The Chattooga River is the main tributary of the Tugaloo River. Its headwaters are located southwest of Cashiers, North Carolina, it stretches 57 miles to where it has its confluence with the Tallulah River within Lake Tugalo, held back by the Tugalo Dam; the Chattooga and the Tallulah combine to make the Tugaloo River starting at the outlet of Lake Tugalo. The Chattooga begins in southern Jackson County, North Carolina flows southwestward between northwestern Oconee County, South Carolina, eastern Rabun County, Georgia; the "Chattooga" spelling was approved by the US Board on Geographic Names in 1897. The Chattooga River flows into Tugalo Lake. After flowing through Tugalo Dam the combined rivers become the Tugaloo River which, along with the Seneca River, becomes the Savannah River below Lake Hartwell. Downstream from that point, the water flows into the Atlantic Ocean near Georgia; the Chattooga was used as a setting for the fictional Cahulawassee River in the book and film Deliverance. The Chattooga River serves as part of the boundary between Georgia and South Carolina near latitude 35°N.
The Chattooga River was not the original boundary line between South Georgia. A treaty of 1816 extended the South Carolina boundary to its current location. Prior to 1816, the Chattooga was on the lands of the Cherokee Indian Nation; the Blue Ridge Mountains, where the Chattooga starts, are considered to be ancient by geological standards. The rock is granite. Geologists believe, it flowed southwesterly into the Chattahoochee riverbed and on to the Gulf of Mexico, but at some point, the Savannah River eroded its northern headland until it intersected the Chattooga and diverted it to the Atlantic. The rocks in the riverbed fell from the ridge above, but those rocks do not remain where they fall. In times of great downpours, high water, fast currents, rocks can become dislodged and move downstream, taking other rocks and debris with them. During Hurricane Ivan in 2004, the wind force and waters knocked down big boulders off the sides; the hurricane released enough water in the Chattooga watershed to bring the river to its highest recorded flow rate, around 26,000 cu ft/s to 28,000 cu ft/s, rivaling the typical flow of the Grand Canyon.
Since May 10, 1974, the Chattooga River has been protected along a 15,432-acre corridor as a national Wild and Scenic River. 39.8 miles of the river have been designated “wild”, about 2.5 miles “scenic”, 14.6 miles “recreational” for a total of about 57 miles. On the commercially rafted sections there is a 1/4 mile protected corridor of National Forest on both sides of the river, allowing no roads to the river or development of any kind. There are a few areas on the river where access has been made more accessible on Section III, but much of Section IV is remote; the Chattooga bisects the Ellicott Rock Wilderness which straddles three states and three National Forests. Much of the Georgia portion of the river is within the Chattooga River Ranger District of the Chattahoochee National Forest. Known as the "Crown Jewel" of the southeast, the Chattooga was the first river east of the Mississippi to be granted the Wild & Scenic designation, is still the only one, commercially rafted; the river is split into three forks.
The Chattooga River is the main fork. The East Fork Chattooga River runs in from Jackson County, North Carolina and Oconee County, South Carolina, is 7.4 miles long. The West Fork Chattooga River runs 6.0 miles in from Rabun County, is a variant name for that county's Holcomb Creek, one of its own tributaries. One of the largest tributaries in the Chattooga basin that flows through private lands is Stekoa Creek, which flows southeast for 18 miles from its headwaters in Mountain City, through Clayton, Georgia, to its mouth at the Chattooga River. Stekoa Creek has been the single greatest threat to the Chattooga's water quality for over 40 years, due to raw sewage leaking from the City of Clayton, GA's old sewage collection system, storm drains overflowing, sediment-laden runoff, poor agricultural practices, failing septic systems, dumping from apathetic individuals; the Chattooga Conservancy, a non-profit organization dedicated to the protection and restoration of the Chattooga River watershed, has made the neglected issue of improving water quality in Stekoa Creek a top priority.
