Sauda is a municipality and industrial town in Rogaland county, Norway. The administrative centre of the municipality is the town of Sauda, where most of the population lives. Other villages in the municipality include Amdal. Despite being in the northern part of the region of Ryfylke, Sauda participates in the Haugalandet Council and is under the jurisdiction of the Haugaland District Court; the 546-square-kilometre municipality is the 198th largest by area out of the 422 municipalities in Norway. Sauda is the 210th most populous municipality in Norway with a population of 4,760; the municipality's population density is 9.4 inhabitants per square kilometre and its population has increased by 0.6% over the last decade. The town of Sauda is the fifth largest town in Rogaland county with 4,254 inhabitants, the city center is home to Northern Europe's largest melting plant, Eramet Norway AS; the municipality is situated in the mountain valleys surrounding the Saudafjorden. The municipality of Sauda was established in 1842 when it was separated from the large municipality of Suldal.
Sauda had a population of 1,584. The municipal boundaries have never changed; the municipality declared the urban area of Sauda as a town in 1999. The municipality is named after the old Sauda farm; the farm is now part of the village of Saudasjøen. The name is the plural form of sauðr which means "spring" or "issue of water". Before 1918, the name was written as "Saude" or "Søvde"; the coat-of-arms was granted on 14 May 1976. The arms show three, jagged, silver/white lines on a blue background; the jagged lines symbolically represent a river as a means for hydroelectricity. Power was generated by watermills, providing a possibility for the development of an industry in the village. Presently, the power is used for melting metal ore in smelters in the municipality; the Church of Norway has one parish within the municipality of Sauda. It is part of the Ryfylke deanery in the Diocese of Stavanger. Archaeological excavation in Saudasjøen shows that people have been living in Sauda since the latest Ice Age.
In 1349, the Plague/Black Death wiped out about two-thirds of the population in Sauda, causing a decline in both population and economy. Despite this, the population was increasing during the medieval period, a new type of industry started to grow. Along the fjord, the power from several waterfalls was used to build and run sawmills, large-scale lumber production was started. People from all over the world from the Netherlands, started to trade with the people of Sauda; this resulted in major ship traffic, giving impetus to further development of the villages and farms in Sauda. By the end of the 19th century, a new type of adventure would change the lives of the inhabitants forever; the mining industry started in the mountains of Hellandsbygd, making Sauda a small industrial area and trading center for the surrounding region. In 1910, the American company Electric Furnace Company began the construction of Europe’s largest smelting plant here in Sauda; this could only be done because of the large number of waterfalls and rivers that made it possible to build power plants situated a short distance from the smelter, which uses large amounts of electricity.
Sauda's time as a farming village was now over, the people of today still live on the foundation of the new town that emerged. By the end of World War II, the Germans had finished building a large Aluminum Melting Plant in Saudasjøen, but the production was moved to Årdal in 1946; the remaining buildings were demolished by the municipality in the 1950s, leaving the industrial area in Saudasjøen empty for decades. In the 1980s, a glass production factory was established together with a couple of mechanic production factories; the population of Sauda reached its peak in the mid-1960s 6,700 inhabitants. In 1998, the urban area of Sauda was declared to be a town. Sauda is located in the mountains surrounding the Saudafjorden. Outside of the main valley, most of the municipality is mountainous terrain, with mountains like Skaulen and Kyrkjenuten; the town of Sauda is located about two hours by boat from the city of Stavanger, about three hours by car from the city of Bergen, about five hours by car from the national capital, Oslo.
The mountains surrounding the village of Saudasjøen contain one of the biggest ski resorts on the west coast of Norway. The town of Sauda is located on flat land, a delta created by the rivers that empty into the fjord just outside the town centre. All municipalities in Norway, including Sauda, are responsible for primary education, outpatient health services, senior citizen services and other social services, economic development, municipal roads; the municipality is governed by a municipal council of elected representatives, which in turn elect a mayor. The municipal council of Sauda is made up of 19 representatives; the party breakdown is as follows: The main activity is industry, with large companies represented like Eramet, Saint-Gobain, Sauda Building Center, Statnett and Effektivt Renhold Sauda has a well-developed nightlife, suited for all adult ages. There are young-adult bars, as well as more mature-adult bars accessible. A movie theater, many tourist attractions, restaurants exist as a way of relaxing after skiing.
