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Saugus, Massachusetts

Saugus is a town in Essex County, United States, in the Greater Boston area. The population was 26,628 at the 2010 census. Saugus was first settled in 1629. Saugus is a Native American name believed to mean "great" or "extended". In 1637, the territory known as Saugus was renamed Lin or Lynn, after King's Lynn in Norfolk, England. In 1646, the Saugus Iron Works called Hammersmith, began operations, it was the first integrated iron works in North America as well as one of the most technologically advanced in the world. The Iron Works was not financially successful, it closed around 1670. In September 1687, Major Samuel Appleton was said to have given a speech from a rocky cliff near the Iron Works denouncing the tyranny of Colonial Governor Sir Edmund Andros; the place where he is said to have delivered the speech became known as Appleton's Pulpit. Nearly 100 men from Saugus fought in the American Revolutionary War. Saugus' preacher, Parson Joseph Roby, worked to strengthen the spirit of independence in Saugus and was instrumental in seeing that Saugus sent a large contingent to fight in the war.

The nineteenth century ice industry began in Saugus when in 1804 Frederic Tudor cut ice from a pond on the family farm and shipped it to Martinique. In 1805 the Newburyport Turnpike was built. About four miles of this road was built in Saugus. At first the turnpike was considered a mistake, as it was built over hills and swamps and grass soon grew over the road bed. From 1840 to 1846, the tolls were discontinued and it became a public highway; the invention of the automobile resulted in an increase of traffic on the Turnpike. In 1933 the road was widened and an overpass was added to separate the traffic on Route 1 and Main Street. In the 1950s new businesses began moving to Route 1. Today the businesses along Route 1 generate millions in dollars for Saugus; the Lynn territory was shortened beginning in 1814 with the incorporation of Lynnfield. On February 17, 1815, present-day Saugus was incorporated as a town; the first town meeting was held on March 1815, in the parish church. At the time of its incorporation, Saugus' population was 784.

Its main industry was agriculture. During the Industrial Revolution, many new industries moved to Saugus. Shoes and woolen goods were made in Saugus Center, tobacco was manufactured in Cliftondale and East Saugus. Saugus' first post office was established in 1832 in East Saugus. In 1858 two more were established -- one in Cliftondale. Now only the Cliftondale post office remains in Saugus; the first town hall was built in 1837. It was built with $2,000 of the United States revenue surplus distributed by President Andrew Jackson, it is an American Legion hall. In 1875, the town built its current town hall on Central Street; the construction of the town hall put Saugus in a $50,000 debt. For this and other reasons the neighborhood of East Saugus sought to be set off from Saugus and annexed to the city of Lynn. East Saugus was unable to get a bill in both houses of the state legislature, the issue was dropped after the town appropriated $5,000 for the laying of water pipes through East Saugus. Passenger trains ran through Saugus from 1853 to 1958 on the Saugus Branch Railroad.

There were three Saugus Branch stations in Saugus and two just outside the town's borders in Lynn and Revere. During the American Civil War, 155 Saugonians enlisted in the Union Army, eight others enlisted in the Union Navy. Saugus native Gustavus Fox served as the United States Assistant Secretary of the Navy during the war; the USS Saugus, a Union Navy monitor named after the town, was launched in December 1863. Following the war Henry E. Hone donated a large granite monument to the town of Saugus; the monument, designed by Melzar Hunt Mosman and cost $10,000 to build, contains the names of all of the men from Saugus who served during the Civil War on bronze tablets. Above the tablets are two bronze statues, one of a soldier and one of a sailor, it is topped by a granite statue of woman wearing a helmet with an eagle on the top and holding a shield in her right hand, which serves as an allegorical representation of the United States. The monument was erected in the rotary at Saugus Center in 1875.

Following the Civil War, the Cliftondale section of Saugus became a major producer of tobacco, as many of the southern tobacco plantations had been destroyed. Waitt & Bond became a major producer of cigars and the snuff factory in East Saugus was the nation's largest producer of that product. From 1859 to 1905, Saugus was home to the Franklin Park harness racing track. Known as the Old Saugus Race Track or Saugus Race Course, it closed in 1905 after local citizens complained about the questionable patrons that the racetrack attracted. In 1911 the racetrack became an airfield. In 1912, the property was purchased by the General Aviation Corporation who named it Atwood Park in honor of their most famous pilot, Harry Atwood; the airfield saw the first airmail delivery in New England on May 30, 1912. Pioneer aviators Lincoln J. Beachey flew at Saugus; the airport closed in the 1920s. On October 8, 1900, George E. Bailey was murdered at Breakheart Hill Farm in Saugus, his legs and torso would be found nine days in Floating Bridge Pond in Lynn.