The Stekoa Creek Basin is 45 square miles in size. In the late spring, the river is lined with white mountain laurel. Early spring is a great time to go rafting, kayaking, or canoeing because of the higher flows and cooler temperatures; the Chattooga is a free-flowing river which responds to rainfall or drought conditions. As a drop-pool style river, rapids are followed by calm pools for swimming; the Chattooga headwaters start near Cashiers as a small stream, but Green Creek is the start of the boatable section. Section I is ideal for tubing and class II float trips. Section II starting at Highway 28 is a class. Section III has Class II-IV rapids which kayakers frequent; the final rapid in Section III is Bull Sluice. Section IV inc
Atlantic Seaboard fall line
The Atlantic Seaboard Fall Line, or Fall Zone, is a 900-mile escarpment where the Piedmont and Atlantic coastal plain meet in the eastern United States. Much of the Atlantic Seaboard fall line passes through areas where no evidence of faulting is present; the fall line marks the geologic boundary of hard metamorphosed terrain—the product of the Taconic orogeny—and the sandy flat outwash plain of the upper continental shelf, formed of unconsolidated Cretaceous and Cenozoic sediments. Examples of Fall Zone features include the Potomac River's Little Falls and the rapids in Richmond, where the James River falls across a series of rapids down to its own tidal estuary. Before navigation improvements such as locks, the fall line was the head of navigation on rivers due to their rapids or waterfalls, the necessary portage around them. Numerous cities formed along the fall line because of the availability of water power to operate mills which concentrated mercantile traffic and labor. U. S. Route 1 and I-95 link many of the fall line cities.
In 1808, Treasury Secretary Albert Gallatin noted the significance of the fall line as an obstacle to improved national communication and commerce between the Atlantic seaboard and the western river systems: The most prominent, though not the most insuperable obstacle in the navigation of the Atlantic rivers, consists in their lower falls, which are ascribed to a presumed continuous granite ridge, rising about one hundred and thirty feet above tide water. That ridge from New York to James River inclusively arrests the ascent of the tide. Other falls of less magnitude are found at the gaps of the Blue Ridge, through which the rivers have forced their passage... Some cities that lie along the Piedmont–Coastal Plain fall line include the following: Trenton, New Jersey, on the Delaware River. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on the Schuylkill River. Wilmington, Delaware, on the Brandywine River Perryville and Havre de Grace, Maryland, on the Susquehanna River/head of Chesapeake Bay. Baltimore, Maryland, on Herring Run, Jones Falls, Gwynns Falls.
Elkridge, Maryland, on the Patapsco River. Laurel, Maryland, on the Patuxent River. Washington, D. C. on the Potomac River. Occoquan, Virginia, on the Occoquan River. Fredericksburg, Virginia on the Rappahannock River. Richmond, Virginia, on the James River. Petersburg, Virginia, on the Appomattox River. Weldon, North Carolina, Roanoke Rapids, North Carolina, on the Roanoke River Greenville, North Carolina, on the Tar River. Raleigh, North Carolina, on the Neuse River. Fayetteville, North Carolina, on the Cape Fear River. Lumberton, North Carolina, on the Lumber River. Cheraw, South Carolina, on the Pee Dee River. Camden, South Carolina, on the Wateree River. Columbia, South Carolina, on the Congaree River. Augusta, Georgia, on the Savannah River. Milledgeville, Georgia, on the Oconee River. Macon, Georgia, on the Ocmulgee River. Columbus, Georgia, on the Chattahoochee River. Tallassee, Alabama, on the Tallapoosa River Wetumpka, Alabama, on the Coosa River Tuscaloosa, Alabama, on the Black Warrior River
The Tugaloo River is a 45.9-mile-long river bordering the U. S. states of South Carolina. It was named for the Cherokee town of Tugaloo at the mouth of Toccoa Creek, near present-day Toccoa and Travelers Rest in Stephens County, Georgia, it is fed by the Tallulah River and the Chattooga River, which each form an arm of Lake Tugalo, on the edge of Georgia's Tallulah Gorge State Park. The Tugaloo flows out of the lake via Tugaloo Dam, passing into Lake Yonah and through Yonah Dam; the river ends as an arm of Lake Hartwell, as does South Carolina's Seneca River. After flowing out of Lake Hartwell, it is called the Savannah River. Territorial claims to the river and its islands were settled with the Treaty of Beaufort in 1787, as interpreted in the two Georgia v. South Carolina cases before the U. S. Supreme Court in 1922 and 1989; the river is one of the boundaries of the Treaty of New York. The river's watershed is home to some of the most challenging whitewater in the Southeast, luring sport kayakers and canoeists from all over the country.
