A sauna, or sudatory, is a small room or building designed as a place to experience dry or wet heat sessions, or an establishment with one or more of these facilities. The steam and high heat make the bathers perspire. Infrared therapy is referred to as a type of sauna, but according to the Finnish sauna organisations, infrared is not a sauna; the oldest-known saunas in Finland were made from pits dug in a slope in the ground and used as dwellings in winter. The sauna featured a fireplace. Water was thrown on the hot stones to give a sensation of increased heat; this would raise the apparent temperature so high. The first Finnish saunas are what nowadays are called savusaunas; these differed from present-day saunas in that they were heated by heating a pile of rocks called kiuas by burning large amounts of wood about 6 to 8 hours, letting the smoke out before enjoying the löyly, or sauna heat. A properly heated "savusauna" gives heat up to 12 hours; as a result of the Industrial Revolution, the sauna evolved to use a metal woodstove, or kiuas Finnish pronunciation:, with a chimney.
Air temperatures averaged around 75–100 °C but sometimes exceeded 110 °C in a traditional Finnish sauna. When the Finns migrated to other areas of the globe they brought their sauna designs and traditions with them; this led to further evolution of the sauna, including the electric sauna stove, introduced in 1938 by Metos Ltd in Vaasa. Although the culture of sauna nowadays is more or less related to Finnish culture, the evolution of sauna happened around the same time both in Finland and the Baltic countries sharing the same meaning and importance of sauna in daily life, shared still to this day; the Sauna became popular in Scandinavia and the German speaking regions of Europe after the Second World War. German soldiers had experienced Finnish saunas during their fight against the Soviet Union on the Soviet-Finnish front of WWII, where they fought on the same side. Saunas were so important to Finnish soldiers that they built saunas not only in mobile tents, but in bunkers. After the war, the German soldiers brought the habit back to Germany and Austria, where it became popular in the second half of the 20th century.
The German sauna culture became popular in neighbouring countries such as Switzerland, the Netherlands and Luxembourg. Archaeological sites in Greenland and Newfoundland have uncovered structures similar to traditional Scandinavian farm saunas, some with bathing platforms and "enormous quantities of badly scorched stones". Areas of the Nordic diaspora, such as the rocky shores of the Orkney islands of Scotland, have many stone structures for normal habitation, some of which incorporate areas for fire and bathing, it is possible some of these structures incorporated the use of steam, in a way similar to the sauna, but this is a matter of speculation. The sites are from the Neolithic age, dating to 4000 B. C. E; the traditional Korean sauna, called the hanjeungmak, is a domed structure constructed of stone, first mentioned in the Sejong Sillok of the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty in the 15th century. Supported by Sejong the Great, the hanjeungmak was touted for its health benefits and used to treat illnesses.
In the early 15th century, Buddhist monks maintained hanjeungmak clinics, called hanjeungso, to treat sick poor people. Korean sauna culture and kiln saunas are still popular today, Korean saunas are ubiquitous. Borrowed from the early Proto-Germanic *stakna- whose descendants include English stack, the word sauna is an ancient Finnish word referring to the traditional Finnish bath and to the bathhouse itself. In Finnic languages other than Finnish and Estonian and cognates do not mean a building or space built for bathing, it can mean a small cabin or cottage, such as a cabin for a fisherman. The sauna known in the western world today originates from Northern Europe. In Finland, there are built-in saunas in every house. Under many circumstances, temperatures approaching and exceeding 100 °C would be intolerable and fatal if exposed to long periods of time. Saunas overcome this problem by controlling the humidity; the hottest Finnish saunas have low humidity levels in which steam is generated by pouring water on the hot stones.
