A totem is a spirit being, sacred object, or symbol that serves as an emblem of a group of people, such as a family, lineage, or tribe. While the term totem is derived from the North American Ojibwe language, belief in tutelary spirits and deities is not limited to indigenous peoples of the Americas but common to a number of cultures worldwide. However, the traditional people of those cultures have words for their guardian spirits in their own languages, do not call these spirits or symbols "totems". Contemporary neoshamanic, New Age, mythopoetic men's movements not otherwise involved in the practice of a tribal religion have been known to use "totem" terminology for the personal identification with a tutelary spirit or guide, however this is seen by the originating cultures as cultural misappropriation. Totem poles of the Pacific Northwest of North America are monumental poles of heraldry, they feature many different designs that function as crests of chiefs. They commemorate special occasions.
These stories are known to be read from the bottom of the pole to the top. The spiritual, mutual relationships between Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders and the natural world are described as totems. Many Indigenous groups object to using the imported Ojibwe term "totem" to describe a pre-existing and independent practice, although others use the term; the term "token" has replaced "totem" in some areas. In some cases, such as the Yuin of coastal New South Wales, a person may have multiple totems of different types; the lakinyeri or clans of the Ngarrindjeri were each associated with one or two plant or animal totems, called ngaitji. Totems are sometimes attached to moiety relations. Torres Strait Islanders have auguds translated as totems. An augud could be a kai mugina augud. Early anthropologists sometimes attributed Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander totemism to ignorance about procreation, with the entrance of an ancestral spirit individual into the woman believed to be the cause of pregnancy.
James George Frazer in Totemism and Exogamy wrote that Aboriginal people "have no idea of procreation as being directly associated with sexual intercourse, believe that children can be born without this taking place". Frazer's thesis has been criticised by other anthropologists, including Alfred Radcliffe-Brown in Nature in 1938. Totemism is a belief associated with animistic religions; the totem is an animal or other natural figure that spiritually represents a group of related people such as a clan. Early anthropologists and ethnologists like James George Frazer, Alfred Cort Haddon, John Ferguson McLennan and W. H. R. Rivers identified totemism as a shared practice across indigenous groups in unconnected parts of the world reflecting a stage of human development. Scottish ethnologist John Ferguson McLennan, following the vogue of 19th-century research, addressed totemism in a broad perspective in his study The Worship of Animals and Plants. McLennan did not seek to explain the specific origin of the totemistic phenomenon but sought to indicate that all of the human race had, in ancient times, gone through a totemistic stage.
Another Scottish scholar, Andrew Lang, early in the 20th century, advocated a nominalistic explanation of totemism, that local groups or clans, in selecting a totemistic name from the realm of nature, were reacting to a need to be differentiated. If the origin of the name was forgotten, Lang argued, there followed a mystical relationship between the object — from which the name was once derived — and the groups that bore these names. Through nature myths and natural objects were considered as the relatives, patrons, or ancestors of the respective social units. British anthropologist Sir James George Frazer published Totemism and Exogamy in 1910, a four-volume work based on his research among Indigenous peoples of Australia and Melanesia, along with a compilation of the work of other writers in the field. By 1910, the idea of totemism as having common properties across cultures was being challenged, with Russian American ethnologist Alexander Goldenweiser subjecting totemistic phenomena to sharp criticism.
Goldenweiser compared Indigenous Australians and First Nations in British Columbia to show that the shared qualities of totemism - exogamy, descent from the totem, ceremony, guardian spirits and secret societies and art - were expressed differently between Australia and British Columbia, between different peoples in Australia and between different peoples in British Columbia. He expands his analysis to other groups to show that they share some of the customs associated with totemism, without having totems, he concludes by offering two general definitions of totemism, one of which is: "Totemism is the tendency of definite social units to become associated with objects and symbols of emotional value". The founder of a French school of sociology, Émile Durkheim, examined totemism from a sociological and theological point of view, attempting to discover a pure religion in ancient forms and claimed to see the origin of religion in totemism; the leading representative of British social anthropology, A. R. Radcliffe-Brown, took a different view of totemism.