However, the most recommended first stop is the après-ski at Sauda Skisenter. Notab
Heteropogon is a genus of annual and perennial plants in the grass family known as tangleheads, widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. Tangleheads are erect tussock grasses with paired spikelets. Lower pairs are equal in size, upper pairs include one awned bisexual spikelet and one awnless sterile spikelet; the name of the genus is derived from the Greek words έτερος, meaning "different," and πώγων, meaning "beard." SpeciesHeteropogon contortus P. Beauv. Ex Roem. & Schult. - Africa, southern Asia, southwestern Europe, West Indies, tropical South America, southern United States, various oceanic islands Heteropogon fischerianus Bor - Tamil Nadu Heteropogon melanocarpus Benth. - Mesoamerica, West Indies, tropical South America, southern United States, Madagascar, India, Oman Heteropogon polystachyus Schult. - Tamil Nadu Heteropogon ritchiei Blatt. & McCann - India, Myanmar Heteropogon triticeus Stapf ex Craib - Southeast Asia, New Guinea, Hainan, Sri LankaFormerly includedsee Agenium Dichanthium Diectomis Diheteropogon Elymandra Hyparrhenia Parahyparrhenia Trachypogon
In Tibetan Buddhism and Bon, a Ngagpa is a non-monastic practitioner of Dzogchen who has received a skra dbang, a hair empowerment, for example in the Dudjom Tersar lineage. This therefore can never be cut; the term is used to refer to lamas and practitioners who are “tantric specialists” and may technically be applied to both married householder tantric priests and to those ordained monastics whose principal focus and specialization is vajrayana practice. However, in common parlance, “ngakpa” is used only in reference to non monastic Vajrayana priests those in the Nyingma and Bonpo traditions. In Bhutan, some other parts of the Himalayas, the term gomchen is the term most used to refer to this type of Vajrayana priest, with ngakpa being reserved only for the most accomplished adepts amongst them who have become renowned for their mantras being efficacious. Traditionally, many Nyingma ngakpas wear uncut hair and white robes and these are sometimes called "the white-robed and uncut-hair group".
Matthieu Ricard defines ngakpa as "a practitioner of the Secret Mantrayana". Gyurme Dorje defines ngakpa as "a practitioner of the mantras, who may live as a householder rather than a renunciate monk." Tibetan Buddhism contains two systems of ordination, the familiar monastic ordinations and the less well known Ngagpa or Tantric ordinations. Ngagpa ordination is non-monastic and non-celibate, but not "lay." It entails its own extensive system of vows, distinct from the monastic vows. Ngakpas marry and have children; some work in the world, though they are required to devote significant time to retreat and practice and in enacting rituals when requested by, or on behalf of, members of the community. There are family lineages of Ngakpas, with the practice of a particular Yidam being passed through family lineages. However, a ngakpa may be deemed as anyone immersed and engaged in the practice of the teachings and under the guidance of a lineage-holder and who has taken the appropriate vows or samaya and had the associated empowerments and transmissions.
Significant lineage transmission is through oral lore. As scholar Sam van Schaik describes, "the lay tantric practitioner became a common figure in Tibet, would remain so throughout the history of Tibetan Buddhism." Kunga Gyaltsen, the father of the 2nd Dalai Lama, was a non-monastic ngakpa, a famous Nyingma tantric master. His mother was Machik Kunga Pemo, their lineage transmission was by birth. Labrang Monastery, one of the major Gelug monasteries in Amdo, has a Ngagpa college located nearby the main monastery at Sakar village. Dhondup, Yangdon. Monastic and Lay Traditions in North-Eastern Tibet. Brill’s Tibetan Studies Library. 33. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 9789004255692. Dorje, Gyurme. Tibet Handbook. Bath: Footprint Handbooks. ISBN 978-1-906098-32-2. OCLC 191754549. Dorje, Gyurme. Footprint Tibet Handbook. Bath: Footprint Handbooks. ISBN 1903471303. OCLC 57302320. Nietupski, Paul Kocot. Labrang Monastery: A Tibetan Buddhist Community on the Inner Asian Asian borderlands. Studies in Modern Tibetan Culture.
