Saudia known as Saudi Arabian Airlines, is the national carrier airline of Saudi Arabia, based in Jeddah. The airline's main operational base is at King Abdulaziz International Airport in Jeddah. King Khalid International Airport in Riyadh and King Fahd International Airport in Dammam are secondary hubs; the airline is the third largest in the Middle East in terms of revenue, behind Emirates and Qatar Airways. It operates domestic and international scheduled flights to over 85 destinations in the Middle East, Asia and North America. Domestic and international charter flights are operated during the Ramadan and the Hajj season. Saudia is a member of the Arab Air Carriers Organization and joined the SkyTeam airline alliance on 29 May 2012; when U. S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt presented a Douglas DC-3 as a gift to King Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud in 1945, the event marked the kingdom's gradual development of civil aviation; the nation's flag carrier, was founded as Saudi Arabian Airlines on September 1945 as a owned government agency under the control of the Ministry of Defense, with TWA running the airline under a management contract.
The now-demolished Kandara Airport, close to Jeddah, served as the flag carrier's main base. Among the airline's early operations was a special flight from Lydda in Palestine, a British Mandate at that time, to carry Hajj pilgrims to Jeddah; the airline used five DC-3 aircraft to launch scheduled operations on the Jeddah-Riyadh-Hofuf-Dhahran route in March 1947, followed by its first international service between Jeddah and Cairo in the same month. Service to Damascus and Beirut followed in early 1948; the following year the first of five Bristol 170s was received. These aircraft offered the airline the flexibility of carrying cargo. In 1962, the airline took delivery of two Boeing 720s, becoming the fourth Middle Eastern airline to fly jet aircraft, after Middle East Airlines and Cyprus Airways with the de Havilland Comet in 1960 and El Al with the Boeing 707 in 1961. On 19 February 1963, the airline became a registered company, with King Faisal of Saudi Arabia signing the papers that declared Saudia a independent company.
DC-6s and Boeing 707s were bought, the airline joined the AACO, the Arab Air Carriers Organization. Services were started to Sharjah, Khartoum, Tripoli, Rabat, Geneva and London. In the 1970s, a new livery was introduced; the carrier's name was changed to Saudia on 1 April 1972. Boeing 737s and Fokker F-28s were bought, with the 737s replacing the Douglas DC-9; the airline operated their first Boeing 747s service in 1977 when three Jumbo Jets were leased from Middle East Airlines and deployed on the London sector. The first all-cargo flights between Saudi Arabia and Europe were started, Lockheed L-1011s and Fairchild FH-27s were introduced. New services, including the Arabian Express'no reservation shuttle flights' between Jeddah and Riyadh; the Special Flight Services was set up as a special unit of Saudia, operates special flights for the royal family and government agencies. Service was started to Rome, Muscat and Stockholm; the Pan Am/Saudia joint service between Dhahran and New York City started on 3 February 1979.
In the 1980s services such as Saudia Catering began. Flights were started to Jakarta, Bangkok, Mogadishu, New York City, Singapore, Delhi, Seoul, Amsterdam, Nice, Brussels, Kuala Lumpur and Taipei. Horizon Class, a business class service, was established to offer enhanced service. Cargo hubs were built at Taipei. Airbus A300s, Boeing 747s, Cessna Citations were added to the fleet, the Citations for the SFS service. In 1989 services to Larnaca and Addis Ababa began. On 1 July 1982, the first nonstop service from Jeddah to New York City was initiated with Boeing 747SP aircraft; this was followed by a Riyadh-New York route. In the 1990s, services to Orlando, Asmara, Washington, D. C. Johannesburg, Milan, Málaga, Sanaa were introduced. Boeing 777s, MD-90s and MD-11s were introduced. New female flight attendant uniforms designed by Adnan Akbar were introduced. A new corporate identity was launched on 16 July 1996, featuring a sand colored fuselage with contrasting dark blue tailfin, the center of which featured a stylized representation of the House of Saud crest.
The Saudia name was dropped with Saudi Arabian Airlines name used. On 8 October 2000, Prince Sultan bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, the Saudi Minister of Defense and Aviation, signed a contract to conduct studies for the privatization of Saudi Arabian Airlines. In preparation for this, the airline was restructured to allow non-core units—including Saudia catering, ground handling services and maintenance as well as the Prince Sultan Aviation Academy in Jeddah—to be transformed into commercial units and profit centers. In April 2005, the Saudi government indicated that the airline may lose its monopoly on domestic services. In 2006, Saudia began the process of dividing itself into Strategic Business Units. In August 2007, Saudi Arabia's Council of Ministers approved the conversion of strategic units into companies, it is planned that ground services, technical services, air cargo and the Prince Sultan Aviation Academy, medical division, as well as the catering unit, will become subsidiaries of a holding company.