Like Franz Boas, he was skeptical. In this he opposed the other pioneer of social anthropology in England, Bronisław Malino
The Odawa, said to mean "traders", are an Indigenous American ethnic group who inhabit land in the northern United States and southern Canada. They have long had territory that crosses the current border between the two countries, they are federally recognized as Native American tribes in the United States and have numerous recognized First Nations bands in Canada, they are one of the Anishinaabeg, related to but distinct from the Potawatomi peoples. After migrating from the East Coast in ancient times, they settled on Manitoulin Island, near the northern shores of Lake Huron, the Bruce Peninsula in the present-day province of Ontario, Canada, they considered this their original homeland. After the 17th century, they settled along the Ottawa River, in the states of Michigan and Wisconsin, as well as through the Midwest south of the Great Lakes in the latter country. In the 21st century, there are 15,000 Odawa living in Ontario, Michigan and Oklahoma; the Ottawa dialect is part of the Algonquian language family.
This large family has numerous smaller tribal groups or “bands,” called “Tribe” in the United States and “First Nation” in Canada. Their language is considered a divergent dialect of Ojibwe, characterized by frequent syncope. Odawaa; the Potawatomi spelling of Odawa and the English derivative "Ottawa" are common. The Anishinaabe word for "Those men who trade, or buy and sell" is Wadaawewinini. Fr. Frederic Baraga, a Catholic missionary in Michigan, transliterated this and recorded it in his A Dictionary of the Otchipwe Language as "Watawawininiwok," noting that it meant "men of the bulrushes", associated with the many bulrushes in the Ottawa River. But, this recorded meaning is more appropriately associated with the Matàwackariniwak, a historical Algonquin band who lived along the Ottawa River; the only American tribe, Odawa are the Little Traverse Bay Band of Odawa Indians, the rest are considered Ottawa. Their neighbors applied the "Trader" name to the Odawa because in early traditional times, during the early European contact period, they were noted as intertribal traders and barterers.
The Odawa were described as having dealt "chiefly in cornmeal, sunflower oil and skins, rugs and mats and medicinal roots and herbs."Like the Ojibwe, the Odawa identify as Nishnaabe, meaning "original people". The Odawa name in its English transcription is the source of the place names of Ottawa and the Ottawa River; the Odawa home territory at the time of early European contact, but not their trading zone, was well to the west of the city and river named after them. The tribe is the namesake for Tawas City and Tawas Point, which reflect the syncope-form of their name. Ottawa, Ohio is the county seat of Putnam County, developed at the site of the last Ottawa reservation in Ohio; the Odawa dialect is considered one of several divergent dialects of the Ojibwe language group, noted for its frequent syncope. In the Odawa language, the general language group is known as Nishnabemwin, while the Odawa language is called Daawaamwin. Of the estimated 5,000 ethnic Odawa and additional 10,000 people with some Odawa ancestry, in the early 21st century an estimated 500 people in Ontario and Michigan speak this language.
The Ottawa Tribe of Oklahoma has three fluent speakers. According to Anishinaabeg tradition, from recordings in Wiigwaasabak, the Odawa people came from the eastern areas of North America, or Turtle Island, from along the East Coast. Directed by the miigis beings, the Anishinaabe peoples moved inland along the Saint Lawrence River. At the "Third Stopping Place" near what is now Detroit, the southern group of Anishinaabeg divided into three groups, the Ojibwe and Potawatomi. There is archaeological evidence that the Saugeen Complex people, a Hopewell-influenced group who were located on the Bruce Peninsula during the Middle Woodland period, may have evolved into the Odawa people; the Hopewell tradition was a extended trading network operating from about 200BCE to 500 CE. Some of these peoples constructed earthwork mounds for burials, a practice that ended about 250 CE; the Saugeen mounds have not been excavated. The Odawa, together with the Ojibwe and Potawatomi, were part of a long-term tribal alliance called the Council of Three Fires, which fought the Iroquois Confederacy and the Dakota people.