The name of the river comes from Tugaloo, a Cherokee town, located on the river near the mouth of Toccoa Creek. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Tugaloo River South Carolina DHEC
Lake Hartwell is a man-made reservoir bordering Georgia and South Carolina on the Savannah and Seneca Rivers. Lake Hartwell is one of the southeast's most popular recreation lakes; the lake is created by Hartwell Dam located on the Savannah River seven miles below the point at which the Tugaloo and Seneca Rivers join to form the Savannah. Extending 49 miles up the Tugaloo and 45 miles up the Seneca at normal pool elevation, the lake comprises nearly 56,000 acres of water with a shoreline of 962 miles; the entire Hartwell "Project" contains 76,450 acres of water. I-85 bisects Hartwell Lake and makes the area accessible to visitors; the Flood Control Act of 17 May 1950 authorized the Hartwell Dam and Reservoir as the second unit in the comprehensive development of the Savannah River Basin. The estimated cost was $68.4 million based on preliminary designs. The original project provided for a gravity-type concrete dam 2,415 feet long with earth embankments at either end, which would be 6,050 feet long on the Georgia side and 3,935 feet long on the South Carolina side.
The 12,400 foot long dam was to be topped with a roadway 24 feet wide. The main dam was to consist of two non-overflow concrete sections on the right and left banks 887 feet and 940 feet long, respectively. Full power pool was designed to be 660 feet above mean sea level. At this elevation, the reservoir would extend 7.1 miles up the Savannah River to the confluence of the Tugaloo and Seneca Rivers. The reservoir would cover 56,500 acres and would involve the relocation of 3 sections of railroad totaling 2 miles, the raising of 2 railroad bridges, construction of 6 sections of new state high- ways totaling 19.6 miles and 9 sections of county roads totaling 12.7 miles, the construction of 9 new bridges and the raising of 4 existing bridges, the relocation of 2 power transmission lines. Construction of the Hartwell project took place from 1955 and was completed in 1963, and construction of the dam started in 1955 and was finished in 1959. Lake Hartwell is named for the American Revolutionary War figure Nancy Hart.
Nancy Hart lived in the Georgia frontier, it was her devotion to freedom that has helped make her name commonplace in the Georgia upcountry. A county, lake, state park and highway among others, bear her name; the Droughts and water levels of Lake Hartwell: 1989 was the first year the lake hit a level 3 dropping to its lowest level during the drought that year. 2008 was the second time the lake hit a level 3. In the year of 2008, due to severe drought in the southeastern United States, the lake dropped to over 22 feet below its normal water level in December 2008; this revealed old highways that were underwater, exposed islands that are topped with buoys to warn boaters, left some boat shells sitting on dry land. The Lake reached it lowest level, 637.49 feet, on December 9, 2008. The highest lake elevation was 665.4 feet, reached on April 8, 1964. Overall the average lake elevation is 657.5 feet. As of the first of October 2010, the lake was back up to just over 654 feet; this rebound in lake level is due to releases from the lake being suspended for a month ending April 10, 2009 in an effort to return Lake Hartwell to normal elevations.
The area around Lake Hartwell has a rich history, much of the land seized from the Cherokee Indians and colonized by early settlers. Many streams and recreation areas have been named after these early settlers. Issaqueena, a young Indian maiden who rode to Fort Ninety-Six to warn settlers of an attack named some streams. Along her journey, she marked her travel by naming streams that she encountered for the number of miles she had covered. Issaqueena named Six-Mile, Twelve-Mile, Three-and-Twenty Mile and Six-and-Twenty Mile creeks, which are still a part of the lake today. Other historic figures that lived around this area were Andrew Pickens and John C. Calhoun, both statesmen from South Carolina. William Bartram traveled the area recording vegetation types and plant species; the first challenge was in August 1956 when Mrs. Eliza Brock and her daughter refused to allow workmen to come on their property to begin clearing for the reservoir area; this involved 103 acres of land that the government gained ownership of in June 1956.
