A player-coach is a member of a sports team who holds both playing and coaching duties. A player-coach may be an assistant coach, they may make changes to the squad and play on the team. Few current major professional sports teams have head coaches who are players, though it is common for senior players to take a role in managing more junior athletes; when professional sports had much less money to pay players and coaches or managers, it was much more common to find them. Where player-coaches exist today, they are more common at the lower levels where money is less available, but not exclusively; the player-coach was, for many decades, a long-time fixture in professional basketball. Many notable coaches in the NBA served including Bill Russell and Lenny Wilkens; this was true up through the 1970s, when the league was not as financially successful as it is today, player-coaches were used to save money. The practice fell out of favor in the 1980s. Today, the collective bargaining agreement between the NBA and the players' union prohibits the use of player-coaches, in order to avoid circumventing the league's salary cap, as coaches' salaries are not counted under the cap.
Therefore, if a player is to serve as a coach, he would have to receive commission from his contract as a player. The player is not technically an official coach of his team but instead a coach in name. One example of a player in recent years, groomed for eventual official coaching duties using this practice was Avery Johnson. In the early days of professional American football, player-coaches were a necessity, as coaching from the sidelines at the time was not allowed under the rules of most leagues; the National Football League allowed sideline coaches in the late 1920s, they became the norm. During the 1920s, legendary player-coaches in the NFL include Curly Lambeau and George Halas who held similar roles for the Chicago Bears, a team for which he was part-owner and business manager. Jimmy Conzelman was player-coach for four teams during the 1920s. In the mid-1950s Tom Landry played defensive back while serving as defensive coordinator for the New York Giants. In the early 1970s, when Landry was coach of the Dallas Cowboys, he made running back Dan Reeves a player-coach.
More modern players have acted as player-coaches in an unofficial capacity, such as journeyman quarterback Steve DeBerg, who served as an unofficial mentor for younger, more skilled arms while serving as their backup. Player-coaches in cricket are unheard of, although professional coaches are a recent innovation and a similar role was filled by the team captain. Internationally, Shane Deitz was appointed non-playing coach of Vanuatu in 2014 and, after meeting the necessary residency qualifications, made his international playing debut in 2018, at the age of 42. Former Australian international Ryan Campbell was appointed as a non-playing batting coach of Hong Kong in 2013, after meeting the residency qualifications made his playing debut for Hong Kong in 2016, at the age of 44. In association football, this situation arises when a manager leaves a team and the chairman has to make a quick decision to appoint someone new as a caretaker manager; the chairman will either ask a coach to take temporary charge or turn to one of the club's most senior players.
If this particular player gains good results for the team during his time in charge, he may be appointed full-time manager, which leaves him a player–manager. However, there are instances when a free agent is appointed by a new team as a manager and offers his playing abilities. Successful football player–managers include Kenny Dalglish, Graeme Souness, Glenn Hoddle, Bryan Robson, Peter Reid, Ruud Gullit and Gianluca Vialli. Dalglish won the double of the league title and FA Cup in his first season as player-manager, went on to win two more league titles and an FA Cup before giving up playing five years after becoming manager, while Souness won three Scottish league titles and several cup competitions when he was player-manager of Rangers, he succeeded Dalglish as Liverpool manager just before Rangers won another Scottish league title, but at the age of 38 he did not register himself as a player for Liverpool. In 1997, Ruud Gullit won the FA Cup with Chelsea in his first season as player-manager making history by being the first foreign and non-white manager to win a major trophy in English football.
He was sacked nine months and Chelsea appointed another player-manager in his place. Within weeks of taking over, Vialli guided Chelsea to victory in the League Cup, two months after that, they won the European Cup Winners' Cup. A number of bigger clubs have appointed player-managers on a temporary basis but not given them permanent contracts. Notable cases include Ossie Ardiles in 1987 and Dave Watson a decade although Ardiles returned to Tottenham as manager in 1993 after managing three other clubs. During the first decade of the 21st century, the concept fell into total disuse and was only practiced by smaller clubs. In March 2013, a BBC Sport article suggested
1960 NBA draft
The 1960 NBA draft was the 14th annual draft of the National Basketball Association. The draft was held on April 1960, before the 1960 -- 61 season. In this draft, eight NBA teams took turns selecting amateur U. S. college basketball players. A player who had finished his four-year college eligibility was eligible for selection. If a player left college early, he would not be eligible for selection until his college class graduated. In each round, the teams select in reverse order of their win–loss record in the previous season. Before the draft, a team could forfeit its first-round draft pick and select any player from within a 50-mile radius of its home arena as their territorial pick; the Minneapolis Lakers participated in the draft, but relocated to Los Angeles and became the Los Angeles Lakers prior to the start of the season. The draft consisted of 21 rounds comprising 100 players selected. Oscar Robertson from the University of Cincinnati was selected before the draft as Cincinnati Royals' territorial pick.