In 1615 French explorer Samuel de Champlain met 300 men of a nation which, he said, "we call les cheueux releuez" near the French River mouth. Of these, he said: "Their arms consisted only of a bow and arrows, a buckler of boiled leather and the club, they wore no breech clouts, their bodies were tattooed in many fashions and designs, their faces painted and their noses pierced." In 1616, Champlain left the Huron villages and visited the "Cheueux releuez," who lived westward from the lands of the Huron Confederacy. The Jesuit Relations of 1667 report three tribes living in the same town: the Odawa, the Kiskakon Odawa, the Sinago Odawa. All three tribes spoke the same language. Due to the extensive trade network maintained by the Odawa, many of the North American interior nations became known by names which their trading partners used for them, rather than by the nations’ own names. For example, these exonyms include Winnebago for t
The Wyandot people or Wendat called the Huron Nation and Huron people, are an Iroquoian-speaking peoples of North America who emerged as a tribe around the north shore of Lake Ontario. They traditionally spoke the Wyandot language, a Northern Iroquoian language, were believed to number over 30,000 at the time of European encounter in the second decade of the 17th century. By the 15th century, the pre-contact Wyandot had settled in the large area from the north shores of most of present-day Lake Ontario, northwards up to Georgian Bay. From this homeland, they encountered the French explorer Samuel de Champlain in 1615; the historical Wyandot emerged in the late 17th century from the remnants of two earlier groups: the Wyandot Confederacy and the Tionontati. They were located in the southern part of what is now the Canadian province of Ontario around Georgian Bay. Drastically reduced in number by epidemic diseases after 1634, they were dispersed by war in 1649 from the Iroquois based in New York.
Today the Wyandot have a First Nations reserve in Canada. They have three major settlements in the United States, two of which are organized as independently governed, federally recognized tribes. Due to differing development of the groups, they speak distinct forms of Wendat and Wyandot languages; the Huron Range spanned the region from downriver of the source of the St. Lawrence River, along three-quarters of the northern shore of Lake Ontario, to the territory of the related Neutral people, extending north from both ends to wrap around Georgian Bay—which became their territorial center after their 1649 defeat and dispossession. Early theories placed Huron origin in the St. Lawrence Valley, with some arguing for a presence near present-day Montreal and former sites of the historic St. Lawrence Iroquoian peoples. Wendat is an Iroquoian language. Early 21st-century research in linguistics and archaeology confirm an historical connection between the Huron and the St. Lawrence Iroquois, but all of the Iroquoian-speaking peoples shared some aspects of their culture, including the Erie people, any or all of the Six Nations of the Iroquois, or the defunct Susquehannock tribe.
In 1975 and 1978, archeologists excavated a large 15th-century Huron village, now called the Draper Site, in Pickering, Ontario near Lake Ontario. In 2003 a larger village was discovered five kilometres away in Whitchurch-Stouffville; the sites each had been surrounded by a palisade. The Mantle Site had more than 70 multi-family longhouses. Canadian archeologist James F. Pendergast states: Indeed, there is now every indication that the late precontact Huron and their immediate antecedents developed in a distinct Huron homeland in southern Ontario along the north shore of Lake Ontario. Subsequently they moved from there to their historic territory on Georgian Bay, where they were encountered by Champlain in 1615. In the early 17th century, this Iroquoian people called themselves the Wendat, an autonym which means "Dwellers of the Peninsula" or "Islanders"; the Wendat historic territory was bordered on three sides by the waters of Georgian Bay and Lake Simcoe. Early French explorers referred to these natives as the Huron, either from the French huron, or from hure.
According to tradition, French sailors thought that the bristly hairstyle of Wendat warriors resembled that of a boar. French fur traders and explorers called them the "bon Iroquois". An alternate etymology from Russell Errett in 1885 is that the name is from the Iroquoian name Irri-ronon, a name applied to the Erie nation, they pronounced the name as Hirri-ronon in French, known as Hirr-on, spelled in its present form, Huron. William Martin Beauchamp concurred in 1907 that Huron was at least related to the Iroqouian root ronon. Other etymological possibilities come from the Algonquin words tu-ron; the Wendat were not a tribe, but a confederacy of four or more tribes who had mutually intelligible languages. According to tradition, this Wendat Confederacy was initiated by the Attignawantans and the Attigneenongnahacs, who made their alliance in the 15th century, they were joined by the Arendarhonons about 1590, the Tahontaenrats around 1610. A fifth group, the Ataronchronons, may not have attained full membership in the confederacy, may have been a division of the Attignawantan.