This allows air temperatures that could boil water to be tolerated and enjoyed for longer periods of time. Steam baths, such as the Turkish bath, where the humidity approaches 100%, will be set to a much lower temperature of around 40 °C to compensate; the "wet heat" would cause scalding. In a typical Finnish sauna, the temperature of the air, the room and the benches is above the dew point when water is thrown on the hot stones and vaporised. Thus, they remain dry. In contrast, the sauna bathers are at about 38 °C, below the dew point, so that water is condensed on the bathers' skin; this process makes the steam feel hot. Finer control over the temperature experienced can be achieved by choosing a higher-level bench for those wishing a hotter experience or a lower-level bench for a more moderate temperature. A good sauna has a small temperature gradient between the various seating levels. Doors need to be kept closed and used to maintain the temperature inside; some North American, Western European, Japanese and South African public sport centres and gyms include sauna facilities.
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Brahmachari is a 1968 Telugu drama film, produced by A. V. Subba Rao under the Prasad Art Productions banner and directed by Tatineni Rama Rao, it stars Akkineni Nageswara Rao, Jayalalithaa in the lead roles and music composed by T. Chalapathi Rao; the film was remade in Hindi as Ek Nari Ek Brahmachari. The film begins on Ramakrishna a college student, a devout worshiper of Lord Hanuman and vows of celibacy. Vasantha his classmate quite likes his nobleness. Raisahib Parandhamaiah his father a domineering paterfamilias person is distressed by Ramakrishna's behavior. Once the entire college visits a picnic spot where unintentionally Ramakrishna misplaces Vasantha's locket. Remorseful Ramakrishna replaces it with a pendant when his naughty friend takes a photograph and write a love letter to Vasantha forging Ramakrishna's signature. Parallelly, a glimpse, Raisahib plots to perform espousal of Ramakrishna with Kokila daughter of a wealthy man Bangaraiah and love interest to Ramakrishna's best friend Joogulu.
Both of them make a game plan when Ramakrishna sends Joogulu as an alternative and they are coupled up. In the meantime, squeeze out her love when Ramakrishna scorn the women and Vasantha flounces out, vowing to become his bride. After a few days, as a flabbergast, Vasantha arrives at Raisahib's house along with a baby claiming that Ramakrishna had married and abandoned her. Ramakrishna rushes when she shows love letter & pendant as proofs and resides. At present, Ramakrishna fails. Right now, Raisahib & his wife Gajalaxmi decides to couple up Ramakrishna & Vasantha when they call their elder son Anand Rao & daughter-in-law Shanta. Here Ananda Rao recognizes Vasantha intimidates which Ramakrishna overhears and seeks for truth. Vasantha narrates the past, Ananda Rao deceived Vasantha's elder sister Janaki and she has died after giving birth to the baby. Before dying, Janaki takes a word from Vasantha to make the child as Raisahib's heir and to fulfill her sister's dream Vasantha has done the play.
At last, Anand Rao reforms and accepts the baby when Vasantha is about to leave Ramakrishna dedicates his celibacy to her. The movie ends on a happy note with the marriage of Ramakrishna & Vasantha. Akkineni Nageswara Rao as Ramakrishna Jayalalithaa as Vasantha Nagabhushanam as Raisahib Parandhamaiah Ramana Reddy as Bangaraiah Chalam as Jogulu Raja Babu as Devaiah Prabhakar Reddy as Ananda Rao Raavi Kondala Rao as Doctor Perumallu as Vasantha's grandfather Potti Prasad as Sodabuddi Suryakantham as Gajalakshmi Rama Prabha as Mallika Sukanya as Janaki Pushpa Kumari as Shanta Art: G. V. Subba Rao Choreography: Tangappa Fights: Raghavulu Dialogues: Bhamidapaati Radha Krishna Lyrics: Athreya, Kosaraju, C. Narayana Reddy Playback: Ghantasala, P. Susheela, S. Janaki, TR Jayadev, B. Vasantha Music: T. Chalapathi Rao Story: Balamurugan Editing: J. Krishna Swamy Cinematography: P. S. Selvaraj Producer: A. V. Subba Rao Screenplay - Director: Tatineni Rama Rao Banner: Prasad Art Productions Release Date: 1968 Music composed by T. Chalapathi Rao.
