click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Satsuma Province

Satsuma Province was an old province of Japan, now the western half of Kagoshima Prefecture on the island of Kyūshū. Its abbreviation is Sasshū. Satsuma's provincial capital was Satsumasendai. During the Sengoku period, Satsuma was a fief of the Shimazu daimyō, who ruled much of southern Kyūshū from their castle at Kagoshima city, they were the initial patrons of Satsuma ware, widely exported to the West. In 1871, with the abolition of feudal domains and the establishment of prefectures after the Meiji Restoration, the provinces of Satsuma and Ōsumi were combined to establish Kagoshima Prefecture. Satsuma was one of the main provinces that rose in opposition to the Tokugawa shogunate in the mid 19th century; because of this, the oligarchy that came into power after the Meiji Restoration of 1868 had a strong representation from the Satsuma province, with leaders such as Ōkubo Toshimichi and Saigō Takamori taking up key government positions. Satsuma is well known for its production of sweet potatoes, known in Japan as 薩摩芋.

Satsuma mandarins do not originate from Satsuma but were imported into the West through this province in the Meiji era. Kagoshima Prefecture Ata District - merged into Hioki District on March 29, 1896 Ei District - merged into Ibusuki District on March 29, 1896 Hioki District - absorbed Ata District on March 29, 1896. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.

Toon Disney

Toon Disney was an international pay television channel, owned by the Disney Channels Worldwide, a subsidiary of Disney–ABC Television Group. A spin-off of the Disney Channel, the channel aired children's animated series and some live action programming, its format had similarities to those of Discovery Kids, Cartoon Network, Nicktoons. The channel's target audience was children ages 2–11, children ages 6-11 during its nighttime block called Jetix; the US version of Toon Disney shut down on February 13, 2009, after nearly 11 years, was succeeded by Disney XD, which has carried some programs seen on Toon Disney. The final channel bearing the Toon Disney moniker was in Italy, was discontinued in 2011. Toon Disney was launched at noon Eastern Time on April 18, 1998, in honor of Disney Channel's 15th anniversary by Disney/ABC Networks on digital tiers of DirecTV, Marcus Cable and EchoStar; the first show aired on the network was other Mickey Mouse shorts. At 7 PM that day, its nighttime block, "The Magical World of Toons", was launched.

In the next five months, Toon Disney furthered its programming to cable subscribers such as Americast. At its launch, the channel shared half of its assigned series with the Disney Channel; the channel had no advertising. On January 31, 1999, the first annual Pumbaa Bowl was broadcast. By September 2000, the channel was expected to reach 20 million subscribers, thus, would start showing advertising. Ad sales would be handled by Disney Kids Network. In the Fall of 2000, Disney launched its first overseas Toon Disney channel in the United Kingdom. In June 2001, Toon Disney US launched its "Most Animated Kid Search"; the Santa Claus Brothers had its world premiere on the channel in December. In September 2002, eight new shows joined the line-up as part of Toon Disney's fall schedule.. In commemoration of the network's fifth anniversary in April 2003, the channel held a "Toon Disney's Magical Adventure Sweepstakes" in which three winners along with 3 family members each won a trip to Disneyland Resort to see Disney's Aladdin: A Musical Spectacular.

On February 14, 2004, the Jetix programming block began on Toon Disney and ABC Family as a part of the Jetix programming alliance of ABC Networks Group, Fox Kids Europe and Fox Kids Latin America. The block consisted of the entire acquired Fox Kids/Saban Entertainment action library as the result of a bulk buy-out by The Walt Disney Company in summer 2001, as well as some original programming; some shows, like The Legend of Tarzan, aired under both the Toon Jetix monikers. The UK channel switched over to Disney Cinemagic in March 2006. In 2004, 4 new markets added a Toon Disney channel with three in Europe with Germany adding a time shift channel. In December, Walt Disney Television International India launched a Toon Disney channel with three language audio tracks at the same time as it debuted along with Disney Channel on Star TV. In 2005, a Toon Disney channel was launched for the Nordic countries, as well as another one for Japan. A Hindi-language audio track was introduced on Toon Disney in India on September 1, 2005.

