The Saudi–Iraqi neutral zone was an area of 7,044 km2 on the border between Saudi Arabia and Iraq within which the border between the two countries had not been settled. The neutral zone came into existence following the Uqair Protocol of 1922 which defined the border between Iraq and the Sultanate of Nejd; the neutral zone ended on 26 December 1981, when Iraq and Saudi Arabia agreed on the partition of the zone, but this wasn't filed with the United Nations until June 1991. The Treaty of Muhammarah, 5 May 1922, forestalled the imminent conflict between the United Kingdom, which held the mandate for Iraq, the Kingdom of Nejd, which became Saudi Arabia; the treaty avoided defining boundaries. Following further negotiations, the Protocol of Uqair, 2 December 1922, defined most of the borders between them and created the neutral zone. No military or permanent buildings were to be built in or near the neutral zone and the nomads of both countries were to have unimpeded access to its pastures and wells.
Administrative division of the zone was achieved in 1975, a border treaty concluded in 1981. For unknown reasons, the treaty was not filed with the United Nations and nobody outside Iraq and Saudi Arabia was notified of the change or shown maps with details of the new boundary; as the Persian Gulf War approached in early 1991, Iraq cancelled all international agreements with Saudi Arabia since 1968. Saudi Arabia responded by registering all previous boundary agreements negotiated with Iraq at the United Nations in June 1991; that ended the legal existence of the Saudi Arabian–Iraqi neutral zone. Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein was toppled in 2003. Most official maps no longer show the diamond-shaped neutral zone but rather draw the border line through the centre of the territory. For example, the United States Office of the Geographer regarded the area as having only an approximate boundary rather than a precise one; the Saudi Arabian–Iraqi neutral zone had the ISO 3166-1 codes NT and NTZ. The codes were discontinued in 1993.
The FIPS 10-4 code for the Saudi Arabian–Iraqi neutral zone was IY. Geography of Iraq Geography of Saudi Arabia Unification of Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia–United Arab Emirates border dispute Saudi–Kuwaiti neutral zone Iraq–Saudi Arabia border The Straight Dope on the Neutral Zone Arabian Boundary Disputes International Boundary Study No. 111 International Frontier Treaty Between Saudi Arabia and Iraq splitting the Neutral Zone, July 2, 1975
Mt Eden are a dubstep and EDM production duo from New Zealand, composed of Jesse Cooper and Harley Rayner. Mt Eden's most well-known songs are their original "Sierra Leone", their respective remixes of Delerium's "Silence" as well as Lisa Miskovsky's "Still Alive". Mt Eden started gaining popularity when their remix of Freshlyground's "I'd Like", titled "Sierra Leone", went viral on YouTube in 2009, they have 100 million combined video views and over 251 thousand subscribers on their YouTube channel, as well as more than 325,047 "likes" on their Facebook page. Mt Eden is signed with Ultra Music for a multi-album record deal. Jesse Cooper started making mixtapes under the moniker "Jay Fresh" on the weekends. In the beginning Cooper made hip hop mixes with his friends, one of, Harley Rayner, the son of former Split Enz keyboardist Eddie Rayner. In 2008, Cooper decided to make dubstep music after he heard Electronic musicians Benga and Skream, at the New Zealand music festivals Phat09 and Splore, saying that he had his "mind blown" by the young genre.
He started making drum and bass music around the same time, inspired by the Front Left Speaker Crew and Joe Hockley. One of the first songs Mt Eden made public was "Sierra Leone", a remix of Freshlyground's "I'd Like", which he uploaded and posted on his Myspace page, however the song gained major recognition after a fan posted the track on YouTube. In 2008, Cooper's girlfriend's little brother suggested he make a YouTube page for himself to post music on, he called the page "MtEdenDnB08". That was when Cooper decided to release music under the pseudonym "Mt Eden Dubstep" changing his name to "Mt Eden" in 2010, when Cooper recruited Rayner. Mt Eden released their first extended play MEDS for digital download on 7 December 2010, it has gotten positive reviews by customers on iTunes. On 16 February 2013 Mt Eden announced upcoming releases in a post on their Facebook page, writing: " Our Sierra Leone Remix package is coming in April; the first single off No Mans Land is "Airwalker", to be released late April/early May, with the full Walking on Air EP out in late May.
