Maria Socorro Ledesma, better known as Kuh Ledesma, is a Filipino pop and jazz singer, actress and fashion designer. She is known in the Philippines as the'Pop Diva' and wants herself to be remembered as'The Renaissance Woman' according to her in her interview on Tonight with Boy Abunda. Ledesma has been performing for 35 years in the music industry which encompasses more than 1,000 concerts all over the world, numerous awards in the Philippines, 20 albums in the Philippine recording industry, she was the first Filipino singer to become a recipient of the Salem Music Awards in London in March 1989. In 1997, she released her international debut album Precious in collaboration with American and Filipino songwriters and musicians. Kuh Ledesma was born in Negros Occidental, Philippines with a Lebanese lineage. Ledesma's career in music began when she joined the Lastiko band in Bacolod while she was still a nursing student at Colegio San Agustin-Bacolod. Ledesma finished the course and passed the Philippine National Nursing Board Exam and became a registered nurse.
Ledesma and her bandmates Toto Gentica and Jet Montelibano went to Manila to form the Music & Magic band which became pivotal for her career. She received the lead role in the pop ballet Rama Hari by Alice Reyes, she went solo with "Dito Ba?", Ledesma's first hit song. During the 1980s, Ledesma has performed solo concerts at the Cultural Center of the Philippines, the Araneta Coliseum, PICC and the Philippine Folk Arts Theater. In 1982, Ledesma launched an all-Filipino concert,'Ako ay Pilipino' at the Cultural Center of the Philippines which featured a repertoire of ethnic sounds, classic kundimans and pop songs, tapping into the rich node of indigenous art and contemporary pop music to produce alternative approaches to songs, her show became a television special followed by two albums. This was followed by another production at the CCP,'Inspired Madness' in 1983, created in collaboration with Philippine film director Peque Gallaga and musical director Ryan Cayabyab. During the political ambience of the 1980s, Ledesma paid tribute to Ninoy Aquino at the end of one of her shows at the Cultural Center of the Philippines by singing an a cappella rendition of "Impossible Dream" and "You'll Never Walk Alone".
From 1984 to 1986, Ledesma joined the APO Hiking Society in'Ang Pinoy Nga Naman' at the Folk Arts Theater. On June 3, 1988, Ledesma performed in the musical KUH of the Year at the prestigious Carnegie Hall in New York. In March 1989, Ledesma was chosen as the first Philippine singer to be the recipient of the Salem Music Awards after competing against other top singers from Asia at the Royal Albert Hall in London. In the 1990s, Ledesma had a series of concerts with foreign artists such as Noel Pointer, Jack Jones, Kenny Rankin, The Platters and Michel Legrand followed by other concerts with popular Philippine artists such as Regine Velasquez, Pops Fernandez and Jaya. After Ledesma's four-night concert with the jazz violinist Noel Pointer, she released the album, The Voice, The Violin. Ledesma was one of the judges in the coronation night of Miss Universe 1991. In February 1994, Ledesma had the'Two of Hearts' concert with balladeer Jack Jones. During 1995's Valentine's season, she performed with Kenny Rankin.
Ledesma started the new millennium in a Valentine show with The Platters. In 2002, Ledesma had Valentine presentation with Michel Legrand. Ledesma has her own production company Headline Concepts and built concert venues such as the Music Museum and the Republic of Malate; the Republic of Malate is a facility located along Mabini Street in Manila, which houses a restaurant, a bar, a watering hole, a game room, a tobacco area, a dance club and a theater. However, The Republic of Malate was destroyed by a fire in November 2001. Ledesma has plans of rebuilding the facility. Ledesma had a regular monthly television special called Akuhstic Café, a musical travelogue that presented viewers the urban night life of Metro Manila by visiting clubs and concerts. Akuhstic Café was a grand finalist in the Asian Television Awards in Singapore for best musical program. In April 1997, Ledesma became the featured artist of the'Muling Aawit ang Pasig', a benefit concert of former Philippine First Lady Ming Ramos for the restoration of the Pasig River.
In 1998, the centennial year of Philippine Independence, after producing a Valentine concert at Fort Santiago, Ledesma was commissioned by the National Centennial Commission to stage a three-night centennial concert of the year,'Lahi…Kami ang Pilipino', held at the Expo Center in the former Clark Airforce Base. Ledesma owns Bravo Records, a music recording studio, she is known for building careers of new talented singers. Ledesma celebrated her 25th year in the music industry by holding a series of shows at Captain's Bar of the Mandarin Oriental Manila. Ledesma has a goal of publishing a book of photographs to chronicle her career. Ledesma is a member of the Artista Para Sa Pagbabago, an organization of artists, environmentalists and businessmen, she was the president of the Restaurant Owners Association of Malate. During the 2001 Philippine national elections, Ledesma was chosen by the PINATUBO Party as a first nominee for congress; the PINATUBO Party has the goal of alleviating poverty in the Philippines through grass-roots development.