Music released on Audio Company. Brahmachari Telugu film at IMDb
The Blue-throated bee-eater is a species of bird in the bee-eater family. They are found throughout southeast Asia in subtropical or tropical mangrove forests, their diet consists of bees and dragonflies. Blue-throated bee-eaters are small with colorful plumage consisting of a red nape, dark green wings, light green breast, their signature blue throat. Juvenile plumage contain dark green head and wings and light green breasts, only developing their full plumage in adulthood, they have a rich variety of songs and calls, including longcalls which allow them to communicate long distances in the forest. Blue-throated bee-eaters practice asynchronous brooding, which means that chicks hatch at different times pairing with siblicide. Older chicks are not only larger and able to withstand larger wounds from other siblings, but have the ability to monopolize the food they are fed by parents. There has been several observations of migration between islands in southeast Asia or onto mainland of Asia. One notable seasonal spring migration occurs from Sumatra, across the Strait of Malacca, ending on the west coast of Malaysia.
They migrate from southeast Asia to breeding grounds in western China during breeding season. Conservation status of the blue-throated bee-eaters is of "least concern" due to their large distribution and stability of its population as of 2016. However, deforestation may be its biggest threat, destroying its habitat and decreasing other bird diversities. Blue-throated bee-eaters are part of the family Meropidae, which are the bee-eaters, including 27 other birds. Another alternate common name they have is the chestnut-headed bee-eater. Two subspecies are recognized: M. v. viridis - Linnaeus, 1758: Found from southern China to Indochina and the Greater Sundas Rufous-crowned bee-eater - Statius Müller, PL, 1776: Considered by some authorities as a separate species. Found in the PhilippinesM. v. americanus was identified to be the same as M. v. viridis by Sibley and Monroe in 1990 and 1993. They have only been separated into subspecies. Adult blue-throated bee-eaters grow to around 21 cm, with an additional 9 cm including tail streamers.
They weigh around 34 to 41 grams. Adults have spectacular plumage with a red crown and nape, dark green wings, blue tail, light green breast, white belly, the signature blue throat. Juveniles develop their full plumage with green coloration all over their body, they have wings and light green breast. Both adults and juveniles have black eye patches. Eye color can range between brown, or a combination. Blue-throated bee-eaters make a combination of vocalizations characterized as longcalls, alarm calls, low chirps, sharp cooes and feeding calls. Longcalls have been observed to communicate long distances and are recognizable by their volume and intensity. A longcall is performed either during flight or on a perch by stretching and pointing their bill upwards, known as a “longcall” posture. Chirps are short and sharp with regular intervals used during digs, they have a wide distribution ranging from southeastern China to the Greater Sundas Islands. The most concentrated distribution is found in Singapore, southern Cambodia, southern Thailand.
Other locations with greater dispersal include Java. They live in lower elevations between 0–670 meters, their habitat includes a wide variety of flat plains, such as farmland, suburban gardens, riversides and sandy clearings. In the winter, some blue-throated bee-eaters move to forest canopies and saltwater channels of mangrove forests, they dig burrows horizontally into flat ground, allowing easier access compared to burrows in sand cliffs of other bee-eaters. Colony sizes range from 50 to 200 pairs or living solitary in the open country. Blue-throated bee-eaters have a generation rate of around 6.2 years. They practice asynchronous brooding, meaning parents begin brooding at different times; this results in hatching of chicks at different times. The eggs hatch over a period of ten days with an average spread of 4.43 ±12.15 days. The sequence and timing of the hatching of chicks is correlated with size, with the first-born chick having the greatest mass. Parents lay two to seven eggs with a survival of zero to three chicks raised to fledging.
The chicks die in order, starting from youngest and smallest. The observed death rate in chicks was caused by sibling attacks by utilizing a sharp hook on the upper bill lost in development, inflicting wounds on the naked head of other chicks; those chicks who are older have time to grow more contour feathers, protecting them from damaging attacks. Siblicide is common among other birds to increase the larger and older chick's survival with greater access to food by the parents. Sibling attacks are more common among birds when food is monopolized. In the blue-throated bee-eater's case, insects are delivered one by one to the chicks, making food monopolized to chicks with the greater advantage. Increasing brood size did not increase the survival of the chicks. Decreasing body mass is correlated with increasing wounds and scars found on the individual chicks, which increased the likelihood of death, they predominantly feed on flying insects such as wasps. Other insects caught include flies and other bugs up to 42mm.