No Mans Land LP will in June."The EP Sierra Leone was released on 30 April 2013, with a re-made version of their original "Sierra Leone" and three remixes of the same song by Ta-ku, AraabMuzik and Tommie Sunshine with Live City. The duo's Walking on Air EP was released in June 2013, featuring seven songs, by Ultra Records Label. Official website Mt Eden at AllMusic Mt Eden on SoundCloud
L. C. Anderson is most famous for his teachings and being a school administrator in Texas; some of his most notable achievements were co-founding the CTSAT Colored Teachers State Association of Texas, as well as his many years spent as principal of the Prairie View Normal Institute. L. C. Anderson was born as a son of enslaved parents, he went to public schools in his hometown in Memphis and received his B. A. in Methodist Ministry from Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee. He had taught with Booker T. Washington at Tuskegee University and trained for the Methodist ministry. In 1879, L. C. Anderson moved to Texas to assist his brother, Earnest H. Anderson, a minister and teacher at Prairie View Normal Institute In Texas, Anderson's first job was the principal of a school in Brenham shortly before moving out to Prairie View. At Prairie View he served as an assistant to his brother, where Anderson had called for the school to become a university. In 1884, L. C. became the first president of the Colored Teachers State Association of Texas.
He served as president until 1889. In addition to this, following his brother's death, on October 29, 1885, Governor Oran Roberts appointed L. C. principal of Prairie View. He worked to improve African-American Texans education and tried to unify American leaders in many fields, including business and religious organizations. In 1876 Land was granted to build and institution for an “agricultural and mechanical college for the benefit of colored youth” part of the agriculture and mechanical college of Texas; the college was doing poorly and was on the verge of closing but was saved by an idea to turn it into two smaller schools. One of, Prairie View Normal Institution; this institution was established in 1879. Ernest H. Anderson was appointed the principal and his brother L. C. Anderson was brought along as his assistant. Following E. H.'s death, Laurine was appointed principal. He was fired and replaced with Edward L. Blackshear; the Colored Teachers State Association of Texas was founded by L. C. Anderson, David Abner Sr. and 11 other people.
It was organized to “promote quality education for blacks and good working conditions for black teachers.” The association was funded by member dues and all the work was voluntary. It didn't adopt its first constitution in 1906 but in 1893 it organized eight district associations from East Texas in efforts to stop the lack of black political power in Texas with the help of politicians Norris Wright Cuney and John Rayner; because of its political affiliation was considered a political organization. In the early years it was campaigning for black university as the members felt black teachers and students would struggle to get equal status with that of whites without this education; the association has continued to try created equal rights for black teachers and was incorporated in 1921. The CTSAT has allowed black teachers to get guaranteed equality of teacher salaries in 1961 and supported Sweatt with by funding and providing legal aid in 1946. In 1896, following Eleven years as principal of Prairie View, Anderson was fired from his position.
L. C. had gotten into a heated argument with D. A. Paulus during a board meeting at Prairie View, they argued over black rights, a spot Anderson was passionate about and Paulus was blatantly disrespecting. This debate is what cost him his job on the spot. Edward L. Blackshear replaced L. C. as principal. There had been speculation to as whether or not Paulus may have provoked Anderson, to give reason to fire him; some believe after republican Anderson was replaced with democrat Blackshear. Anderson moved to Austin to serve as Superintendent of Black Schools, a position, formally held by Blackshear, he served here from 1896 to 1929. At this school which became Anderson High school, was first named for his brother and named in his honor. At the time, this was the only high school in the city for blacks, he was principal and taught Latin until 1928. After his death in 1938, the Austin school board had decided to rename the school after him and his thirty-two years of service as principal. Although resigning he stayed on continuing to teach Latin until his death.