His head and arms were found there the next day. After a publicized investigation and trial, John C. Best was found guilty of murder, he was executed on September 9, 1902. In 1934, Breakheart Hill Forest, a private hunting retreat located in North Saugus, was purchased by the

Big Bear Solar Observatory

Big Bear Solar Observatory is the premier university-based solar observatory in the United States. It is operated by New Jersey Institute of Technology. BBSO is in a category of being one of the most powerful solar telescope in the world – the 1.6 m clear aperture Goode Solar Telescope, which has no obscuration in the optical train. Light corrected by adaptive optics is fed to either the visible or near-infrared spectro-polarimeter. Additionally, uncorrected light can be fed to a cryogenic spectrograph operating out to wavelengths of 5 microns. BBSO operates full-disk patrol telescopes; the telescopes and instruments at the observatory are designed and employed for studying the activities and phenomena of the Sun. BBSO is located on the north side of Big Bear Lake in the San Bernardino Mountains of southwestern San Bernardino County, California 120 kilometers east of downtown Los Angeles; the telescopes and instruments at the observatory are designed and employed for studying the activities and phenomena of the Sun.

The location at Big Bear Lake is optimal due to the clarity of the sky and the presence of a body of water. The lake has more than a mile of water to the west, the direction from which the prevailing winds come; the cool lake provides a natural inversion that reduces ground-layer turbulence and stabilizes images taken by the telescope. The lake surface is about 2,055 meters above sea level, putting it above a significant portion of the atmosphere; the main observatory building is in the open waters of the lake with an approximate 200 meter causeway extending south from the north shore. Again, the water provides a cooling effect on the atmosphere surrounding the building and helps eliminate ground heat radiation waves that would cause optical aberrations; the observatory was built by the California Institute of Technology in 1969 under the direction of professor Harold Zirin. In 1995, when professor Zirin announced his intent to retire as the director, Caltech began to search for a successor; the university decided to change the focus of what had been a solar-physics slot in the astrophysics department and look for another organization to take over the observatory instead.

By the spring of 1996, Caltech announced that New Jersey Institute of Technology would run the BBSO. The agreement was signed in early 1997 to have NJIT lease the land and buildings from Caltech until 2048; the instruments and grants, worth about $1.6 million a year at that time, would be transferred to NJIT on 1 July 1997. After the transfer, the directorship of BBSO passed to NJIT professor Philip R. Goode. Now NJIT professor Wenda Cao is BBSO director. Funding comes from NASA, the National Science Foundation, the United States Air Force, other agencies. Kitt Peak's solar observatory is much older with a different design but has 161 cm aperture compared to the 160 cm of the BBSO, so depending on the wording used may or not be superlative, but BBSO's Goode Solar Telescope is a much newer design and in the same class of optical power. At the time of the transfer in 1997, the primary BBSO telescope was in the 0.5 m class, as were the world's other high resolution solar telescopes. However, to resolve the fundamental scale in the Sun's atmosphere an aperture of at least 1.5 m is required.

Correction of distortion by the terrestrial atmospheric distortion by adaptive optics is the enabling technology for the first facility class solar telescope built in the United States in a generation – the Goode Solar Telescope. The GST is a 1.6 m clear aperture off-axis telescope, which feeds its unobstructed light to visible light and near-infrared spectro-polarimeters. The GST benefits from three generations of AO, which now includes multi-conjugate AO in a demonstrator phase for wide-field correction, it is the only MCAO system in operation with three deformable mirrors. Construction of the GST began in 2005 and the telescope saw first light in January 2009, with first AO corrected imaging in the Summer of 2010 in the NIR. Second generation AO corrected visible light in the Summer of 2012. In Summer 2016, first successful MCAO observations were made, which trebled the corrected field of view – MCAO is essential for studies requiring wide field correction with high temporal cadence; until the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope is completed, the GST will be the largest clear aperture solar telescope in the world – able to resolve features on the Sun less than 50 km across.

The telescope was named the Goode Solar Telescope in July 2017. Other telescopes in BBSO include the 10 cm Full Disk H-alpha Patrol Telescope, located in an additional small building called the Ash Dome, it is co-mounted with another small telescope dedicated to observing earthshine. The observatory hosts a station of the Global Oscillation Network Group, an experiment in helioseismology operated by the National Solar Observatory, it is located at the shore end of the causeway and began operating in 1995. Big Bear Discovery Center List of astronomical observatories List of solar telescopes Big Bear Solar Observatory Big Bear Solar Observatory Clear Sky Clock Forecast of observing conditions. NJIT Physics Dept. Big Bear Solar Observatory