A large percentage of the blue-throated bee eater's diet consists of dragonflies with highest success rate of their catches in sunny conditions. Observations found no feeding activities during right after showers, their feeding patterns are well-matched with the seasonal weather patterns. The highest feeding rate is during breeding season matching the sunniest
Criminal Shadows: Inside the Mind of the Serial Killer is a book written by English professor of psychology, David V. Canter, it was the winner of two literary awards: the Gold Dagger for Non-Fiction and the Anthony Award for Best True Crime. A unique insight into some of Britain’s most notorious criminal investigations, this is the account of Professor Canter's experience as Britain’s leading pioneer in the new science of criminal psychological profiling. Canter takes the reader step by step through his development of profiling and through many of his successes with this technique, by which the psychological traces surrounding the crime – the tell-tale patterns of behavior – were used to indicate the personality of the offender. Criminal Shadows, revealing privileged information for the first time about some of the world’s most gruesome crimes, introduces us to the detective work of the future; the original hardcover edition was published by Hutchinson in 1992 under the title Criminal Shadows: Detecting Rapists and Killers.
Under the present title, it was published by HarperCollins as a hardcover in 1994 and as a paperback in 1995. Endeavor Press published the Kindle Edition E-book in 2015. CWA Gold Dagger for Non-Fiction Anthony Award for Best True Crime FBI method of profiling Behavioral Analysis Unit Book review on The Independent As listed at the British Library As listed at the Library of Congress As listed at the University of Lincoln As listed at the National Library of Australia
The Hyundai i10 is a city car produced by the South Korean manufacturer Hyundai since 2007. It replaced the Hyundai Atos in the model line-up, was available only as a five-door hatchback body style; the second generation of the car was presented in August 2013 and released in the beginning of 2014. A larger version, the Grand i10, was developed for the Asian market and was released in September 2013, together with a sedan model, the Hyundai Xcent; the first generation i10 had its world premiere on 31 October 2007, in India. It is produced in India at Hyundai's Chennai plant for the domestic and export markets. In Europe, it has four different versions: Classic, Style and Eco Blue Version, with a 1.0 liter engine. All versions come with four airbags, ABS, front electric windows, air conditioning and an RDS radio/CD player. Higher versions have heated front seats, electric sunroof, start-stop system, optional, there is ESP. Hyundai started development of the i10 to replace the Hyundai Atos known as the Santro.
The development for the concept was codenamed Hyundai PA. The car was targeted at the Indian market and intended for production in India, given the popularity of hatchback subcompacts in the country; the i10 has a large gaping air dam, pulled-back headlamps, chrome lined grille, integrated clear lens fog lamps, a hood that has a clam shell hint and a rear window with an up swept kink. The tailgate has a chrome lined boot release handle, an integrated roof spoiler on the top end versions. Overall length and wheelbase are identical to the Santro with more interior space; the width has been increased by 70 mm for more shoulder room. The height has been reduced by 40 mm. Boot space at 225 litres is lower than that of Getz; the interior has a plastic dash housing with an optional integrated stereo. The instrument binnacle has a large white faced speedometer, flanked by the tachometer and fuel and temperature gauges; the gear lever is built into the center console, leaving space between the front seats for a couple of cup holders.
In September 2010, Hyundai introduced a facelift for the i10. Sporting an innovative design look and an array of contemporary features. Hyundai introduced an all new front end design inspired by the Fluidic Sculpture design language, its centrepiece is a new radiator grille. It boasts a bracing set of 3D wraparound headlamps with multi reflector chrome surround fog lamps; the bumpers have been redesigned with a new front grille to lend a more aggressive look. It features a micro roof antenna, body color door handles and the side indicator lights incorporated on the outside rear view mirror; the rear of new i10 boasts of sleek and elongated tail lamps, bold rear bumper with body colored inserts as well as rear bumper reflectors and trendy full wheel cover. The new i10 has a two tone beige and light brown color in certain markets. To impart a more aesthetic appeal, the interiors have been accentuated with chrome and silver accents at multiple points. Other interesting design features like metal finish center console, new instrument cluster, blue interior illumination, etc. have been added to offer a more luxurious and ergonomic experience.