However, he was recognized as the first pick in the first round of the draft as the Cincinnati Royals held the first overall draft pick. He went on to win the Rookie of the Year Award in his first season. Jerry West from West Virginia University was selected second by the Minneapolis Lakers. Three players from this draft, West and 6th pick Lenny Wilkens, have been inducted to the Basketball Hall of Fame, they were named in the 50 Greatest Players in NBA History list announced at the league's 50th anniversary in 1996. Robertson's achievements include an NBA championship with the Milwaukee Bucks in 1971, Most Valuable Player Award in 1964, 11 All-NBA Team selections and 12 All-Star Game selections. West played 14 seasons with the Lakers, winning the NBA championship in 1972, he was selected to 12 consecutive All-NBA Teams and 14 consecutive All-Star Games. He coached the Lakers for three seasons. Wilkens' achievements include 9 All-Star Game selections. After his playing career, he became a successful head coach.
He won the NBA championship in 1979 with the Seattle SuperSonics and the Coach of the Year Award in 1994. He held the record for most games with 2,487 games coached, he was inducted to the Basketball Hall of Fame as a coach in 1998. He became the third man to be inducted as a player and as a coach, after John Wooden and Bill Sharman. Two players from this draft, 3rd pick Darrall Imhoff and 5th pick Lee Shaffer, have been selected to an All-Star Game. Tom Sanders, the 8th pick, won 8 NBA championships with the Boston Celtics in the 1960s, he briefly coached the Celtics in 1978. Al Attles, the 39th pick had a coaching career, he coached the San Francisco/Golden State Warriors for 14 seasons, winning the NBA championship in 1975. The following list includes other draft picks. A 1 2 On January 24, 1960, the New York Knicks acquired Dick Garmaker and a second-round pick from the Los Angeles Lakers in exchange for Ray Felix and a fourth-round pick; the Knicks used the pick to draft Dave Budd. The Lakers used the pick to draft Ben Warley.
General Specific NBA.com NBA.com: NBA Draft History
Power forward (basketball)
The power forward known as the four, is one of the five positions in a regulation basketball game. It has been referred to as the "post" position. Power forwards play a role similar to that of center, they play offensively with their backs towards the basket and position themselves defensively under the basket in a zone defense or against the opposing power forward in man-to-man defense. The power forward position entails a variety of responsibilities, one of, rebounding. Many power forwards are noted for their mid-range jump-shot, several players have become accurate from 12 to 18 feet. Earlier, these skills were more exhibited in the European style of play; some power forwards, known as stretch fours, have since extended their shooting range to three-point field goals. In the NBA, power forwards range from 6' 8" to 7' 0" while in the WNBA, power forwards are between 6' 1" and 6' 4". Despite the averages, a variety of players fit "tweener" roles which finds them in the small forward or center position depending on matchups and coaching decisions.
Some power forwards play the center position and have the skills, but lack the height, associated with that position
New York University
New York University is a private research university founded in New York City but now with campuses and locations throughout the world. Founded in 1831, NYU's historical campus is in New York City; as a global university, students can graduate from its degree-granting campuses in NYU Abu Dhabi and NYU Shanghai, as well as study at its 12 academic centers in Accra, Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Sydney, Tel Aviv, Washington, D. C. For the class that matriculated in the fall of 2019, NYU received nearly 85,000 applications for its undergraduate programs. In 2018, NYU was ranked amongst the top 40 universities worldwide by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, Times Higher Education World University Rankings, U. S. News & World Report. Alumni include heads of state, eminent scientists and entrepreneurs, media figures, founders and CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, astronauts; as of March 2019, 37 Nobel Laureates, 8 Turing Award winners, 5 Fields Medalists, over 30 Academy Award winners, over 30 Pulitzer Prize winners, hundreds of members of the National Academies of Sciences and United States Congress have been affiliated as faculty or alumni.
