A satellite constellation is a group of artificial satellites working together as a system. Unlike a single satellite, a constellation can provide permanent global or near-global coverage, such that at any time everywhere on Earth at least one satellite is visible. Satellites are placed in sets of complementary orbital planes and connect to globally distributed ground stations, they may use inter-satellite communication. Satellite constellations should not be confused with satellite clusters, which are groups of satellites moving close together in identical orbits, satellite programs, which are generations of satellites launched in succession, satellite fleets, which are groups of satellites from the same manufacturer or operator that function independently from each other. Low Earth orbiting satellites are deployed in satellite constellations, because the coverage area provided by a single LEO satellite only covers a small area that moves as the satellite travels at the high angular velocity needed to maintain its orbit.
Many LEO satellites are needed to maintain continuous coverage over an area. This contrasts with geostationary satellites, where a single satellite, moving at the same angular velocity as the rotation of the Earth's surface, provides permanent coverage over a large area. Examples of satellite constellations include the Global Positioning System, Galileo and GLONASS constellations for navigation and geodesy, the Iridium and Globalstar satellite telephony services, the Disaster Monitoring Constellation and RapidEye for remote sensing, the Orbcomm messaging service, Russian elliptic orbit Molniya and Tundra constellations, the large-scale Teledesic and Celestri broadband constellation proposals of the 1990s, more recent systems such as O3b or the OneWeb proposal. For applications which benefit from low-latency communications, LEO satellite constellations provide an advantage over a geostationary satellite, where minimum theoretical latency from ground to satellite is about 125 milliseconds, compared to 1–4 milliseconds for a LEO satellite.
A LEO satellite constellation can provide more system capacity by frequency reuse across its coverage, with spot beam frequency use being analogous to the minimum number of satellites needed to provide a service, their orbits—is a field in itself. There are a large number of constellations. Constellations are designed so that the satellites have similar orbits and inclination so that any perturbations affect each satellite in the same way. In this way, the geometry can be preserved without excessive station-keeping thereby reducing the fuel usage and hence increasing the life of the satellites. Another consideration is that the phasing of each satellite in an orbital plane maintains sufficient separation to avoid collisions or interference at orbit plane intersections. Circular orbits are popular, because the satellite is at a constant altitude requiring a constant strength signal to communicate. A class of circular orbit geometries that has become popular is the Walker Delta Pattern constellation.
This has an associated notation to describe it, proposed by John Walker. His notation is: i: t/p/fwhere: i is the inclination; the change in true anomaly for equivalent satellites in neighbouring planes is equal to f*360/t. For example, the Galileo Navigation system is a Walker Delta 56°:24/3/1 constellation; this means there are 24 satellites in 3 planes inclined at 56 degrees, spanning the 360 degrees around the equator. The "1" defines the phasing between the planes, how they are spaced; the Walker Delta is known as the Ballard rosette, after A. H. Ballard's similar earlier work. Ballard's notation is. Another popular constellation type is the near-polar Walker Star, used by Iridium. Here, the satellites are in near-polar circular orbits across 180 degrees, travelling north on one side of the Earth, south on the other; the active satellites in the full Iridium constellation form a Walker Star of 86.4°:66/6/2, i.e. the phasing repeats every two planes. Walker uses similar notation for deltas, which can be confusing.
These sets of circular orbits at constant altitude are sometimes referred to as orbital shells. In 2015 Farooq Khan the President of Samsung Research America published a research paper providing details how a large satellite broadband constellation can be designed. Dish Network Sirius Satellite Radio XM Satellite Radio Othernet Molniya Eutelsat Intelsat Spire Iridium Hiber Global TDRSS A number of systems were proposed in the past but never realised: A number of next-generation telecommunications satellite constellations are in-development: Planet Labs Pléiades 1A and 1B RapidEye Disaster Monitoring Constellation A-train SPOT 6 and SPOT 7Spire Satellite internet constellation Satellite constellation simulation tools: AVM Dynamics Satellite Constellation Modeler SaVi Satellite Constellation Visualization Transfinite Visualyse ProfessionalMore information: Internetworking with satellite constellations - a PhD thesis Lloyd's satellite constellations - last updated 20 July 2011 Examination and analysis of polar low Earth orbit constellation-IEEE
2 is the second album by Australian folk-rock band Ned Collette + Wirewalker, released in 2012. The title is a reference to the album being the second released under that band name, but reflects the fact that the album is a collaboration between Collette and longtime collaborator Joe Talia, with regular Wirewalker member Ben Bourke taking time off to be with his young family in Melbourne. Parts of the album were recorded with the two artists working separately—Collette in Berlin and Talia in Melbourne—although Talia spent six weeks in Berlin in mid-2011 to expand the recordings before Collette returned to Melbourne for final mixing, it features guest vocals among others. The album features "For Roberto", an instrumental tribute to late Chilean writer Roberto Bolaño. All tracks by Ned Collette, music by Ned Collette & Wirewalker "Il Futuro Fantastico" – 5:39 "Stampy" – 4:16 "The Hedonist" – 4:16 "How to Change a City" – 5:55 "The Decision" – 4:54 "Long You Lie" – 5:00 "Happy Heart" – 1:47 "For Roberto" – 3:24 "What Lights Have You Seen?"