L. C. Anderson High school was created in 1889; this was the first school for African American children in Austin Texas. It was named after Earnest H. Anderson, who served as principal of Prairie View Normal Institution from 1879-1885. In 1938 the school was renamed after his brother L. C. Anderson, who served as Prairie View's Principal for eleven years as well as Anderson High School's principal for 33 years and taught until his death in 1938. Anderson had four children with her prior to her death. Following his wife's death, he remarried Fanny Pollard and they had an additional child, he was buried at Oakwood Cemetery. Shabazz, Amilcar. Advancing Democracy:African Americans and the Struggle For Access and Equity in Higher Education in Texas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 2004. Print. Stallones, Jared R. "Education and politics in Texas: the legacies of Laurine C. Anderson and Edward L. Blackshear." Vitae Scholasticae Fall 2011: 7+. Academic OneFile. Web. 1 May 2013 http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fan56 http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/kat08 https://www.flickr.com/photos/texashistoricalmarkers/2037843290/ https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/56631469 http://go.galegroup.com.silk.library.umass.edu/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA326657937&v=2.1&u=mlin_w_umassamh&it=r
Marinus Heijnes was a Dutch impressionist artist who painted in the tradition of the Dutch Hague School. Heijnes had visited and painted in Switzerland, Italy and Sweden. Much of his work is about the Dutch lakeside near his village Kaag. Heijnes had his education at the Quellinusschool in Amsterdam. Most of his colourful work was made in oil on aquarel. Heijnes worked ` en plein air'. Heijnes was a member of Kunst Zij Ons Doel in Haarlem. Marinus Heijnes was father of the aquarellist Theodoor Heynes. Pieter A. Scheen, Lexicon Nederlandse Beeldende Kunstenaars 1750-1950, 1970 S. J. Mak van Waay, Lexicon van Nederlandsche Schilders en Beeldhouwers 1870-1940, 1944 Hans Vollmer, Allgemeinem Lexikon der bildenden Künstler des XX. Jahrhunderts P. M. J. E Jacobs, Beeldend Nederland: biografisch handboek, 1993 Official website
The Council of Turkic American Associations, is an umbrella organization representing 45 member organizations. CTAA is a nonprofit, educational council that promotes Turkic American culture and heritage, founded in 2010, it is headquartered in New York City, with an additional office in Washington, D. C; the CTAA's mission is to serve as a resource about the Turkic American community with the purpose of bringing people together with an interest in the American and Turkic cultures. CTAA organizes public and private programs to address important issues that relate to the Turkic American community and US-Turkic relations; the CTAA events include conventions, State Capitol Turkic Days, trips to the Turkic World, friendship dinners. As the migrations to the U. S. from Turkic countries has increased, Turkic-Americans have started to establish many local organizations to preserve their culture for their generations. Both small and large, many Turkic communities in the U. S. have existed for more than 30 years.
These Turkic American communities include: Azerbaijani, Kyrgyz, Uzbek and Turkish communities in the U. S. However, most of them were not part of any civil society organization. In 2010, the Council of Turkic American Associations was founded in New York City, to better serve it 45 member organizations. There are 45 members under CTAA umbrella: Turkish Cultural Centers Turkish American Business Improvement and Development Council Brooklyn Amity School Pioneer Academy of Science Universal Foundation Gülen movement Official Website
Watch the Throne is a collaborative studio album by American rappers Jay-Z and Kanye West, released on August 8, 2011 by Roc-A-Fella Records, Roc Nation, Def Jam Recordings. Before the album, Jay-Z and Kanye had collaborated on various singles, with the latter as a producer on the former's work, they sought out to record a five-song EP together, but the project evolved into a full-length album. The project features guest appearances from Frank Ocean, The-Dream, Beyoncé and Mr Hudson, as well as posthumous vocals by Otis Redding and Curtis Mayfield, it features vocal contributions from Kid Cudi, Justin Vernon, Elly Jackson, Connie Mitchell, Charlie Wilson and Pete Rock, among others. Recording sessions took place at various locations and began in November 2010, with production on led by West and a variety of high-profile producers, including Mike Dean, Swizz Beatz, Tyler Pase, Jeff Bhasker, The Neptunes, Q-Tip. Expanding on the dense production style of West's 2010 album My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy, Watch the Throne incorporates orchestral and progressive rock influences, unconventional samples, dramatic melodies in its sound.
