earlier Satiyaputa dynasty, yet another theory derives their name from the Munda words Sadam and Harpan, implying "son of the performer of a horse sacrifice". Several rulers of the dynasty bear the name or title "Satakarni". Satavahana, Satakarni and Shalivahana appear to be variations of the same word. Damodar Dharmanand Kosambi theorised that the word "Satakarni" is derived from the Munda words sada and kon; the Puranas use the name "Andhra" for the Satavahanas. The term "Andhra" may refer to territory of the dynasty, it does not appear in the dynasty's own records. Tamil epic Silappatikaram mentions a "Nurruvar Kannar", who helped Chera king Senguttuvan during his Himalaya campaign; the direct translation of the term Nurruvar Kannar is "the hundred Karnas" or "Satakarni", hence the Nurruvar Kannar has been identified with the Satavahana dynasty. The use of the names "Andhra" and "Andhra-Jatiya" in the Puranas has led some scholars, such as E.
J Rapson and R. G Bhandarkar, to believe. At Kotilingala in Telangana, coins bearing the legend "Rano Siri Chimuka Satavahanasa" were found. Epigraphist and numismastist P. V. P. Sastry identified Chimuka with the dynasty's founder Simuka, because of which Kotilingala came to be known as the only place where coins attributed to Simuka were found. Coins attributed to Simuka's successors Kanha and Satakarni I were discovered at Kotilingla. Based on these discoveries, historians such as Ajay Mitra Shastri, D. R. Reddy, S. Reddy and Shankar R. Goyal theorised that Kotlingala was the original home of the Satavahanas. Ajay Mitra Shastri stated that the finding of the coins at Kotilinga give "a clear pointer to the region where we have to locate the original center of the Satavahana political authority." However, the coin samples from Kotlingala are small, it is not certain if these coins were minted there or reached there from somewhere else. Moreover, the identification of Chimuka of Kotilingala with the dynasty's founder Simuka has been contested by several scholars including P. L. Gupta and I. K. Sarma, who identified Chimuka as a ruler.
P. V. P. Sastry later changed his view, stated that the two kings were different. In addition to the Kotilinga find, a coin of the Satavahana prince Saktikumara, in the fourth generation of the founder, has been reported as a stratified find from the Kurnool District of Andhra Pradesh; as for the Puranas, these texts could have been compiled at a date and it is not certain if the Satavahanas were referred to as Andhras during their time. Another section of scholars believe. All four extant inscriptions from the early Satavahana period have been found in and around this region; until the earliest known Satavahana inscription was that found at Cave No.19 of the Pandavleni Caves in Nashik district, issued during the reign of Kanha, however the most recent research shows the oldest Satavahana inscription is the one
Robert Roy Garibaldi is a former Major League Baseball relief pitcher who played from 1962 to 1963, in 1966 and 1969. He threw right-handed, weighed 210 pounds and was 6 ft 4 in. Garibaldi was born in Stockton and attended Stagg High School and the Santa Clara University, with whom he won the 1962 College World Series Most Outstanding Player award, he is the only player from Santa Clara University to win that award. He set two records in that Series: a strikeout record and an innings-pitched record. Although Casey Stengel of the New York Mets tried to convince Garibaldi to sign with them, Garibaldi chose not to sign with the Mets. Instead, he signed with the Giants. After signing with the San Francisco Giants for a record bonus of $150,000, Garibaldi jumped straight from college to the major leagues, making his big league debut on July 15, 1962. Facing the New York Mets, he pitched a perfect inning in his debut, he would pitch nine games in 1962, going 0–0 with a 5.11 ERA. He was the ninth youngest player in 1962.
In 1963, Garibaldi went 0–1 with a 1.13 ERA in four games. He would not pitch in the majors again until 1966. In 1966, he appeared in one game, allowing a single hit. He'd have to wait until 1969 to play in the big leagues again. Once again, he appeared in only one game. Despite pitching five solid innings and posting an ERA of 1.80, he still lost the game because his defense allowed three unearned runs. He played his final major league game on October 1. Although his big league career was over, his professional career was not, he continued to pitch in the Giants organization until the end of the 1970 season. He was traded to the Kansas City Royals on October 1970 for Fran Healy. In early 1971, he was traded to the San Diego Padres for Mike Jackson, he played for the Hawaii Islanders, in 1971 and 1972 before retiring. Overall, Garibaldi went 0–2 with a 3.08 ERA in the majors. In 15 games, he had 14 strikeouts. Garibaldi was the last $100,000 Bonus Baby pitcher to never win a game. While pitching for the Giants' AAA teams in Tacoma and Phoenix from 1963 to 1970, Garibaldi recorded a record of 85–69, with a high of 15 wins in 1970.
He tied for the PCL lead in wins, with 13, in 1969, led the PCL in complete games with 17 in 1969, 20 in 1970. He was named as pitcher on the National Association All-Star Fielding Silver Glove team by The Sporting News for the 1969 season, he was a player-manager for the Phoenix Giants in 1970. After his baseball career, he worked for many years as a college basketball referee. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs The Sports Critics.com
George French Ecton was a civil rights activist and Illinois' second black state legislator. He was born a slave in Winchester, Kentucky, in 1846 to Martha George. In June 1865, after the American Civil War and the abolition of slavery, George and a friend received free papers in the mail and set off to escape slavery, as they were still being held in bondage; when they arrived in Cincinnati, they were hired as deck hands on the steam packet, working a route between Cincinnati and Wheeling, West Virginia. In Cincinnati, George took a job at a number of hotels, including the Broadway House, Walnut Street House, Burnett House, Spencer House, he recovered. He began to attend night school taught by Luella Brown, he was reported to be a college graduate. On October 28, 1873, he took charge of the dining room at the Hotel Woodruff. In 1877 he married Patti R. Allen from Winchester. In Chicago, Ecton became active in Republican politics, he held his job as a waitor until being elected to the Illinois General Assembly, serving from 1887 to 1889.
Ecton was elected from the third district to the Illinois House of Representatives, replaced John W. E. Thomas, Illinois' first black state senator, he introduced legislation. After his term, he became owner of a baseball league, he continued to be a leader in Chicago Republican politics into the 1910s. In Chicago, he was a freemason, he died on September 19, 1929, in Chicago