The airline reverted to its abbreviated English brand name Saudia from Saudi Arabian Airlines (histor
The Gymea Bay is a bay on the upper estuarine Port Hacking River, fed by the Coonong Creek in southern Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia The bay, the locality, suburb of Gymea Bay and the adjacent suburb of Gymea, were named after the Gymea Lily Doryanthes excelsa, a tall perennial, prevalent in the area. The plant was called "Gymea" by the local Eora people and became the inspiration for the suburb's name, by government surveyor W. A. B. Geaves in 1855; the Gymea Lily has been adopted as a symbol of the area and features on the crest of many local organisations. Development in the area has eradicated most of these lilies but some can still be found, a few kilometres south in the Royal National Park. Gymea Bay is home to the heritage-listed Gymea Bay Baths, at the shore of Gymea Bay Baths Reserve at the intersection of Gymea Bay Road and Ellesmere Road. Gymea Bay Amateur Swimming Club has been using the baths for over 40 years; the bay and Port Hacking estuary are used extensively for watersports such as wakeboarding and water skiing
Čreta is a small settlement in the Municipality of Vransko in central Slovenia. It lies in the hills north of Vransko; the area is part of the traditional region of Styria. The municipality is now included in the Savinja Statistical Region; the name of the settlement was changed from Marija-Čreta to Čreta in 1952. The name was changed on the basis of the 1948 Law on Names of Settlements and Designations of Squares and Buildings as part of efforts by Slovenia’s postwar communist government to remove religious elements from toponyms. There are two churches in the settlement. One is dedicated to the Virgin Mary and dates to the 15th century with 16th- and 18th-century extensions; the second was built in the 15th century. Čreta at Geopedia
St Thomas' Church is in Marton Street, Lancashire, England. It is an active Anglican parish church in the deanery of Lancaster, the archdeaconry of Lancaster and the diocese of Blackburn; the church is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II listed building. St Thomas' was built between 1841 to a design by the local architect Edmund Sharpe. One of the subscribers to the church was Queen Victoria who, as Duchess of Lancaster, contributed £150; the land was given by George Marton of Capernwray Hall, Elizabeth Salisbury made an endowment of £1,100. As planned, the church was intended to seat 1,100 people; the foundation stone was laid on 3 March 1840, the church opened for worship on 14 April 1841, it was consecrated on 14 June by Rt Revd John Bird Sumner, Bishop of Chester. In 1852–53 Sharpe's successor, E. G. Paley added the northeast steeple and the chancel in a similar architectural style; the first vicar was the Revd. Joseph North Green-Armytage, from 1841 to 1845, whose inspirational sermons and capacity congregations had, according to his several obituaries, inspired the building of the Church.
He was succeeded by Rev Colin Campbell, serving for 11 years. Campbell invested much of his own money into the church, including building the spire, installing an organ and building a church school behind the church, he was succeeded by his son Colin, in 1858. The authors of the Buildings of England series state that the church has "a grand approach up steps with imposing gatepiers", it is constructed in sandstone ashlar with slate roofs in Early English style. Its plan consists of a six-bay nave with south aisles under three gabled roofs. At the east end is a two-bay chancel with a steeple in the angle between the north aisle and the chancel; the lower part of the steeple has two square stages, with a stair turret. Above the level of the aisle it becomes octagonal with louvred bell openings; the spire is octagonal, with two tiers of lucarnes, a finial and an iron cross. A plain parapet runs along the tops of the gables. In the west front are five tall stepped lancet windows under, a triple doorway.
On each side of the front are buttresses that rise up to turrets with finials. There are more lancet windows with a triple lancet at the east end. Inside the church are galleries on three sides supported by cast iron columns. A brass dated 1881 was produced by Hunt; the arms of Queen Victoria are on the west gallery. The stained glass in the east window is by William Warrington, the tiles on the chancel floor and in the reredos are by Mintons; the pulpit and other furnishings are by James Rattee of Cambridge, the organ case was made by James Hatch. The three-manual pipe organ was built in 1852 by John Banfield, rebuilt in the 1880s by Richard Tubbs and, between 1920 and 1940, was rebuilt again and moved to its present position at the northeast of the nave by Jardine and Company. Listed buildings in Lancaster, Lancashire List of architectural works by Edmund Sharpe List of works by Sharpe and Paley
The Taiwan Provincial Consultative Council was the council of the streamlined Taiwan Province of the Republic of China. In July 2018, all duties of the Taiwan Provincial Government and TPCC were transferred to the National Development Council and other ministries of the Executive Yuan. Taiwan Provincial Consultative Council was established on 1 May 1946 as Taiwan Representative Council, it was renamed Provisional Taiwan Provincial Council in December 1951 and Taiwan Provincial Council in June 1959. It was reconstituted as Taiwan Provincial Consultative Council with the streamlining of the Taiwan Provincial Government in 1998. On July 1, 2018, by a resolution passed during the 3606th meeting of the Executive Yuan, all the remaining duties were transferred to the National Development Council and other ministries of the Executive Yuan; the transformations are scheduled to be done before the end of year 2018. However, the government will keep the position of Chairman Speaker of Taiwan Provincial Consultative Council to comply with the requirement set by the Additional Articles of the Constitution.