Mrs. Brock never received the offer for her land therefore refusing to allow them on her property. After delaying construction and after an October 1956 federal ruling, Mrs. Brock settled on $6,850 for her property; the next challenge took place in late 1956 when Clemson College objected to the damage that would be done to its property as a result of the impounded water in the reservoir, including plans that would flood Memorial Stadium. After countless meetings Clemson settled on an agreement where two diversion dams would be built in the vicinity of Clemson College and rechannel the Seneca River. Since its construction, Hartwell Reservoir has provided good fishing habitat for many species. Bream, smallmouth bass and largemouth bass are occurring species in the lake, with quality fishing available for those species; the most popular fishing on Lake Hartwell, has become
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together refers to the joining of tributaries; the opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream. Distributaries are most found in river deltas. "Right tributary" and "left tributary" are terms stating the orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream. In the United States, where tributaries sometimes have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks; these are designated by compass direction. For example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks.
The Chicago River's North Branch has the East and Middle Fork. Forks are sometimes left. Here, the "handedness" is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream. For instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary, called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river and ending with those nearest to the mouth of the river; the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary. Another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure. A gallery of major river basins with tributaries Estuary
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States of America referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865. The Confederacy was formed by seven secessionist slave-holding states—South Carolina, Florida, Georgia and Texas—in the Lower South region of the United States, whose economy was dependent upon agriculture cotton, a plantation system that relied upon the labor of African-American slaves; each state declared its secession from the United States, which became known as the Union during the ensuing civil war, following the November 1860 election of Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln to the U. S. presidency on a platform which opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories. Before Lincoln took office in March, a new Confederate government was established in February 1861, considered illegal by the government of the United States. States volunteered militia units and the new government hastened to form its own Confederate States Army from scratch overnight.
After the American Civil War began in April, four slave states of the Upper South—Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina—also declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The Confederacy accepted Missouri and Kentucky as members, although neither declared secession nor were they largely controlled by Confederate forces; the government of the United States rejected the claims of secession and considered the Confederacy illegally founded. The War began with the Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. No foreign government recognized the Confederacy as an independent country, although Great Britain and France granted it belligerent status, which allowed Confederate agents to contract with private concerns for arms and other supplies. In early 1865, after four years of heavy fighting which led to 620,000–850,000 military deaths, all the Confederate forces surrendered and the Confederacy vanished; the war lacked a formal end.
By 1865 Jefferson Davis, the President of the Confederate States of America for the duration of the civil war, lamented that the Confederacy had "disappeared". On February 22, 1862, the Confederate Constitution of seven state signatories – Mississippi, South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia and Texas – replaced the Provisional Constitution of February 8, 1861, with one stating in its preamble a desire for a "permanent federal government". Four additional slave-holding states – Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina – declared their secession and joined the Confederacy following a call by U. S. President Abraham Lincoln for troops from each state to recapture Sumter and other seized federal properties in the South. Missouri and Kentucky were represented by partisan factions adopting the forms of state governments without control of substantial territory or population in either case; the antebellum state governments in both maintained their representation in the Union. Fighting for the Confederacy were two of the "Five Civilized Tribes" – the Choctaw and the Chickasaw – in Indian Territory and a new, but uncontrolled, Confederate Territory of Arizona.
Efforts by certain factions in Maryland to secede were halted by federal imposition of martial law. A Unionist government was formed in opposition to the secessionist state government in Richmond and administered the western parts of Virginia, occupied by Federal troops; the Restored Government recognized the new state of West Virginia, admitted to the Union during the war on June 20, 1863, re-located to Alexandria for the rest of the war. Confederate control over its claimed territory and population in congressional districts shrank from 73% to 34% during the course of the American Civil War due to the Union's successful overland campaigns, its control of the inland waterways into the South, its blockade of the southern coast. With the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, the Union made abolition of slavery a war goal; as Union forces moved southward, large numbers of plantation slaves were freed. Many joined the Union lines, enrolling in service as soldiers and laborers; the most notable advance was Sherman's "March to the Sea" in late 1864.