In 2002, Ledesma teamed up with composer Michel Legrand in a back
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
A cassette single is a music single in the form of a Compact Cassette. Bow Wow Wow's "C·30 C·60 C·90 Go" was the first cassette single, released in the UK in 1980, I. R. S. Records released the first cassette single in the U. S. with the Go-Go's "Vacation" in 1982. The ZTT label made good use of the format by 1984, with singles by Frankie Goes to Hollywood, Art of Noise and Propaganda being issued in unique versions on cassette. American record companies began releasing cassette singles on a large scale in 1987, beginning with A&M's Bryan Adams "Heat of the Night", when vinyl record album sales were declining in favor of cassette recordings; the format was used as a promotion in the 1990s, with Disney giving a "cassingle" to attendees of Hercules promotional events. Most cassette singles were released in a cardboard sleeve that slipped over the outside of the release; this was usually shrink wrapped in plastic. Some singles contained one song on each side, much as 45s had done, but others repeated the songs on both sides.
In some markets, cassette singles used the same packaging as standard cassettes, a plastic box with a paper insert. As the cassette maxi-single was released, more intricate packaging was incorporated that looked similar to the packaging of a regular cassette release; these were placed in regular plastic cassette cases with a paper/cardstock insert. Unlike a full-length cassette album, these were only one two-sided inlay instead of a fold-out. Maxi-singles contained four versions of a single song, i.e.: unique mixes & edits, but some contained versions of two different songs. Although the cassette had reached a high level of popularity by the late 1980s, due to the ubiquity of mobile devices such as the Sony Walkman, the boombox and car audio cassette players, cassette singles never rivalled gramophone records to near the same extent as cassette albums had done. In the U. S. cassette singles were phased out by the early 2000s. One reason for their lesser popularity was because they appeared to be an inefficient use of the media to consumers - a cassette single took up the same storage space as a full album.
In April 2013, psychedelic rock band MGMT released the first single from their third album as a cassette single, October 2014 saw the cassingle "Great Big Happy Green Moonface" from Polaris, the band's first release in fifteen years
Tears in Heaven
"Tears in Heaven" is a song by Eric Clapton and Will Jennings. Its lyrics were inspired by the death of Clapton's four-year-old son, who fell from a New York apartment building on March 20, 1991, it appeared on the 1991 Rush film soundtrack. The song was Clapton's best-selling single in the United States and reached number two on the Billboard Hot 100, it won three Grammy Awards for Best Pop Vocal Performance, Song of the Year, Record of the Year. In 2004, Rolling Stone ranked "Tears in Heaven" 362nd on its list of "The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time". In August 1990, Clapton's manager, two of his roadies and his friend and fellow musician Stevie Ray Vaughan were killed in a helicopter accident. On March 20, 1991, Clapton's 4-year-old son Conor died after falling from the 53rd-floor window of a New York City apartment belonging to Conor's mother's friend. After isolating himself for a period, Clapton began writing music for the film Rush, he dealt with the grief of his son's death by cowriting "Tears in Heaven" for the soundtrack with Will Jennings.
In an interview with Sue Lawley in 1992, Clapton said of the song, "There is a song that I’ve written for a movie, but in actual fact it was in the back of my head but it didn’t have a reason for being until I was scoring this movie which I did a little while ago and it sort of had a reason to be. And it is a little ambiguous because it could be taken to be about Conor but it is meant to be part of the film."In an interview with Daphne Barak, Clapton stated "I subconsciously used music for myself as a healing agent, lo and behold, it worked... I have got a great deal of happiness and a great deal of healing from music."In an interview, Jennings said: said to me, "I want to write a song about my boy." Eric had the first verse of the song written, which, to me, is all the song, but he wanted me to write the rest of the verse lines and the release though I told him that it was so personal he should write everything himself. He told me that he had admired the work I did with Steve Winwood and there was nothing else but to do as he requested, despite the sensitivity of the subject.
This is a song so sad that it is unique in my experience of writing songs. Shortly after the single was released, Clapton recorded the song as part of a set for MTV Unplugged, released as Unplugged; the album topped charts and was nominated for nine Grammy Awards the year it was released. "Tears in Heaven" is Clapton's best-selling single in the United States. With more than 2,800,000 copies sold – both physical and digital – it remains one of the best-selling pop singles of the 1990s and one of the best-selling singles released by any non-American artist; the Reprise Records single reached number two on the Billboard Hot 100 singles charts, where it charted for 26 weeks. It was kept from the number one spot by "Save the Best for Last" by Vanessa Williams, it is Clapton's highest charting single on the Hot 100, after "I Shot the Sheriff", Clapton's only Hot 100 number one single to date. While charting on Americas most important single chart, Clapton received several sales awards by the Billboard magazine, including a "Hot Shot Debut" and a "Power Pick/Sales" certificate.
