Satyajit Ray was an Indian filmmaker, music composer, graphic artist and author regarded as one of the greatest filmmakers of all time. Ray was born in Calcutta into a Bengali family, prominent in the field of arts and literature. Starting his career as a commercial artist, Ray was drawn into independent filmmaking after meeting French filmmaker Jean Renoir and viewing Vittorio De Sica's Italian neorealist film Bicycle Thieves during a visit to London. Ray directed 36 films, including feature films and shorts, he was a fiction writer, illustrator, music composer, graphic designer and film critic. He authored several short stories and novels, meant for young children and teenagers. Feluda, the sleuth, Professor Shonku, the scientist in his science fiction stories, are popular fictional characters created by him, he was awarded an honorary degree by Oxford University. Ray's first film, Pather Panchali, won eleven international prizes, including the inaugural Best Human Document award at the 1956 Cannes Film Festival.
This film, along with Apur Sansar, form The Apu Trilogy. Ray did the scripting, casting and editing, designed his own credit titles and publicity material. Ray received many major awards in his career, including 32 Indian National Film Awards, a Golden Lion, a Golden Bear, 2 Silver Bears, a number of additional awards at international film festivals and award ceremonies, an Academy Honorary Award in 1992; the Government of India honored him with the Bharat Ratna, its highest civilian award, in 1992. Ray gained a prestigious position over his life time. From the history of the Ray family, it is known that one of their earlier ancestors Shri Ramsunder Deo was a native of Chakdah, Nadia District, Bengal. From there he migrated to Sherpur in East Bengal in search of fate; the Zamindar of Jashodal, Raja Gunichandra met him in the Zamindar House of Sherpur and was impressed by him. He took Ramsunder with him to his estate in Jashodal, gave him a part of his Zamindari and made him his son-in-law. Satyajit Ray's ancestry can be traced back for at least ten generations.
Ray's grandfather, Upendrakishore Ray was a writer, philosopher, amateur astronomer and a leader of the Brahmo Samaj, a religious and social movement in nineteenth century Bengal. He set up a printing press by the name of U. Ray and Sons, which formed a crucial backdrop to Satyajit's life. Sukumar Ray, Upendrakishore's son and father of Satyajit, was a pioneering Bengali writer of nonsense rhyme and children's literature, an illustrator and a critic. Ray was born to Suprabha Ray in Calcutta. Satyajit Ray's family had acquired the name'Ray' from the Mughals. Although they were Bengali Kayasthas, the Rays were'Vaishnavas' as against majority Bengali Kayasthas who were'Shaktos'. Sukumar Ray died when Satyajit was three, the family survived on Suprabha Ray's meager income. Ray studied at Ballygunge Government High School and completed his BA in economics at Presidency College, Calcutta affiliated with the University of Calcutta, though his interest was always in the fine arts. In 1940, his mother insisted that he study at Visva-Bharati University in Santiniketan, founded by Rabindranath Tagore.
Ray was reluctant to go, due to his fondness for Calcutta and the low regard for the intellectual life at Santiniketan. His mother's persuasiveness and his respect for Tagore convinced him to try. In Santiniketan, Ray came to appreciate Oriental art, he admitted that he learned much from the famous painters Nandalal Bose and Benode Behari Mukherjee. He produced a documentary film, The Inner Eye, about Mukherjee, his visits to Ajanta and Elephanta stimulated his admiration for Indian art. In 1943, Ray started work at D. J. Keymer, a British-run advertising agency, as a "junior visualiser," earning eighty rupees a month. Although he liked visual design and he was treated well, there was tension between the British and Indian employees of the firm; the British were better paid, Ray felt that "the clients were stupid." Ray worked for Signet Press, a new publishing house started by D. K. Gupta. Gupta asked Ray to create cover designs for books to be published by Signet Press and gave him complete artistic freedom.