The largest Wendat settlement, capital of the confederacy, was located at Ossossane. Modern-day Elmvale, Ontario developed near that site, they called their traditional territory Wendake. Related to the people of the Huron Confederacy were the Tionontate, a group whom the French called the Petun, for their cultivation of that crop, they were divided into two groups: the Deer and the Wolves. Considering that they formed the nucleus of the tribe known as the Wyandot, they too may have called themselves Wendat. Tuberculosis was endemic among the Huron, aggravated by the close and smoky living conditions in the longhouses. Despite this, the Huron on the whole were healthy; the earliest written accounts of the Huron were made by the French, who began exploring North America in the 16th century. News of the Europeans reached the Huron when Samuel de Champlain explored the Saint Lawrence River in the early 17th century; some Hur
Oklahoma is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, Texas on the south, New Mexico on the west, Colorado on the northwest. It is the 28th-most populous of the fifty United States; the state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning "red people". It is known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907, its residents are known as Oklahomans, its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City. A major producer of natural gas and agricultural products, Oklahoma relies on an economic base of aviation, telecommunications, biotechnology.
Both Oklahoma City and Tulsa serve as Oklahoma's primary economic anchors, with nearly two thirds of Oklahomans living within their metropolitan statistical areas. With ancient mountain ranges, prairie and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma lies in the Great Plains, Cross Timbers, the U. S. Interior Highlands, a region prone to severe weather. More than 25 Native American languages are spoken in Oklahoma, ranking third behind Alaska and California. Oklahoma is on a confluence of three major American cultural regions and served as a route for cattle drives, a destination for Southern settlers, a government-sanctioned territory for Native Americans; the name Oklahoma comes from the Choctaw phrase okla humma meaning red people. Choctaw Nation Chief Allen Wright suggested the name in 1866 during treaty negotiations with the federal government on the use of Indian Territory, in which he envisioned an all-Indian state controlled by the United States Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Equivalent to the English word Indian, okla humma was a phrase in the Choctaw language that described Native American people as a whole.
Oklahoma became the de facto name for Oklahoma Territory, it was approved in 1890, two years after the area was opened to white settlers. The name of the state is Pawnee: Uukuhuúwa, Cayuga: Gahnawiyoˀgeh. In the Chickasaw language, the state is known as Oklahomma', in Arapaho as bo'oobe'. Oklahoma is the 20th-largest state in the United States, covering an area of 69,899 square miles, with 68,595 square miles of land and 1,304 square miles of water, it lies in the Great Plains near the geographical center of the 48 contiguous states. It is bounded on the east by Arkansas and Missouri, on the north by Kansas, on the northwest by Colorado, on the far west by New Mexico, on the south and near-west by Texas. Much of its border with Texas lies along a failed continental rift; the geologic figure defines the placement of the Red River. The Oklahoma panhandle's Western edge is out of alignment with its Texas border; the Oklahoma/New Mexico border is 2.1 miles to 2.2 miles east of the Texas line. The border between Texas and New Mexico was set first as a result of a survey by Spain in 1819.
It was set along the 103rd meridian. In the 1890s, when Oklahoma was formally surveyed using more accurate surveying equipment and techniques, it was discovered the Texas line was not set along the 103rd meridian. Surveying techniques were not as accurate in 1819, the actual 103rd meridian was 2.2 miles to the east. It was much easier to leave the mistake than for Texas to cede land to New Mexico to correct the surveying error; the placement of the Oklahoma/New Mexico border represents the true 103rd meridian. Cimarron County in Oklahoma's panhandle is the only county in the United States that touches four other states: New Mexico, Texas and Kansas. Oklahoma is between the Great Plains and the Ozark Plateau in the Gulf of Mexico watershed sloping from the high plains of its western boundary to the low wetlands of its southeastern boundary, its highest and lowest points follow this trend, with its highest peak, Black Mesa, at 4,973 feet above sea level, situated near its far northwest corner in the Oklahoma Panhandle.