Globally, NYU is ranked 7th by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings for producing alumni who are millionaires, 4th by Wealth-X for producing ultra high net-worth and billionaire alumni. Albert Gallatin, Secretary of Treasury under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, declared his intention to establish "in this immense and fast-growing city... a system of rational and practical education fitting and graciously opened to all". A three-day-long "literary and scientific convention" held in City Hall in 1830 and attended by over 100 delegates debated the terms of a plan for a new university; these New Yorkers believed the city needed a university designed for young men who would be admitted based upon merit rather than birthright or social class. On April 18, 1831, an institution was established, with the support of a group of prominent New York City residents from the city's merchants and traders. Albert Gallatin was elected as the institution's first president. On April 21, 1831, the new institution received its charter and was incorporated as the University of the City of New York by the New York State Legislature.
The university has been popularly known as New York University since its inception and was renamed New York University in 1896. In 1832, NYU held its first classes in rented rooms of four-story Clinton Hall, situated near City Hall. In 1835, the School of Law, NYU's first professional school, was established. Although the impetus to found a new school was a reaction by evangelical Presbyterians to what they perceived as the Episcopalianism of Columbia College, NYU was created non-denominational, unlike many American colleges at the time. American Chemical Society was founded in 1876 at NYU, it became one of the nation's largest universities, with an enrollment of 9,300 in 1917. NYU had its Washington Square campus since its founding; the university purchased a campus at University Heights in the Bronx because of overcrowding on the old campus. NYU had a desire to follow New York City's development further uptown. NYU's move to the Bronx occurred in 1894, spearheaded by the efforts of Chancellor Henry Mitchell MacCracken.
The University Heights campus was far more spacious. As a result, most of the university's operations along with the undergraduate College of Arts and Science and School of Engineering were housed there. NYU's administrative operations were moved to the new campus, but the graduate schools of the university remained at Washington Square. In 1914, Washington Square College was founded as the downtown undergraduate college of NYU. In 1935, NYU opened the "Nassau College-Hofstra Memorial of New York University at Hempstead, Long Island"; this extension would become a independent Hofstra University. In 1950, NYU was elected to the Association of American Universities, a nonprofit organization of leading public and private research universities. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, financial crisis gripped the New York City government and the troubles spread to the city's institutions, including NYU. Feeling the pressures of imminent bankruptcy, NYU President James McNaughton Hester negotiated the sale of the University Heights campus to the City University of New York, which occurred in 1973.
In 1973, the New York University School of Engineering and Science merged into Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, which merged back into NYU in 2014 forming the present Tandon School of Engineering. After the sale of the Bronx campus, University College merged with Washington Square College. In the 1980s, under the leadership of President John Brademas, NYU launched a billion-dollar campaign, spent entirely on updating facilities; the campaign was set to complete in 15 years, but ended up being completed in 10. In 1991, L. Jay Oliva was inaugurated the 14th president of the university. Following his inauguration, he moved to form the League of World Universities, an international organization consisting of rectors and presidents from urban universities across six continents; the league and its 47 representatives gather every two years to discuss global issues in education. In 2003 President John Sexton launched a $2.5 billion campaign for funds to be spent on faculty and financial aid resources.
Under Sextons leadership, NYU began its radical transformation into a global university. In 2009, the university responded to a series of New York Times interviews that showed a pattern of labor abuses in its fledgling Abu Dhabi location, creating a statement of
Field goal (basketball)
In basketball, a field goal is a basket scored on any shot or tap other than a free throw, worth two or three points depending on the distance of the attempt from the basket. Uncommonly, a field goal can be worth other values such as one point in FIBA 3x3 basketball competitions or four points in the BIG3 basketball league. "Field goal" is the official terminology used by the National Basketball Association in their rule book, in their box scores and statistics, in referees' rulings. The same term is the official wording used by the National Collegiate Athletic Association and high school basketball. Kareem Abdul-Jabbar holds the NBA record for field goals made in a career with 15,837. Wilt Chamberlain, one of the most prolific scorers of all time, holds the top four spots for most field goals made in a season and has the two top field goal percentages for a season. One of the greatest field-goal shooters of all time is Michael Jordan, who led the NBA in field goals made ten times. Shaquille O'Neal has the record for most seasons with the best field goal percentage, Artis Gilmore has the record for highest career field goal percentage.
