Saul Aaron Kripke is an American philosopher and logician. He is a Distinguished Professor of Philosophy at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York and emeritus professor at Princeton University. Since the 1960s, Kripke has been a central figure in a number of fields related to mathematical logic, modal logic, philosophy of language, philosophy of mathematics, metaphysics and recursion theory. Much of his work remains unpublished or exists only as tape recordings and circulated manuscripts. Kripke was the recipient of the 2001 Schock Prize in Philosophy. Kripke has made influential and original contributions to logic modal logic, his work has profoundly influenced analytic philosophy. Another of his most important contributions is his argument that necessity is a "metaphysical" notion that should be separated from the epistemic notion of a priori, that there are necessary truths that are a posteriori truths, such as that water is H2O, he has contributed an original reading of Wittgenstein, referred to as "Kripkenstein."
A 1970 Princeton lecture series, published in book form in 1980 as Naming and Necessity, is considered one of the most important philosophical works of the twentieth century. Saul Kripke is the oldest of three children born to Rabbi Myer S. Kripke, his father was the leader of Beth El Synagogue, the only Conservative congregation in Omaha, Nebraska. Saul and his two sisters and Netta, attended Dundee Grade School and Omaha Central High School. Kripke was labeled a prodigy, teaching himself Ancient Hebrew by the age of six, reading Shakespeare's complete works by nine, mastering the works of Descartes and complex mathematical problems before finishing elementary school, he wrote his first completeness theorem in modal logic at 17, had it published a year later. After graduating from high school in 1958, Kripke attended Harvard University and graduated summa cum laude in 1962 with a bachelor's degree in mathematics. During his sophomore year at Harvard, he taught a graduate-level logic course at nearby MIT.
Upon graduation he received a Fulbright Fellowship, in 1963 was appointed to the Society of Fellows. Kripke said, "I wish I could have skipped college. I got to know some interesting people but I can't say I learned anything. I would have learned it all anyway just reading on my own."After teaching at Harvard, in 1968 Kripke moved to Rockefeller University in New York City, where he taught until 1976. In 1978 he took a chaired professorship at Princeton University. In 1988 he received the university's Behrman Award for distinguished achievement in the humanities. In 2002 Kripke began teaching at the CUNY Graduate Center, in 2003 he was appointed a distinguished professor of philosophy there. Kripke has received honorary degrees from the University of Nebraska, Johns Hopkins University, University of Haifa and the University of Pennsylvania, he is a member of the American Philosophical Society and an elected Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, in 1985 was a Corresponding Fellow of the British Academy.
He won the Schock Prize in Logic and Philosophy in 2001. Kripke was married to philosopher Margaret Gilbert, he is the second cousin once removed of television writer and producer Eric Kripke. Kripke's contributions to philosophy include: Kripke semantics for modal and related logics, published in several essays beginning in his teens, his 1970 Princeton lectures Naming and Necessity, which restructured philosophy of language. His interpretation of Wittgenstein, his theory of truth. He has contributed to recursion theory. Two of Kripke's earlier works, "A Completeness Theorem in Modal Logic" and "Semantical Considerations on Modal Logic", the former written when he was a teenager, were on modal logic; the most familiar logics in the modal family are constructed from a weak logic called K, named after Kripke. Kripke introduced the now-standard Kripke semantics for modal logics. Kripke semantics is a formal semantics for non-classical logic systems, it was first made for modal logics, adapted to intuitionistic logic and other non-classical systems.
The discovery of Kripke semantics was a breakthrough in the making of non-classical logics, because the model theory of such logics was absent before Kripke. A Kripke frame or modal frame is a pair ⟨ W, R ⟩, where W is a non-empty set, R is a binary relation on W. Elements of W are called nodes or worlds, R is known as the accessibility relation. Depending on the properties of the accessibility relation, the corresponding frame is described, by extension, as being transitive, etc. A Kripke model is a triple ⟨ W, R, ⊩ ⟩, where ⟨ W, R ⟩ is a Kripke frame, ⊩ is a relation between nodes of W and modal formulas, such that: w ⊩ ¬ A if and only if w ⊮ A, w ⊩ A → B if and only if
The Flying Horse Carousel is a historic carousel in Watch Hill, the principal summer resort area of the town of Westerly, Rhode Island, United States. It is one of two in the state designated as National Historic Landmarks, along with the Crescent Park Looff Carousel in East Providence, it is the oldest operating carousel in the United States in which the horses are suspended from chains. The carousel is believed to have been built around 1876 by the Charles W. Dare Company of New York; this is about the same time attributed to the construction of the Flying Horses Carousel in Oak Bluffs, although both dates are based on inferences and lack certainty. It consists of twenty horses in two sizes which are suspended by chains from sweeps radiating out from the center of the carousel under its canopy; the bodies of the horses are believed to have been carved from single blocks of wood, with the legs carved separately and attached. The horses still have their original agate eyes; the chains holding the horses are attached to the rump and to an iron bar added to the pommel a modification.
When the carousel rotates, centrifugal force drives the horses outward, giving rise to the name "flying horses." The horses in the Oak Bluffs carousel are fixed to columns between spreader panels above and a platform below. The carousel is located in a wood-frame pavilion at the end of Bay Street in Watch Hill, it is a ten-sided structure with a hipped roof, appears to date to the early 20th century. A low picket fence surrounds the structure to prevent access to the space in which the horses fly when the carousel is in operation; the floor of the pavilion is now concrete. Children younger than 12 years old may ride. In the middle of the ride, a device holding metal rings is lowered for riders to grab; the last ring is brass. The carousel was part of a traveling carnival until 1879, when the carnival was forced to abandon it in Watch Hill, it was powered by a horse with music provided by a hand-cranked organ. Power was provided by water in 1897, the carousel was electrified about 1914, it was extensively damaged by the New England Hurricane of 1938.
However, its horses were recovered from the sand dunes and the carousel was restored to operation. The carousel and its buildings have been the subject of repairs and restorations in the following decades, it is maintained by the non-profit Watch Hill Improvement Society. The carousel was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980 and declared a National Historic Landmark in 1987, it operates annually from June to Labor Day. List of National Historic Landmarks in Rhode Island National Register of Historic Places listings in Washington County, Rhode Island
Nakofunakata Station is a railway station operated by JR East's Uchibō Line located in Tateyama, Chiba Prefecture, Japan. It is 82.1 kilometers from the terminus of the Uchibō Line at Soga Station. Nakofunakata Station was opened on August 10, 1918; the station was absorbed into the JR East network upon the privatization of the Japan National Railways on April 1, 1987. East Japan Railway Company Uchibō Line Nakofunakata Station has a single island platforms serving two tracks; the wooden station building dates from 1918. The station is a Kan ` i. Tateyama Funakata Post Office Tateyama Nako Post Office Nago-dera Funakata Municipal Elementary School Daifuku-ji Tateyama Bay Nako Fishing Port Japan National Route 127 JR East Station information