– 4:13 Ned Collette – voice, bass, drums, drum machine Joe Talia – drums, drum machine, revox Byron Scullin – saxophone Gemma Ray – vocals Mirjam Smejkal – vocals Laura Jean – vocals Biddy Connor – vocals Sascha Gersak – vocals
Joseph William Namath, nicknamed "Broadway Joe", is an American former professional football player, a quarterback in the American Football League and National Football League during the 1960s and 1970s. He played college football for the Alabama Crimson Tide under coach Paul "Bear" Bryant from 1962 to 1964. Namath was an AFL icon and played for that league's New York Jets for most of his professional football career, he finished his career with the Los Angeles Rams. He was elected to the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1985, he retired including playoffs. His teams had an overall record of 68 wins, 71 losses, four ties, 64–64–4 in 132 starts, 4–7 in relief, he completed 1,886 passes for 27,663 yards, threw 173 touchdowns, had 220 interceptions, for a career passer rating of 65.5. He played for three division champions, earned one league championship, one Super Bowl victory. In 1999, he was ranked number 96 on The Sporting News' list of the 100 Greatest Football Players, the only player on the list to have spent a majority of his career with the Jets.
In his 1975 autobiography, Bryant called Namath the most natural athlete he had coached. Namath is known for boldly guaranteeing a Jets' victory over Don Shula's NFL Baltimore Colts in Super Bowl III making good on his prediction with a 16–7 upset. A celebrity, he was now established not only as a sports icon but a pop culture icon, he subsequently parlayed his notoriety into success with endorsement deals and as a nightclub owner, talk show host, pioneering advertising spokesman, motion picture, television actor, sports broadcaster. He remained a recognizable figure in the media and sports worlds half a century after his brashness cemented his identity in the public mind. In 2019, a survey conducted by the Associated Press of 60 football historians and media covering the NFL voted Namath the league's greatest character, beating out former Oakland Raiders owner Al Davis and fellow Hall of Fame quarterback Brett Favre. Namath was born and raised in Beaver Falls and grew up in its Lower End neighborhood.
He is the son of Rose and János "John" Andrew Namath, a steelworker. His parents were of Hungarian descent, his Hungarian-born grandfather, András "Andrew" Németh, known as "A. J." to his family and friends, came to Ellis Island on the steamer Pannonia in 1911, worked in the coal and steel industries of the greater Pittsburgh area. While growing up, Namath was close to both of his parents, who divorced. Following his parents' divorce, he lived with his mother, he was the youngest of four sons, with an older adopted sister. Namath excelled in all sports at Beaver Falls High School and was a standout quarterback in football, guard in basketball, outfielder in baseball. In an age when dunks were uncommon in high school basketball, Namath dunked in games. Coached by Larry Bruno at Beaver Falls, Namath's football team won the WPIAL Class AA championship with a 9–0 record in 1960. Coach Bruno presented Namath to the Pro Football Hall of Fame in Canton. Upon graduation from high school in 1961, he received offers from several Major League Baseball teams, including the Yankees, Reds and Phillies, but football prevailed.
Namath told interviewers that he wanted to sign with the Pirates and play baseball like his idol, Roberto Clemente, but elected to play football because his mother wanted him to get a college education. He enrolled at the University of Alabama, but left before graduating in order to pursue a career in professional football. However, a college degree was conferred on Namath at age 64, after he completed an external-program bachelor of arts degree in interdisciplinary studies at the University of Alabama in 2007. Namath had many offers from Division I college football programs, including Penn State, Ohio State and Notre Dame, but decided upon the University of Maryland after being recruited by Maryland assistant coach Roland Arrigoni, he was rejected by Maryland because his college-board scores were just below the school's requirements. After ample recruiting by Coach Paul'Bear' Bryant, Namath accepted a full scholarship to attend Alabama. Bryant stated his decision to recruit Namath was "the best coaching decision I made.”