Plymouth: Lexington Books. ISBN 9780739164457. Phuntsok Tashi, Khenpo. "The Positive Impact of the Gomchen Tradition on Achieving and Maintaining Gross National Happiness". Journal of Bhutan Studies. Centre for Bhutan Studies. 12: 75–117. Retrieved 23 January 2015. Ricard, Matthieu. Wilkinson, Constance; the Life of Shabkar: The Autobiography of a Tibetan Yogin. SUNY Series in Buddhist Studies. Albany: SUNY Press. ISBN 0791418367. Samuel, Geoffrey. Civilized Shamans: Buddhism in Tibetan Societies. Washington D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. Sihlé, Nicolas. "The ala and ngakpa priestly traditions of Nyemo: Hybridity and hierarchy". In Jacoby, Sarah. Buddhism Beyond the Monastery: Tantric Practices and their Performers in Tibet and the Himalayas. Brill’s Tibetan Studies Library/PIATS 2003. 10/12. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 9789004176003. Terrone, Antonio. Bya rog prog zhu, The raven crest: the life and teachings of bDe chen'od gsal rdo rje treasure revealer of contemporary Tibet. Leiden University.
Van Schaik, Sam. Approaching the Great Perfection: Simultaneous and Gradual Approaches to Dzogchen Practice in Jigme Lingpa's Longchen Nyingtig. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-370-2. Vajranatha on defense of ngakpas by Nubchen Sangye Yeshe The Ngakpa Tradition Interview with Khetsun Sangpo Rinpoche
August Blom was a Danish film director, production leader and pioneer of silent films during the "golden age" of Danish filmmaking from 1910 to 1914. Blom began his acting career in 1893 in Kolding, was employed as a company actor for the Folketeatret from 1907 to 1910. During that period, Blom began performing in films for the Nordisk Film Kompangni, he debuted there as a director in 1910 with his film Livets Storme. That same year he was given the title of Director. Blom was a prolific filmmaker and during the golden age of Danish silent films, 1910 to 1914, he directed 78 movies. Before he retired from Nordisk Film and filmmaking in 1925, Blom directed more than 100 titles. Blom's volume of work is the largest of any Danish film director. Blom is credited as a pioneer in silent filmmaking. In 1911, Blom was instrumental in the development of the erotic melodrama with his film Ved Faengslets Port, the story of a young man in debt to a moneylender while in love with the moneylender's daughter.
Blom refined this genre during the following years, this became the most profitable trademark for Nordisk company films. Blom is credited with developing the use of cross-cutting as well as using mirrors to expand the drama. In 1913, Blom made his most ambitious effort: the film Atlantis based on the 1912 novel by Gerhart Hauptmann; the film, which depicted the sinking of an ocean liner only one year after the sinking the RMS Titanic, drew an enormous public response. With a complicated plot and several main characters, Atlantis became the first multi-reel feature film from Denmark. Harald Engberg of the Politiken newspaper wrote in an obituary that Blom "knew that he wasn't some directorial genius, but he proved that he was the cleverest and most tasteful scene creator of his day."Blom retired from filmmaking in 1924. He opened the Kinografen movie theater and managed the theater from 1934 to 1947. August Blom was born on 26 December 1869 in Denmark. Blom was first married at the age of 39 in 1908 to Agnete von Prangen.
After they divorced, he married a second time in 1917 to the actress Johanne Fritz-Petersen, the widow of Theater Director Fritz Petersen. He died on 10 January 1947, aged 77. 1910Livets Storme.
Radio 100,7 is a public-service radio station in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Broadcasting in the Luxembourgish language, the station's principal focus is on culture and information, although entertainment – in the form of a wide spectrum of music, with the accent on classical – features prominently. Established under the provisions of Luxembourg's Electronic Media Act of July 1991, run by the Établissement de Radiodiffusion Socioculturelle du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, the station began broadcasting on 19 September 1993 as honnert, 7: de soziokulturelle radio; the name, derived from its allocated FM frequency of 100.7 MHz, was changed in 2002 to the somewhat snappier "Radio 100,7". Radio 100,7 has been a member of the European Broadcasting Union since 1997 and co-operates with other European public-service broadcasters. On weekdays, the station offers a 1-hour English-language program, Time Out, presented by Benny Brown, which starts at 6:35 pm, with a roundup of the day’s main national news, a mix of music, found on the radio nowadays.