Its braggadocio lyrics exhibit themes of opulence, materialism and the burdens of success, as well as political and socioeconomic context. The album expresses other topics, such as Jay-Z's thoughts on fatherhood, West's reflection on being deemed a social villain, their success as performers. Many writers interpreted the subject matter to concern the rappers' plight as African Americans struggling with financial success in America; the album produced seven singles, including "H•A•M", "Otis", "Lift Off", "No Church in the Wild", the Billboard Hot 100 top five hit "Niggas in Paris", which all received music videos. Jay-Z and West promoted the album with the Watch the Throne Tour that spanned October 2011 to June 2012 and became the highest grossing hip hop concert tour in history. Watch the Throne debuted at number one on the US Billboard 200, selling 436,000 copies in the first week, broke the iTunes first week sales record. While a few music critics found its lyrical content uninspiring, the rappers' performances and the productions were praised.
Many critics and publications placed the album in their year-end best-of lists. It earned Jay-Z and West seven Grammy Award nominations, was certified platinum in the US. Jay-Z and Kanye West first worked together on the song "This Can't Be Life", from Jay-Z's 2000 album The Dynasty: Roc La Familia, produced by West on Jay-Z's 2001 album The Blueprint, which showcased West's distinctive style of hip hop production at the time. West's early production work on Jay-Z's music helped raise his profile in the music industry. While only viewed as a producer, West was seen as both a viable rapper and producer thanks to the success of his debut album The College Dropout and its singles. West continued to be one of Jay-Z's main producers on subsequent albums such as The Black Album and Kingdom Come. Jay-Z appeared on Kanye's first two albums as well, the two collaborated. Further collaborative work by the two included singles such as "Swagga Like Us" from rapper T. I.'s Paper Trail, "Run This Town" from Jay-Z's The Blueprint 3, both "Monster" and “So Appalled” from West's My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy.
During the promotional stages of West's My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy, a remix of the song "Power" surfaced featuring Jay-Z. Following this, Kanye West announced on Twitter his intention to drop a five-track EP with Jay-Z, titled Watch the Throne. According to the rapper, the track "Monster" was intended for the EP, though that failed to surface, it was revealed by Yeezy that the project had been expanded into a full-length album in an October 2010 interview for MTV. He said in the interview. In a August 2011 radio interview with WEDR Jay-Z shared the meaning behind the albums title. It's people. Watch the Throne, like protect it. You just watch how popular music shift, how hip-hop replaced rock & roll as the youth music; the same thing can happen to hip-hop. It can be replaced by other forms of music. So it's making sure that we put the effort into making the best product so we can contend with all this other music, with dance music that's dominating the charts right now and indie music that's dominating the festivals."
Recording sessions for the album took place at Avex Recording Studio in Hawaii. Production began in November 2010 in England and continued during available times in Jay-Z's and West's schedules at locations in Australia, Abu Dhabi, New York City, Los Angeles. In an interview for Billboard, Jay-Z said that they recorded in hotel rooms and that the album went through three iterations, as he and West had scaled back from their original musical direction, he noted difficulties in the recording process, including arguments with West regarding their direction. Following the release of lead single, "H•A•M" in January 2011, Jay-Z stated that the less-than-stellar reception caused a change in the production of the album. Jay-Z announced that it was unlikely that the track would make the album; the issues at the beginning of production had caused a delay in the release. In an interview for Rolling Stone, Jay-Z discussed their insistence on recording in person and attributed it to the delay in releasing the album, stating "If we were gonna do it, we were gonna do it t