The Toon Disney/Big Movie Show premiere of The Polar Express on December 22, 2006 was the channel's highest prime time rating with 1.35 million viewers. On January 27, 2007, Toon Disney launched its weekend afternoon programming block called "The Great Toon Weekend."In February 2009, Toon Disney US switched over to the Disney XD format and name. Some shows that were on Toon Disney US began airing on Disney XD US. Except for Toon Disney Arab, Toon Disney and Jetix were succeeded by September 2009 with Disney XD or the Disney Channel; the Big Movie Show is an afternoon block of movies started in November 2004. Jetix was a block using programming from the Saban/Marvel library held by ABC Family Worldwide and additional original programming launched on February 14, 2004 with the block having 12 hours of weekly prime time programming to start. By the time of Toon Disney's dissolution in February 2009, Jetix had taken up more than half of the network's programming schedule, airing for 12 hours on weekdays and 19 hours on weekends.

The Magical World of Toons was Toon Disney's prime time block upon the launch of the channel. During the week and series showcasing Disney characters such as Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck, Timon & Pumbaa, Aladdin and Pepper Ann; the block's weekend consisted of animated features of those created for the home video market, like The Return of Jafar and The Brave Little Toaster Goes to Mars, as well as some theatrical releases including A Goofy Movie, Alice in Wonderland and The Brave Little Toaster. Princess Power Hour was a block featuring Disney Princesses Jasmine and Ariel in showcasing episodes of Aladdin and The Little Mermaid. Chillin' With The Villains ran on Sundays with a mini-marathon featuring a villain; the Great Toon Weekend was its weekend afternoon programming block for Saturday and Sunday starting at noon of seven hours of programming a day beginning on January 27, 2007. The Great Toon Weekend started off with a two-hour movie under the banner of "Big Movie Show" followed by five hours of back-to-back episodes of the following shows: Aladdin, Timon & Pumbaa, Buzz Lightyear of Star Command, The Emperor's New School and Lilo & Stitch.

Hangin' with the Heroes began in January 2002 was a weekend block consisting of two hours of Aladdin and Gargoyles. List of programs broadcast by Jerry. "The Launch of Toon Disney". CartoonResearch.com. - includes the Launch program for Toon Disney which has the first week's programming guide

Preston Knowles

Preston Demond Knowles is an American professional basketball player for Aurora Jesi of the Italian Serie A2 Basket. He played college basketball for the Louisville Cardinals. Knowles attended George Rogers Clark High School in Kentucky, he stayed in the state for college, signing with Louisville, playing in the Big East Conference of the NCAA Division I, in 2007. Playing for the Cardinals, he was noted for his work ethic and three-point shooting amongst the best in the Conference in shooting percentage from three. Knowles signed a contract with Ukrainian Basketball SuperLeague side Dnipro-Azot in December 2012, he ended up playing in 3 games in the league before leaving the side that same month; the American returned home, signing with the Springfield Armor of the NBA Development League in January 2012. He finished the 2011–12 season with the Armor, averaging 7.3 points, 1.1 assists and 1.1 steals in nearly 17 minutes per game after playing 31 games. After another stint with Dnipro-Azot in which he didn't play a competitive game, Knowles moved to Greek Basket League K.

A. O. D. American Genetics in October 2012, he finished the 2012–13 with 12.5 points, 4.2 rebounds and 2.4 assists in more than 27 minutes per game after playing in 23 games. In the 2013 summer off-season, Knowles signed a contract to play for Ironi Nes Ziona in the Israeli Basketball Super League. In August 2014, his deal was extended for another season. In July 2015, Knowles moved to Italian Lega Basket Serie A outfit Giorgio Tesi Group Pistoia, signing for the 2015–16 season; the 2016–17 season, Knowles started with AEK Larnaca but left the club after appearing in two games. On December 18, 2016, he signed with Israeli club Maccabi Ashdod. On August 25, 2017, Knowles signed with the Croatian team Zadar for the 2017–18 season, he averaged 4.2 rebounds per game. On July 17, 2018, Knowles signed with the Italian second division squad Derthona Basket. In January 2019, Knowles moved to Aurora Jesi. FIBA game center profile Retrieved 31 July 2015 Israeli Super League profile Retrieved 31 July 2015 RealGM profile Retrieved 31 July 2015