Between 1962 and 1964, Namath quarterbacked the Alabama Crimson Tide program under Bryant and his offensive coordinator, Howard Schnellenberger. A year after being suspended for the final two games of the season, Namath led the Tide to a national championship in 1964. During his time at the University of Alabama, Namath led the team to a 29–4 record over three seasons. Bryant called Namath "the greatest athlete I coached"; when Namath was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1985, he teared up during his induction speech upon mentioning Bryant, who died from a heart attack in 1983. Namath's time at Alabama was a culture shock for him, as he had grown up in a neighborhood in Pennsylvania, predominantly black, he attended college at the height of the civil rights movement in the Southern United States. Namath clarified the story about being the only white player on his high school basketball team on The James Brown Show in 2018, where he was the guest, he stated that he was one of several white players on the team, though he was the only white starter.
Namath was eleventh in the balloting for th
In common usage, a scoop is any specialized spoon used to serve food. In the technical terms used by the food service industry and in the retail and wholesale food utensil industries, there is a clear distinction between three types of scoop: the disher, used to measure a portion e.g. cookie dough, to make melon balls, to serve ice cream. Dishers are hemispherical like an ice cream scoop, while measuring scoops are cylindrical, transfer scoops are shovel-shaped; some dishers have mechanical levers. Traditionally dishers are sized by the number of scoops per quart but may be sized by ounces, the diameter of the bowl, or the number of [[tab Some higher-end ice cream scoops have a thermally conductive liquid in the handle to help keep the ice cream from freezing to the scoop's metal. Transfer scoops are used to transfer bulk foods from large storage containers to smaller containers, do not have any measurement markings, as their purpose is to transfer, taking time to adjust the amount in a scoop would slow the transfer rate.
Edwin Maxwell was an Irish character actor on in Hollywood movies of the 1930s and 1940s cast as shady businessmen and shysters, though ones with a pompous or dignified bearing. Prior to that, he was an actor on the Broadway stage and a director of plays. Maxwell was a native of Dublin. In the late 1920s, Maxwell directed and acted in plays with the New York Theater Guild Repertory Company. From 1939 to 1942, Maxwell served as the dialogue director for the films of epic director Cecil B. DeMille. Maxwell appeared in four Academy Award-winning Best Pictures: All Quiet on the Western Front, Grand Hotel, The Great Ziegfeld and You Can't Take It with You. Edwin Maxwell on IMDb Edwin Maxwell at AllMovie Edwin Maxwell at the TCM Movie Database Edwin Maxwell at the Internet Broadway Database Edwin Maxwell at Find a Grave
The following lists events that happened during 1797 in Australia. Monarch - George III Governor of New South Wales – John Hunter Lieutenant-Governor of Norfolk Island – Philip Gidley King Inspector of Public Works – Richard Atkins 9 February – Sydney Cove wrecked, but some of the crew managed to travel to Sydney more than 600 km away, leading to the rescue of other members of the crew. 26 June – HMS Reliance arrives in Sydney from the Cape of Good Hope, carrying stores ordered by Governor Hunter and merino sheep imported by John Macarthur. 3 July – Following Aboriginal attacks on farms in the Hawkesbury region, Hunter dispatches a party of soldiers from the New South Wales Corps to protect settlers there. 1 August – Following advice from the master of the Sydney Cove who observed currents and tides while wrecked on Preservation Island, Governor Hunter writes to Joseph Banks that it seems certain that the yet-to-be-discovered Bass Strait exists. 19 September – John Shortland is the first European to enter the port of Newcastle.
On the 9th he discovered coal. 3 December – George Bass sets out from Sydney in a whaleboat with six oarsmen to explore south along the coast. He discovers the Kiama Blowhole and the Shoalhaven River, he visits Jervis Bay, named Twofold Bay on 19 December, Wilson's Promontory and Western Port, he returns to Sydney two months having increased the settlers' knowledge of the geography of Australia. 8 May – John Septimus Roe 19 June – Australian explorer Hamilton Hume born at Parramatta, New South Wales 20 July – Paweł Edmund Strzelecki Barker, Anthony. What Happened When. St Leonards: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 978-1-86373-986-3. National Library of Australia. "The World Upside Down: Australia 1788 – 1830". Archived from the original on 20 March 2007. Retrieved 9 February 2007