The state's lowest point is on the Little River near its far southeastern boundary near the town of Idabel, which dips to 289 feet above sea level. Among the most geographically diverse states, Oklahoma is one of four to harbor more than 10 distinct ecological regions, with 11 in its borders—more per square mile than in any other state, its western and eastern halves, are marked by extreme differences in geographical diversity: Eastern Oklahoma touches eight ecological regions and its western half contains three. Although having fewer ecological regions Western Oklahoma contains many relic species. Oklahoma has four primary mountain ranges: the Ouachita Mountains, the Arbuckle Mountains, the Wichita Mountains, the Ozark Mountains. Contained within the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains are the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachians. A portion of the Flint Hills stretches into north-central Oklahoma, near the state's eastern border, The Oklahoma Tourism & Recreation Department regards Cavanal Hill as the world's tallest hill.
The semi-arid high
Sac and Fox Nation of Missouri in Kansas and Nebraska
The Sac and Fox Nation of Missouri in Kansas and Nebraska is one of three federally recognized Native American tribes of Sac and Meskwaki peoples. Their name for themselves is Nemahahaki and they are an Algonquian people and Eastern Woodland culture; the Sac and Fox Nation of Missouri is headquartered in Kansas. Their tribal chairman is Tiauna Carnes, their acting environmental director is Lisa Montgomery; the Sac and Fox Casino, the Boat Bar, the Chop House steak restaurant, the Deli and the Lodge buffet are all owned by the tribe and located in Powhattan, Kansas. The tribe operates the Fox Nation of Missouri Tribal Museum, located in Reserve, Kansas. Founded in 1996, the museum serves as a research center. Original two distinct tribes, the Sac and Fox joined forces during the 18th century to resist attacks by the French; the Sac traditionally referred to themselves as "People of the Yellow Earth," while the Foxes called themselves "Red Earth People."In 1804 the tribes ceded their traditional homelands to the United States.
The Sac and Fox Nation of Missouri was established by an 1815 treaty, they relocated from Iowa and Illinois to northeastern Missouri. In 1824, they moved again to the Platte Valley. Sac leader, Black Hawk led his people in a war against the United States in 1832. An 1837 treaty relocated the tribe to the Great Nemaha Reservation in Doniphan and Brown counties in Kansas. After several treaties ceded more land, the Dawes Act broke tribal lands into individual allotments. In the 1880s, 360 members lived on the Sac and Fox Reservation, consisting of a 61.226 km² tract in southeastern Richardson County and northeastern Brown County, near Falls City, Nebraska. The tribe organized in 1934 under the Indian Reorganization Act; the reservation had a resident population of 217 people at the 2000 census. During the period from the 1940s - 1960s, in which the Indian termination policy was enforced, four Kansas tribes, including the Sac and Fox Nation were targeted for termination. One of the first pieces of legislation enacted during this period was the Kansas Act of 1940 which transferred all jurisdiction for crimes committed on or against Indians from federal jurisdiction to the State of Kansas.
It did not preclude the federal government from trying native people, but it allowed the state into an area of law in which had belonged only to the federal government. On 1 August 1953, the US Congress passed House Concurrent Resolution 108 which called for the immediate termination of the Flathead, Menominee and Turtle Mountain Chippewa, as well as all tribes in the states of California, New York and Texas. Termination of a tribe meant the immediate withdrawal of all federal aid and protection, as well as the end of reservations. A memo issued by the Department of the Interior on 21 January 1954 clarified that the reference to "Potawatomi" in the Resolution meant the Potawatomi, the Kickapoo, the Sac and Fox Nation of Missouri in Kansas and Nebraska and the Iowa tribes in Kansas; because jurisdiction over criminal matters had been transferred to the State of Kansas by the passage of the Kansas Act of 1940 the government targeted the four tribes in Kansas for immediate termination. In February, 1954 joint hearings for the Kansas tribes were held by the House and Senate Subcommittees on Indian Affairs.