Much of the Confederacy's infrastructure was destroyed, including telegraphs and bridges. Plantations in the path of Sherman's forces were damaged. Internal movement became difficult for Southerners, weakening the economy and limiting army mobility; these losses created an insurmountable disadvantage in men and finance. Public support for Confederate President Jefferson Davis's administration eroded over time due to repeated military reverses, economic hardships, allegations of autocratic government. After four years of campaigning, Richmond was captured by Union forces in April 1865. A few days General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant signalling the collapse of the Confederacy. President Davis was captured on May 10, 1865, jailed in preparation for a treason trial, never held; the initial Confederacy was established in the Montgomery Convention in February 1861 by seven states (South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana
Abraham Lincoln was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the nation through the American Civil War, its bloodiest war and its greatest moral and political crisis, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, modernized the U. S. economy. Born in Kentucky, Lincoln grew up on the frontier in a poor family. Self-educated, he became Whig Party leader, state legislator and Congressman, he left government to resume his law practice, but angered by the success of Democrats in opening the prairie lands to slavery, reentered politics in 1854. He became a leader in the new Republican Party and gained national attention in 1858 for debating and losing to national Democratic leader Stephen A. Douglas in a Senate campaign, he ran for President in 1860, sweeping the North and winning. Southern pro-slavery elements took his win as proof that the North was rejecting the Constitutional rights of Southern states to practice slavery.
They began the process of seceding from the union. To secure its independence, the new Confederate States of America fired on Fort Sumter, one of the few U. S. forts in the South. Lincoln called up volunteers and militia to restore the Union; as the leader of the moderate faction of the Republican Party, Lincoln confronted Radical Republicans, who demanded harsher treatment of the South. Lincoln fought the factions by pitting them against each other, by distributing political patronage, by appealing to the American people, his Gettysburg Address became an iconic call for nationalism, equal rights and democracy. He suspended habeas corpus, he averted British intervention by defusing the Trent Affair. Lincoln supervised the war effort, including the selection of generals and the naval blockade that shut down the South's trade; as the war progressed, he maneuvered to end slavery, issuing the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863. Lincoln managed his own re-election campaign, he sought to reconcile his damaged nation by avoiding retribution against the secessionists.
A few days after the Battle of Appomattox Court House, he was shot by John Wilkes Booth, an actor and Confederate sympathizer, on April 14, 1865, died the following day. Abraham Lincoln is remembered as the United States' martyr hero, he is ranked both by scholars and the public as among the greatest U. S. presidents. Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809, as the second child of Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln, in a one-room log cabin on Sinking Spring Farm near Hodgenville, Kentucky, he was a descendant of Samuel Lincoln, an Englishman who migrated from Hingham, Norfolk, to its namesake Hingham, Massachusetts, in 1638. Samuel's grandson and great-grandson began the family's westward migration, passing through New Jersey and Virginia. Lincoln's paternal grandfather and namesake, Captain Abraham Lincoln, moved the family from Virginia to Jefferson County, Kentucky, in the 1780s. Captain Lincoln was killed in an Indian raid in 1786, his children, including eight-year-old Thomas, Abraham's father, witnessed the attack.
Thomas worked at odd jobs in Kentucky and in Tennessee, before settling with members of his family in Hardin County, Kentucky, in the early 1800s. Lincoln's mother, Nancy, is assumed to have been the daughter of Lucy Hanks, although no record documents this. Thomas and Nancy married on June 12, 1806, in Washington County, moved to Elizabethtown, Kentucky, they produced three children: Sarah, born on February 10, 1807. Thomas Lincoln leased farms in Kentucky. Thomas became embroiled in legal disputes, lost all but 200 acres of his land in court disputes over property titles. In 1816, the family moved to Indiana, where the survey process was more reliable and land titles were more secure. Indiana was a "free" territory, they settled in an "unbroken forest" in Hurricane Township, Perry County. In 1860, Lincoln noted that the family's move to Indiana was "partly on account of slavery", but due to land title difficulties. In Kentucky and Indiana, Thomas worked as a farmer and carpenter, he owned farms, town lots and livestock, paid taxes, sat on juries, appraised estates, served on country slave patrols, guarded prisoners.
Thomas and Nancy were members of a Separate Baptists church, which forbade alcohol and slavery. Overcoming financial challenges, Thomas obtained clear title to 80 acres of land in what became known as the Little Pigeon Creek Community. On October 5, 1818, Nancy Lincoln died of milk sickness, leaving 11-year-old Sarah in charge of a household that included her father, 9-year-old Abraham, Dennis Hanks, Nancy's 19-year-old orphaned cousin; those who knew Lincoln recalled that he was distraught over his sister's death on January 20, 1828, while giving birth to a stillborn son. On December 2, 1819, Thomas married Sarah "Sally" Bush Johnston, a widow from Elizabethtown, with three children of her own. Abraham became close to his stepmother, whom he referred t