The only official who serves in the council is the Chairman Speaker of Taiwan Provincial Consultative Council. The consultative council does not have any physical meeting place after all its functionalities were handed to the central government in 2018; the consultative council was located in Taipei from April 1946 to May 1958, in Wufeng, Taichung County from May 1958 to 2018. Huang Chao-chin Hsieh Tung-min Tsai Hung-wen Kao Yu-jen Chien Ming-ching Liu Ping-wei Lin Po-jung Peng Tien-fu Fan Chen-tsung Yu Lin-ya Lee Yuan-chuan 20 January 2009 – 20 December 2016) Cheng Yung-chin Legislative Yuan Taiwan Provincial Government Taiwan Province
Dalgarven Mill is near Kilwinning, in the Garnock Valley, North Ayrshire, Scotland and it is home to the Museum of Ayrshire Country Life and Costume. The watermill has been restored over a number of years and is run by the independent Dalgarven Mill Trust; the village of Dalgarven was destroyed by the construction of the main A737 road, but the mill buildings survive and are open as a tourist attraction and educational resource, interpreting local history in addition to its role as a museum of Ayrshire country life. Few mills remain in Ayrshire and this is an example, preserved due to the foresight of the family of the last miller who saw a modern role for an ancient industrial site and traditional social meeting-place; some of the outbuildings have been converted for use as an antique shop, others are still occupied as dwellings and some are in the process of being converted to uses which will enhance the quality of the experience of visitors to the mill complex. The Ferguson family, descendants of the last miller, are still involved with the running of the museum, working with a board of trustees who are all volunteers.
The mill is not the Museum of Scotland. There has been a mill on this site of Groatholm since the 14th century, set up by the monks of Kilwinning Abbey; the first mill was a fulling mill producing woollen cloth. Retting was carried out here in ponds next to the river, this process being a stage in the manufacturing of vegetable fibres the bast fibres, it involves submerging plant stems such as flax, jute or hemp in water, soaking them for a period of time to loosen the fibers from the other components of the stem. The fibres can be used to produce linen and other products, such as paper for banknotes, etc; the present mill was rebuilt in 1880 after being damaged by fire. The River Garnock's waters power a 6-metre diameter breast-shot wheel that drives the French burr millstones through cast iron gearing; the traditional methods of producing flour can be followed during a tour of the mill. The wheel turns, when possible, following the total renewal of the mill machinery and a recent replacement of wooden components of the wheel, etc.
The mill race, leat or lade was critical to the efficient working of the mill and was a specialised craft. The weir on the River Garnock is made of boulders which are placed and locked together creating a millpond that supplies a good head of water to the wheel through the lade; the weir was built on a natural dyke which runs across the Garnock at this point, its existence being exploited by the monks of Kilwinning Abbey who chose the site for the mill. These dykes are found at several points crossing the river and many were elsewhere were exploited as the bases for dams, such as occurred at Cunninghamhead Mill on the River Annick. A feature of many mills was the presence of trees or other structures shading the wheel from the intense summer sun; the reason for this was that when the wheel was not turning the wood components dried out and warped, putting a great deal of stress on the whole structure, putting it out of shape and creating breaks in the buckets, etc. At Dalgarven the wheel was enclosed by high walls which served the same purpose as trees.
The Dalgarven wheel is a low breastshot, where the water strikes the wheel at a quarter of its diameter or height of the wheel and it turns with an anti-clockwise rotation. On the outer edge of each bucket is a'sacrificial board' which will break away if any object becomes wedged beneath it; this is important, as the stresses and strains set up by the wheel stopping would cause considerable damage to the various cogs and to the drive to the grinding stones themselves, which have significant mass and momentum when employed in the process of grinding. The use of iron brackets to provide support to the wooden paddles on the wheel is an unusual feature; the massive wooden hirst supporting the grindstones can be viewed from inside of the mill. In the 1940s, the miller at Dalgarven used the wheel to produce electricity, stored in liquid acid batteries. At present the Mill Trustees are looking into the possibilities of using the wheel to produce electricity to help offset the mills contribution to global warming on the basis of'Think Global, Act Local'.
The mill building has an unusual structural feature, an alcove, designed to attract nesting owls which would feed off and help to control the vermin which stores of cereals and other foodstuffs always attract. One feature of the mill is the small number of windows; this may be purely practical, however avoidance of paying too high a'window tax' may have been a consideration. Window tax was first levied in England in 1696 to offset the expenses of making up the gold and silver deficiency in the re-coinage of William III reign caused by clipping and filing of coins, it was set at two shillings for small tenements, six shillings for buildings with up to ten windows and ten shillings for those with twenty windows. Cottages were exempt, it was based on the number of windows in a house and large mansions had many existing windows blocked up, such as a whole side of Loudoun Castle, in Ayrshire, Scotland. It was replaced by a tax on inhabited houses. Lying on the cobbles outside the original waulk mill and stables is a large oval sandstone object with metal attachments on its central axis.