Steve Nash was one of the greatest all-around shooters in the history of the NBA, holding the record for 50–40–90 seasons, a mark of all-around shooting for two-point field goals, three-point field goals, free throws. Nash recorded four of the eleven 50–40–90 seasons in NBA history. One type of field goal is called a slam dunk; this occurs when a player jumps near the basket with possession of the ball, throwing the ball down through the basket while airborne. The word "slam" is derived onomatopoeically from the sound of the player's hands hitting, grabbing releasing the hoop. NBA records
John F. Collins
John Frederick Collins was the mayor of Boston, United States from 1960 to 1968. John Collins was born in Boston on July 20, 1919 to an Irish-Catholic family, his father, Frederick "Skeets" Collins, worked as a mechanic for the Boston Elevated Railway. Collins graduated from Roxbury Memorial High School, a public school in Boston, in 1941 he graduated from Suffolk University Law School, he served a tour in the Army Counterintelligence Corps during World War II, rising in rank from private to captain. In 1946, Collins married Mary Patricia Cunniff, a legal secretary, who Collins had met through his work as an attorney, she would campaign for Collins when he was incapacitated by polio. The couple had four children. In 1947, Collins was elected to the Massachusetts House of Representatives, representing Jamaica Plain, and, in 1950, to the Massachusetts State Senate. Collins spent two terms as senator and ran unsuccessfully for state attorney general in 1954, losing to George Fingold. While campaigning for a seat on the City Council in 1955, Collins and his children contracted polio.
Collins' children recovered and he continued with his campaign despite warnings from his doctors. As a result of the disease, Collins was forced to use a wheelchair or crutches for the rest of his life, he was elected to the Council and the following year was appointed Register of Probate for Suffolk County. In 1959, he ran against John E. Powers for Mayor of Boston. Collins was viewed as the underdog in the race. Collins ran on the slogan "stop power politics", was seen as independent of any political machine. Collins' victory in the 1959 mayoral election was considered the biggest upset in city politics in decades. Boston University political scientist Murray Levin wrote a book on the race, titled The Alienated Voter: Politics in Boston, which attributed Collins' victory to the voters' cynicism and resentment of the city's political elite. Collins inherited a city in fiscal distress. Property taxes in Boston were twice as high as in New York or Chicago as the city's tax base was declining. Collins established a close relationship with a group of local business leaders known as the Vault, cut taxes in five of his eight years in office and imposed budget cuts on city government.
Collins' administration focused on downtown redevelopment: Collins brought the urban planner Edward J. Logue to Boston to lead the Boston Redevelopment Authority and Collins' administration supervised the construction of the Prudential Center complex and of Government Center. Collins won re-election in 1963 defeating City Councilor Gabriel Piemonte. However, Collins' budget priorities led to a decrease in city services in residential neighborhoods outside of downtown; as a result, Collins became unpopular among city residents. In 1966 Collins lost in the primary to Massachusetts Governor Endicott Peabody. Collins lost 21 out of Boston's 22 wards. Weakened politically, Collins declined to seek reelection in 1967. After leaving office in 1968, Collins held visiting and consulting professorships at MIT for 13 years. In the early 1970s, Collins drifted away from the Democratic Party, he chaired the group Massachusetts Democrats and Independents for Nixon and, in 1972, attacked Democrats for "their crazy policies of social engineering and abortion."
Collins was considered for the position of Secretary of Commerce in the Nixon administration. Collins died of pneumonia in Boston, on November 23, 1995, he was buried at St. Joseph's Cemetery in West Roxbury, five days following a funeral Mass at Boston's Holy Cross Cathedral celebrated by Cardinal Bernard Law. Timeline of Boston, 1960s Obituary John F. Collins at Find a Grave http://www.ewtn.com/library/ISSUES/ENDIRISH. TXT https://web.archive.org/web/20070808222457/http://www.irishheritagetrail.com/jfcollins.htm NY Times Obituary http://www.thecrimson.com/printerfriendly.aspx?ref=492233 http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,811423,00.html?iid=chix-del Boston Public Library. Collins, John F. Collection
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws; the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play is mandated. Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots -- a dunk, it is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling.
The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, one-on-one. Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and viewed sports; the National Basketball Association is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League; the FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world.
Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like FIBA AmeriCup. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day, he sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored.
Basketball was played with a soccer ball. These round balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in; these laces could dribbling to be unpredictable. A lace-free ball construction method was invented, this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith; the first balls made for basketball were brown, it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball, now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double dribble by 1898; the peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were replaced by metal hoops with backboards.
A further change was soon made, so the ball passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got; the baskets were nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original