The Prairie Band of Potawatomi Nation tribal leader, Minnie Evans led the effort to stop termination. Tribal members sent petitions of protest to the government and multiple delegations went to testify at congressional meetings in Washington, DC. Tribal Council members Vestana Cadue, Oliver Kahbeah, Ralph Simon of the Kickapoo Tribe in Kansas traveled at their own expense to testify as well; the strong opposition from the Potawatomi and Kickapoo tribes helped them, as well as the Sac & Fox and the Iowa Tribe, avoid termination. Sac and Fox Nation, Oklahoma Sac and Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa Sac and Fox Nation of Missouri
Frank Albert Rinehart was an American artist famous for his photography capturing Native American personalities and scenes portrait settings of leaders and members of the delegations who attended the 1898 Indian Congress in Omaha. German American Rinehart was born in Illinois, he and his brother, moved to Colorado in the 1870s and found employment at the Charles Bohm photography studio, in Denver. In 1881 the Rinehart brothers formed a partnership with famous Western photographer William Henry Jackson, who had achieved widespread fame for his images of the West. Under Jackson's teachings, Rinehart's perfected his professional skills, developed a keen interest in Native American culture. Frank Rinehart and Anna, the receptionist of Jackson's studio, married and in 1885 moved to Nebraska. In downtown Omaha, Rinehart opened a studio in the Brandeis Building, where he worked until his death. Rinehart married Anna Ransom Johnson on 5 September 1885 in Colorado, they had two daughters and Helen, both born in Nebraska.
In 1898, in occasion of the Indian Congress held in conjunction with the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, Rinehart was commissioned to photograph the event and the Native American personalities who attended it. Together with his assistant Adolph Muhr, they produced what is now considered "one of the best photographic documentations of Indian leaders at the turn of the century". Tom Southall, former photograph curator at the University of Kansas' Spencer Art Museum, said of the Rinehart collection: The dramatic beauty of these portraits is impressive as a departure from earlier, less sensitive photographs of Native Americans. Instead of being detached, ethnographic records, the Rinehart photographs are portraits of individuals with an emphasis on strength of expression. While Rinehart and Muhr were not the first photographers to portray Indian subjects with such dignity, this large body of work, seen and distributed may have had an important influence in changing subsequent portrayals of Native Americans.
Rinehart and Muhr photographed American Indians at the Indian Congress in a studio on the Exposition grounds with an 8 x 10 glass-negative camera with a German lens. Platinum prints were produced to achieve the broad range of tonal values. After the Indian Congress and Muhr travelled the Indian reservations for two years, portraying Native American leaders who had not attended the event, as well as depicting general aspects of the indigenous everyday life and culture; the collection of Rinehart Indian Photographs is preserved at Haskell Indian Nations University. Since 1994, the collection has been organized, preserved and cataloged in a computer database, funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Hallmark Foundation, it includes images from the 1898 Exposition, the 1899 Greater America Exposition, studio portraits from 1900, photographs by Rinehart taken at the Crow Agency in Montana in 1900. Beyond the Reach of Time and Change: Native American Reflections on the Frank A. Rinehart Photograph Collection, by Simon J. Ortiz.
University of Arizona Press LJWorld Photogalleries: Frank Rinehart U. S. department of Interior Museum Boston Public Library. Photos by Rinehart
Keokuk (Sauk leader)
Keokuk was a chief of the Sauk or Sac tribe in central North America, for decades was one of the most recognized Native American leaders and noted for his accommodation with the U. S. government. Keokuk always acted as an ardent friend of the whites, his policies were contrary to fellow Sauk chief Black Hawk, who led part of their band to defeat in the Black Hawk War, was returned by U. S. forces to Keokuk's custody, who died a decade before Keokuk. Keokuk was born around 1780 on the Rock River in what soon became Illinois Territory to a Sauk warrior of the Fox clan and his wife of mixed lineage, he lived in a village near what became Peoria, Illinois on the Illinois River, although not of the traditional ruling elite, was elected to the tribal council as a young man. He had a wife, who may be buried in Missouri. During the War of 1812, Keokuk convinced fellow tribal members not to leave their principal village and not to fight for the British and war chief Black Hawk. However, many warriors had left to do so, so Keokuk was elected a war chief and protected his village through oratory.