In 2015, the radio launched for the first time in Luxembourg a competition for original radio plays. In spring 2016, a second contest started under the theme “Social media and their impact on time and culture”. Official website
The gens Fulvia Foulvia, was one of the most illustrious plebeian families at Rome. By the end of the fourth century BC, they had joined the nobiles through the patronage of the Fabii, who supported the successful candidacy of Lucius Fulvius Curvus for the consulship of 322 BC, they were long active in the politics of the Republic, gained a reputation for producing excellent military leaders. According to Cicero, this gens came to Rome from Tusculum, although some members must have remained in their native place, since Fulvii occur at Tusculum as late as the time of Cicero; the gens Fulvia was believed to have received its sacra from Hercules after he had accomplished his twelve labours. The earliest branch of the Fulvii used the praenomina Lucius and Quintus, which they supplemented with other names, including Gaius and Servius. Lucius disappears early, was not used by the Fulvii; the Fulvii Centumali mentioned in history bore Gnaeus and Marcus while the Flacci depended on Marcus and Quintus, supplemented by Gnaeus and Gaius.
Fulvii with other praenomina occur toward the end of the Republic. The cognomens which occur in this gens in the time of the Republic are Bambalio, Curvus, Gillo, Nobilior and Veratius or Neratius. Curvus, which means "bent" or "crooked," is the first cognomen of the Fulvii to occur in history, although it is not known whether the name was due to some physical peculiarity, such as a bent nose, or crooked leg, or whether the name was bestowed metaphorically or ironically. Paetinus was an agnomen of the Curvus family name, which it superseded. However, Horace makes clear. Indeed, the slight cast implied by the word Paetus was considered attractive, it was given as an epithet to Venus; as the cognomen of Curvus was superseded by that of Paetinus, so the latter was in turn superseded by Nobilior, meaning "very noble". This name seems to have been first assumed by the consul of 255 BC, his descendants dropped the name of Paetinus; the relationship of the Fulvii Centumali to the other branches of the family is unclear.
Bambalio refers to a tendency to stammer. To this list, some scholars append Nacca, or Natta, a fuller, based on a Lucius Fulvius Nacca or Natta the brother-in-law of Publius Claudius Pulcher. Cicero does not mention his gentile name. Servius calls him Pinarius Natta, in a passage of uncertain genuineness, but the only known wife of Clodius was Fulvia. Drumann, provides reason to suppose that Clodius was married twice, that his first wife was Pinaria; this list includes abbreviated praenomina. For an explanation of this practice, see filiation. Lucius Fulvius Curvus, grandfather of the consul of 322 BC. Lucius Fulvius L. f. Curvus, father of the consul of 322 BC. Lucius Fulvius L. f. L. n. Curvus, consul in BC 322, with Quintus Fabius Maximus Rullianus, he had been consul of Tusculum at the time that town revolted against Rome, but upon going over to the Romans, was invested with the same office. He and his colleague triumphed over the Tusculans, in some accounts, over the Samnites as well. Magister equitum in 316, he and the dictator, Lucius Aemilius Mamercinus, besieged Saticula, defeated the Samnites.
Marcus Fulvius L. f. L. n. Curvus Paetinus, consul suffectus in 305 BC, following the death of the consul Tiberius Minucius Augurinus in battle against the Samnites. According to some accounts, he took the town of Bovianum, celebrated a triumph over the Samnites. Marcus Fulvius Cn. f. Cn. n. Paetinus, consul in BC 299. Gaius Fulvius Curvus, one of the plebeian aediles in BC 296. Nobilior, consul in BC 255, with Marcus Aemilius Paullus, during the First Punic War. Following the defeat of Regulus in Africa at the beginning of the year, the consuls were dispatched with a fleet of at least three hundred ships to bring away the survivors. Near Hermaea, the Roman fleet gained a brilliant victory over the Carthaginians, who suffered heavy losses. On its return to Italy, the fleet met a fearful storm, was totally destroyed. Marcus Fulvius Ser. f. M. n. Nobilior, son of the consul of BC 255. Marcus Fulvius M. f. Ser. n. Nobilior, as praetor in 193 BC, obtained the province of Hispania Ulterior, where he defeated the Vaccaei and Celtiberi, receiving an ovation.
He was censor in 179. Quintus Fulvius Nobilior, one of the triumviri appointed in 184 BC to establish colonies at Potentia and Pisaurum. Cicero identifies him with the consul of 153 BC, the son of the consul of 189.