Baring (1809 ship)

Baring was launched at Calcutta in 1805 as Alexander Brodie. Her owners sold her to Portuguese interests, they in turn sold her to British owners in 1809. The British owners renamed her Baring, she made one voyage for the British East India Company between 1811 and 1812. EIC voyage Captain Henry Templer sailed from Portsmouth on 27 July 1811. Baring reached Madeira on 14 August, the Cape of Good Hope on 23 October, before arriving at Diamond Harbour on 13 January 1812. Homeward-bound, she was at Saugor on 23 April, reached Madras on 8 July and St Helena 11 September, arrived at Gravesend on 11 November, she returned to private trade in India, but was admitted to the Registry of Great Britain on 24 February 1813. She entered the Registry of Shipping in 1813 with Carter, Murray and trade London transport, she was according to one source, "Employed in the transport service and sold to the Government". On 31 May 1814 she arrived at Deal with several other Indiamen, two whalers, all under escort by HMS Cornwallis.

Loss: On 18 October 1814, Lloyd's List reported that "The Baring Transport, Master" had been lost at Beerhaven on 10 October. She had left Cork the day before with an expedition; the crew, all the troops, save five men, were saved. The troops consisted of 200 men from the 40th Regiment of Foot. Boats from the escorting vessels, HMS Sultan and HMS Shamrock, effected the rescue; the Register of Shipping for 1815 carried the annotation "Lost" by her name. Recovery: Lloyd's List reported on 5 December 1815 that "The Baring Transport", which had sunk in October 1814, had been raised, with little damage. Lloyd's Register for 1816 carried Baring with Carter, Murray and trade London transport, she was no longer listed in 1818. Citations References Grocott, Terence Shipwrecks of the revolutionary & Napoleonic eras. ISBN 1-86176-030-2 Hackman, Rowan. Ships of the East India Company. Gravesend, Kent: World Ship Society. ISBN 0-905617-96-7. House of Commons, Great Britain, Minutes of the Evidence Taken Before the Select Committee on Petitions Relating to East-India-Built Shipping.

Phipps, John, A Collection of Papers Relative to Ship Building in India...: Also a Register Comprehending All the Ships... Built in India to the Present Time

Rua Augusta Arch

The Rua Augusta Arch is a stone, triumphal arch-like, historical building and visitor attraction in Lisbon, Portugal, on the Praça do Comércio. It was built to commemorate the city's reconstruction after the 1755 earthquake, it is adorned with statues of various historical figures. Significant height from the arch crown to the cornice imparts an appearance of heaviness to the structure; the associated space is filled with the coat of arms of Portugal. The allegorical group at the top, made by French sculptor Célestin Anatole Calmels, represents Glory rewarding Valor and Genius. Designed as a bell tower, the building was transformed into an elaborate arch after more than a century; because of the top cornice's great height, the figures above it had to be made colossal. The female allegory of Glory, dressed in peplos and measures 23 feet, stands on a three-step throne and holds two crowns. Valor is personified by an amazon covered with chlamys and wearing a high-crested helmet with dragon patterns, which were the symbols of the House of Braganza.

Her left hand holds the parazonium, with a trophy of flags behind. The Genius encompasses a statue of Jupiter behind his left arm. At his left side are the attributes of writing and arts; the four statues over the columns, made by Victor Bastos, represent Nuno Alvares Pereira and Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, Marquis of Pombal on the right, Vasco da Gama and Viriatus on the left. The two recumbent figures represent the rivers Douro, it appeared as the arch through which the Lilliputians wheeled Lemuel Gulliver in the 1996 miniseries Gulliver's Travels