Ray designed covers for many books, including Jibanananda Das's Banalata Sen, Rupasi Bangla, Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay's Chander Pahar, Jim Corbett's Maneaters of Kumaon, Jawaharlal Nehru's Discovery of India. He worked on a children's version of Pather Panchali, a classic Bengali novel by Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay, renamed as Aam Antir Bhepu. Designing the cover and illustrating the book, Ray was influenced by the work, he used it as the subject of his first film, featured his illustrations as shots in his ground-breaking film. Along with Chidananda Dasgupta and others, Ray founded the Calcutta Film Society in 1947, they screened many foreign films, many of which Ray watched and studied. He befriended the American GIs stationed in Calcutta during World War II, who kept him informed about the latest American films showing in the city, he came to know a RAF employee, Norman Clare, who shared Ray's passion for films and western classical music. In 1949, Ray married his first cousin and long-time sweetheart.
The couple had a son, Sandip Ray, now a film director. In the same
Goris State University is a university in Goris, Syunik Province, Armenia. With 4 faculties, it is the largest university in Syunik Province, it provides degrees in Philology and Geography, Pedagogy and Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics. More than 2,000 students are attending the university; the origins of the Goris State University trace back to the establishment of the Faculty of Pedagogy in Goris in 1967 as part of the Armenian State Pedagogical University based in Yerevan. After 4 decades, upon the decision of the government of Armenia, Goris State University was formed in 2006 on the basis of the faculties of the National Polytechnic University of Armenia and the Armenian State Pedagogical University; the current rector of the university is Dr. Yuri Safaryan As of 2017, the university is home to 4 faculties: Faculty of Humanities Section of Armenian Language and Literature Section of Pedagogy Section of History Section of Law Faculty of Natural Sciences Section of Mathematics Section of Chemistry Section of Biology Faculty of Engineering Section of Industrial Electronics and Energy Section of Physics and Engineering Faculty of Economics Section of Economics and Public Sciences Section of Foreign Languages
Python is a double-loop corkscrew roller coaster in the Efteling amusement park in the Netherlands. It opened as the largest steel roller coaster on the European mainland. With Python, Efteling started the implementation of a new strategy: development from a fairy-tale forest into an all-round amusement park; this change led to many problems with the local community. Environmentalists tried to get the building permit withdrawn, the park's neighbors feared problems arising from growing visitor numbers; because of the noise pollution, the highest court of public justice ordered the construction to be stopped. After some time, construction recommenced. In 1995, when operating hours were extended until 10 pm, the coaster's 45-decibel noise level became a problem once more. Plans were submitted to the local municipality, describing an extension and complete renovation of the coaster, which would reduce the noise substantially. Due to the high cost, the funds were allocated to the construction of a new enclosed roller coaster, Bird Rok.
Efteling hoped to get a night license for Python with some small renovations, but only with a change in the permit could Python remain open until 10 pm. In 2005 the trains were replaced by Kumbak Coasters designed by Karel Willemen and in December 2011 with Vekoma MK1212 trains. In 2017 Efteling decided to rebuild the old coaster, because the quality of the steel was deteriorating. While the general layout remained the same, the track was redesigned to provide a smoother ride. In 2018 Efteling demolished the old track; the station and lifthill remained. The Belgian company CSM produced the new track; the ride reopened on the 31st of March. In September 2005, a wheel broke loose and an employee got injured. On July 30, 2007, the ride became stuck halfway over the top of the lifthill. One staff member started evacuating the train. After having evacuated the back two cars, the train's centre of mass shifted to the front and the train started moving again, completing the rest of the circuit. One staff member was injured.
The safety belt of one passenger was open at the time. Since the incident the evacuation protocol has been revised. Visitors will always be evacuated by the park's own fire brigade and the train will always be fixed before evacuation. In mid January 2012, the Python was fitted with new carriages; these cars have a new set of restraints which accommodate the needs of riders small. There is a flexible over the shoulder strap, not unlike those on accelerator coasters such as Kingda Ka but thicker. Over these are metal bars for riders to hold on to and to give support to the under straps; the cars have been fitted with wheels that allow a smoother ride. Video of the accident