Apart from this, the i10 brings in a host of innovative design features like first in segment gear shift indicator display, digital fuel indicator, steering mounted audio and bluetooth controls and multiple power outlets The i10 was launched with a 1.1 liter 65 bhp I4 iRDE engine, the same motor used in the Kia Picanto and Hyundai Atos Prime/Santro Xing but with lower CO2 emissions. The i10 comes with a 1.2 liter gasoline Euro 5 compliant engine, with the same CO2 emissions as the 1.1L version. The spark plug of the 1.2L is non-standard. A 1.1 liter three cylinder diesel CRDi variant is available in Europe and Indian Market, but has not yet been introduced into the United Kingdom. Hyundai unveiled the i10 concept Electric at the Delhi Auto Expo in 2009; the i10 based electric car is called BlueOn. In 2010 Hyundai launched a facelifted version of the i10 in India which uses a Kappa II engine with VTVT Technology to further improve performance of this engine. Hyundai engineers have taken the existing 1.2 liter four cylinder Kappa engine and added VTVT.
The i10 is the first small car in the country to receive variable valve timing making it, on paper at least, the most sophisticated 1.2 liter engine in its segment. This system, working on the intake side, helps in altering the valve timing and lift according to the situation and thus improves low end responses and fuel efficiency. VTVT has not increased the horsepower and it is still rated at 80 PS; however the engine is reported to feel more refined and show little vibration at higher revs Hyundai i10 was recognized as "Car of the Year 2008" by various automotive magazines and television channels in India, like BS Motoring, CNBC-TV18 AutoCar, NDTV Profit Car & Bike India and Overdrive magazine. The car was conferred with the Indian Car of the Year by automotive media of the country. In Malaysia, the Hyundai i10 has earned recognition through many awards such as the Best People's Car in the Asian Auto – VCA Auto Industry Awards 2009, 1st Place in Asian Auto-Mudah.my Fuel Efficiency Awards 2009 in the Compact City Cars Category with a combined fuel efficiency of 5.0l/100 km, not only the best performance
Yadupati Acharya was an Indian philosopher and scholar in the Dvaita Vedānta tradition. He is the disciple of Vedesa Bhiksu. According to hegiographies, Yadupati was born in Kannada - Speaking Deshastha Brahmin family in 1580 in a village called Yekkundi, located in Saundatti taluk of Belgaum district, his father name is Yadappayya. There have been nine works accredited to Yadupati, most of which are glosses, polemical tracts and commentaries, his gloss on Tattva Samkhyana of Madhva runs to 300 granthas. He made a commentary on Tattvoddyota of Madhva, his Nyayasudha Tippani, a commentary on Nyayasudha of Jayatirtha is the most important of his works. This commentary is distinctly anterior to that of Raghavendra Tirtha and perhaps to that of Vidyadhisha Tirtha, he tried to overthrow the objection raised by a critic Appayya Dixita alleging misrepresentations of the Mimamsaka view in Anuvyakhyana of Madhva. Yadupati made two commentaries on the Bhagavata, a work on Bhagvata Tatparya Nirnaya of Madhva and a work on Bhagavata Purana.
His made a commentary of Yamakabharata. There are three minor works ascribed to him one is a commentary on Sadachara Smriti of Madhva and three stotras. Sharma, B. N. Krishnamurti. A History of the Dvaita School of Vedānta and Its Literature, Vol 1. 3rd Edition. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-8120815759. Larson, Gerald James; the Encyclopedia of Indian philosophies, Volume 1. American Institute of Indian Studies. Potter, Karl H.. Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Dvaita Vedanta Philosophy. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 978-8120836464