Sinitic languages

The Sinitic languages synonymous with the Chinese languages, constitute the major branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. It is proposed that there is a primary split between the Sinitic languages and the rest of the family, but this view is rejected by an increasing number of researchers; the Bai languages, whose classification is difficult, may be an offshoot of Old Chinese and thus be Sinitic. The number of speakers derived from statistics or estimates and were rounded: Dialectologist Jerry Norman estimated that there are hundreds of mutually unintelligible Sinitic languages, they form a dialect continuum in which differences become more pronounced as distances increase, though there are some sharp boundaries.? Macro-Bai Bai languages Caijia Longjia Luren Chinese Ba-Shu † Min Inland Min Northern Min Shaojiang Central Min Coastal Min Eastern Min Puxian Min Southern Min Hokkien Chaoshan Longyan Zhenan Datian Zhongshan Leizhou Hainanese Guan Jin Central Mandarin Chinese Lower Yangtze Mandarin Southwestern Mandarin Changyi Xiang Hengzhou Xiang Xiang/Hunanese Loushao Xiang Jixu Xiang Yongquan Xiang Huizhou Yanzhou Hui Jingzhan Hui Xiuyi Hui Jishe Hui Qide Hui Wu Oujiang Wu mainstream Wu Central Wu Taihu Wu Taizhou Wu Chuqu Wu Wuzhou Wu Xuanzhou Wu Gan–Hakka Hakka Gan Changdu Yiliu Jicha Fuguang Yingyi Datong Leizi Dongsui Huaiyue Yue Yuehai Siyi Yue Yong-Xun Yue Goulou Yue Luo-Guang Yue Gao-Yang Yue Qin-Lian Yue Wu-Hua Yue Pinghua Northern Ping Southern Pingunclassified varieties, including: Shaozhou Tuhua Badong Yao Danzhou Junjia Lingling Mai She Waxiang Yeheni The traditional, dialectological classification of Chinese languages is based on the evolution of the sound categories of Middle Chinese.

Little comparative work has been done, little is known about mutual intelligibility. Within the dialectological classification, details are disputed, such as the establishment in the 1980s of three new top-level groups: Huizhou and Pinghua, despite the fact that Pinghua is itself a pair of languages and Huizhou may be half a dozen. Like Bai, the Min languages are thought to have split off directly from Old Chinese; the evidence for this split is that all Sinitic languages apart from the Min group can be fit into the structure of the Qieyun, a 7th-century rime dictionary. However, this view is not universally accepted. Jerry Norman classified the traditional seven dialect groups into three larger groups: Northern and Southern, he argued that the Southern Group is derived from a standard used in the Yangtze valley during the Han dynasty, which he called Old Southern Chinese, while the Central group was transitional between the Northern and Southern groups. Some dialect boundaries, such as between Wu and Min, are abrupt, while others, such as between Mandarin and Xiang or between Min and Hakka, are much less defined.

Scholars account for the transitional nature of the central varieties in terms of wave models. Iwata argues that innovations have been transmitted from the north across the Huai River to the Lower Yangtze Mandarin area and from there southeast to the Wu area and westwards along the Yangtze River valley and thence to southwestern areas, leaving the hills of the southeast untouched. A 2007 study compared fifteen major urban dialects on the objective criteria of lexical similarity and regularity of sound correspondences, subjective criteria of intelligibility and similarity. Most of these criteria show a top-level split with Northern, New Xiang, Gan in one group and Min and Yue in the other group; the exception was phonological regularity, where the one Gan dialect was in the Southern group and close to Meixian Hakka, the deepest phonological difference was between Wenzhounese and all other dialects. The study did not find clear splits within the Northern and Central areas: Changsha was always within the Mandarin group.

No Old Xiang dialect was in the sample. Taiyuan and Hankou were subjectively perceived as different from other Northern dialects but were close in mutual intelligibility. Objectively, Taiyuan had substantial phonological divergence but little lexical divergence. Chengdu was somewhat divergent lexically but little on the other measures; the two Wu dialects occupied an intermediate position, closer to the Northern/New Xiang/Gan group in lexical similarity and closer in subjective intelligibility but closer to Min/Hakka/Yue in phonological regularity and subjective similarity, except that Wenzhou was farthest from all other dialects in phonological regularity. The two Wu dialects were close to each other in lexical similarity and subjective similarity but not in mutual intelligibility, where Suzhou was closer to No