In 1824, he visited Washington, D. C. with other Native American leaders, including Chief Wapello of the Meskwaki people. Keokuk was noted for his personal bravery as well as oratorical skill. On several occasions, he persuaded tribal assemblies, although before he spoke every member but himself had been determined to the contrary. At one time, in May 1832, Keokuk broke in upon a war dance that his band was holding preparatory to uniting with Black Hawk against the whites, convinced the warriors in the heat of their fury that such would be suicidal and must not be undertaken. Keokuk moved his tribe across the Mississippi River to a site on the Iowa River by 1828, the following year Caleb Atwater met him: Keokuk, the principal warrior of the Sauks, is a shrewd politic man as well as a brave one and he possesses great weight of character in their national councils, he never begs of the whites. While ascending the Mississippi to join us at the head of his brave troops, he met and brought along with him to Fort Crawford two United States soldiers who were deserting from the garrison when he met them.
I informed him that for this act he was entitled to a bounty in money, to which he proudly replied that he acted from motives of friendship towards the United States and would accept no money for it. In July 1830, Keokuk was one of several native leaders who entered into the Fourth Treaty of Prairie du Chien with Indian Agent William Clark; this ceded territory including Saukenuk to the United States. When Black Hawk returned from a foray and found white settlers in his ancestral village, he took up arms, solicited general co-operation from his tribe. However, Keokuk succeeded in keeping the majority of the band at peace, he became one of three "money chiefs" who distributed payments under this and other treaties. Keokuk took every opportunity to attempt to persuade Black Hawk to withdraw from his aggressive position before it was too late, but the U. S. Army and Illinois militia soon defeated Black Hawk's warriors. A four hundred square mile strip surrounding Keokuk's village in Iowa was exempted from the 1832 Black Hawk Purchase, a treaty which ended the war and, negotiated at Fort Armstrong, Illinois in September 1832.
In August 1833, U. S. authorities formally delivered Black Hawk, to the custody of Keokuk, recognized as the principal chief of the Sauks and Foxes in that treaty. In 1837, with several of his nation's village chiefs, Keokuk visited Washington, where a peace was arranged between his people and their old-time adversaries, the Sioux, they visited New York City and Cincinnati, where Keokuk's speeches attracted attention. Black Hawk was with the party. Black Hawk died the following year. In August 1842, Keokuk and several tribal members, visited Nauvoo, he soon negotiated the sale of the tribe's land across the river in Iowa. Thus, in 1845, despite the land reservation in the 1832 treaty, Keokuk's band was moved further west into Kansas.. Keokuk and his people arrived at their new reservation near Ottawa, Kansas in 1845, Keokuk there died in June 1848. Alternate sources describe the cause of his death as dysentery, alcoholism, or poison administered by a disaffected surviving member of the Black Hawk band, soon executed.
His son Moses Keokuk succeeded him as chief, would move the tribe to Oklahoma Territory. Keokuk County and the town of Keokuk, Iowa are named after him, although chief Keokuk had never visited the town before it was incorporated in 1834. Pursuant to the efforts of Iowa judge Caleb Davis, a collector of Native American relics, Chief Keokuk was reburied in Keokuk in 1883, although modern forensics have determined that the remains thus interred were of a much younger man. Nonetheless, the Chief Keokuk Statue, designed by Nellie Walker and erected in 1913, continues to stand today in Keokuk's Rand Park, as erected by the Keokuk chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution. Iowa: A Guide to the Hawkeye State and Written by the Federal Writers' Project of the Works Progress Administration for the State of Iowa, The Viking Press, New York, 1938 "Goodbye My Keokuk Lady" by Raymond E. Garrison, Hamilton, IL: Hamilton Press,1962