Blood Knights

Blood Knights is a hack and slash action role-playing game for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 3, Xbox 360. The game was developed by German studio Deck13 Interactive and published by Kalypso Media from Germany. Blood Knights was released on 1 November 2013 for the Xbox 360, 13 November 2013 for the PC, 19 November 2013 for the PlayStation 3; the game features two playable characters: Jeremy, a vampire hunter, Alysa, a vampire that Jeremy became ritually bound to, on a quest to retrieve an artifact that can cause cataclysms. The game features both single player and local cooperative gameplay modes, but does not allow for online co-op. Blood Knights received negative reviews upon release, with a large number of critics faulting the game for showing a lack of creativity and having uninteresting gameplay; the game combines platformer, role-playing, combat elements. Players move about several levels, including a forest and a castle, using precision jumping and puzzle solving to move about the level.

Players can discover equipable weapons and armor that improves effectiveness in combat by exploring levels for chests. Combat takes the form of set piece battles, in which a number of enemies appear and must be defeated before the player can continue to progress through the area; these enemies include human outlaws, demons and other vampires. The game contains boss battles, in which the player must defeat a stronger enemy, aided by normal enemies. Players assume control of Jeremy, a sword-wielding, melee-focused character, Alysa, who uses crossbows to deliver ranged attacks; the game can be played as a single player game, in which the player alternates between controlling Jeremy and Alysa, or as a local co-op game, in which two players play cooperatively, with one controlling each character. Blood Knights does not support online co-op. Like most hack and slash games, the control scheme is minimal; when controlling Jeremy, players can chain attacks using one button, can use a number of special attacks that have a cooldown timer, including a heavy blow, a whirlwind attack, a power that draws distant enemies to Jeremy.

While controlling Alysa, the game functions as a twin-stick shooter, in which movement is controlled by one thumbstick or set of keys, firing weapons is controlled by the other thumbstick or another set of keys. Alysa has special attacks, including the ability to fire flaming arrows and a grenade attack. In single player gameplay, the player can switch between Alysa by pressing a button. Players can transfer health, in the form of blood, between the two playable characters, healing one at the expense of the other. Blood Knights takes place in a fictional version of Earth in which vampires are at war; the main character, Jeremy, is the captain of a holy order. At the beginning of the game, the order travels to a set of ruins to protect the Blood Seal, a powerful artifact, from being captured by the vampires; the order suffers heavy losses in the attempt, in desperation the priest Bartholomew uses a ritual to bind Jeremy to the vampire Alysa. During the course of Jeremy's attempt to retrieve the seal, he is turned into a vampire, the vampires seize the seal themselves.

With the seal removed from its resting place, the moon begins to crack apart, causing unpredictable and violent tides. Because Jeremy has been turned into a vampire himself and another member of the holy order, kick Jeremy and Alysa into an abyss inside the ruins, abandoning them for dead. Castello assumes Jeremy's place as the captain of the order. Jeremy and Alysa pursue the vampires that stole the Blood Seal. Castello and the holy order are pursuing the vampires. Jeremy and Alysa reach a human stronghold. In order to pass through the town, the pair must first rescue the town's sheriff, who went into a nearby forest with the town guard in an attempt to kill the powerful vampire Blood Fox. Jeremy and Alysa defeat Blood Fox, in the town, Jeremy encounters Bartholomew, who split from Castello after an argument. Bartholomew tasks Jermey with recovering the Relic of Light, a powerful weapon that can be used against the vampires, in order to prove that Jeremy is still loyal to the order. After retrieving the weapon, Jeremy is informed that the Lords of Pikehold, a group of knights that defends the area, have defeated the vampire army carrying the blood seal.

On his way to Pikehold Castle, Jeremy is ambushed by Castello. The pair fight Castello. Inside Pikehold Castle, Jeremy discovers that the Lords of Pikehold have become thralls to a succubus. Jeremy and Alysa defeat the Lords of Pikehold and the succubus, who informs Jeremy that the Blood Seal has been taken by a vampire mage to the top of a mountain. Bartholomew meets Jeremy and Alysa at the top of the mountain, informs the pair that the vampires have summoned a powerful demon that will slaughter mankind. Bartholomew has called upon the army of Rome, led by the powerful First Paladin of Rome, to defeat the demon. Jeremy, knowing that the First Paladin of Rome would kill him and Alysa on sight, sets off to defeat the demon before the army of Rome arrives; when Jeremy and Alysa confront the demon, it explains that it was summoned because the humans have become too numerous, with increased numbers they have gone from fearing vampires to hunting them. Jeremy and Alysa kill Bartholomew recovers the Blood Seal.

As he does this, the First Paladin of Rome demands the seal for himself. Bartholomew gives the seal to Jeremy instead, battles the Paladin to delay the