After the physical single release was certified with a Gold disc by the Recording Industry Association of America on March 18, 1992, the single was still selling about 150,000 copies every week. On April 15, 1992, "Tears in Heaven" was certified with a Platinum certification award for sales of more than 1,000,000 copies in the United States, it topped the Top Single Sales chart, compiled by the Billboard magazine in 1992. The release topped Billboard magazines Adult Contemporary chart, on which "Tears in Heaven" charted for a total of 30 weeks, became a number one single on the Top 100 Cashbox charts. By the end of 1992, "Tears in Heaven" sold more than 2,300,000 copies in the United States alone; the pop single received a lot of airplay, charting 20 weeks on the Top Radio Songs chart, peaking at number three, reaching position nine on the Mainstream Rock Songs chart, where "Tears in Heaven" stayed for a total of 18 weeks. It was the fourth-favourite recurrent airplay single, as the Billboard magazine reported in summer of 1992.
The 1992 single release was the 6th-best-selling single recording in the United States that year, reaching number six on the Billboard year-end Hot 100 chart as well as the 5th-most successful Adult Contemporary release. It ranked at number five on the Top Single Sales chart, compiled by the Billboard magazine and reached position 25 on the Top Radio Songs year-end chart in 1992. In Canada, the Reprise Records single release topped all of the three pop single sales chart in the country and is therefore Clapton's most successful single in Canada to date; the song reached the number one top position on both the Canadian Hot Adult Contemporary Tracks and Top 100 Singles chart, compiled by the RPM magazine. In addition to the rare success, reaching number one on both of the charts, "Tears in Heaven" was The Record magazine's top retail selling single release. Shortly after the single was released in Canada and topped all of these three record charts, it was certified with a double Platinum sales certification for physical sales exceeding 200,000 copies.
In 1992, "Tears in Heaven" was the 17th-best-selling single on RPM magazine's Hot Adult Contemporary Tracks chart. The pop single release was successful in Europe, reaching the Top 10 in 12 countries and the Top 20 in 15 of them; the single charted at number three on the European Hot 100 Singles chart in 1992, was Europes 21st best-selling single of 1992. In Austria, the phy
Just for Tonight (Vanessa Williams song)
"Just For Tonight" is the fourth single from Vanessa Williams' second studio album, The Comfort Zone. The song was remixed for the single and reached No. 2 on the US Adult Contemporary Charts. The single's B-side is "Whatever Happens", a song from her 1988 debut album The Right Stuff, while the CD single contains the unreleased song "Love Like This", also to be included on the compilation album Love Songs; the song tells about a woman who wants to share one more night with her lover before their relationship ends. CD single"Just For Tonight" – 4:14 "Love Like This" – 5:10 "Whatever Happens" – 3:26 Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
A-side and B-side
The terms A-side and B-side refer to the two sides of 78, 45, 331⁄3 rpm phonograph records, or cassettes, whether singles, extended plays, or long-playing records. The A-side featured the recording that the artist, record producer, or the record company intended to receive the initial promotional effort and receive radio airplay to become a "hit" record; the B-side is a secondary recording that has a history of its own: some artists released B-sides that were considered as strong as the A-side and became hits in their own right. Others took the opposite approach: producer Phil Spector was in the habit of filling B-sides with on-the-spot instrumentals that no one would confuse with the A-side. With this practice, Spector was assured that airplay was focused on the side he wanted to be the hit side. Music recordings have moved away from records onto other formats such as CDs and digital downloads, which do not have "sides", but the terms are still used to describe the type of content, with B-side sometimes standing for "bonus" track.
The first sound recordings at the end of the 19th century were made on cylinder records, which had a single round surface capable of holding two minutes of sound. Early shellac disc records records only had recordings on one side of the disc, with a similar capacity. Double-sided recordings, with one selection on each side, were introduced in Europe by Columbia Records in 1908, by 1910 most record labels had adopted the format in both Europe and the United States. There were no record charts until the 1930s, radio stations did not play recorded music until the 1950s. In this time, A-sides and B-sides existed. In June 1948, Columbia Records introduced the modern 331⁄3 rpm long-playing microgroove vinyl record for commercial sales, its rival RCA Victor, responded the next year with the seven-inch 45 rpm vinylite record, which would replace the 78 for single record releases; the term "single" came into popular use with the advent of vinyl records in the early 1950s. At first, most record labels would randomly assign which song would be an A-side and which would be a B-side.
Under this random system, many artists had so-called "double-sided hits", where both songs on a record made one of the national sales charts, or would be featured on jukeboxes in public places. As time wore on, the convention for assigning songs to sides of the record changed. By the early sixties, the song on the A-side was the song that the record company wanted radio stations to play, as 45 rpm single records dominated the market in terms of cash sales, it was not until 1968, for example, that the total production of albums on a unit basis surpassed that of singles in the United Kingdom. In the late 1960s, stereo versions of pop and rock songs began to appear on 45s; the majority of the 45s were played on AM radio stations, which were not equipped for stereo broadcast at the time, so stereo was not a priority. However, the FM rock stations did not like to play monaural content, so the record companies adopted a protocol for DJ versions with the mono version of the song on one side, stereo version of the same song on the other.
By the early 1970s, double-sided hits had become rare. Album sales had increased, B-sides had become the side of the record where non-album, non-radio-friendly, instrumental versions or inferior recordings were placed. In order to further ensure that radio stations played the side that the record companies had chosen, it was common for the promotional copies of a single to have the "plug side" on both sides of the disc. With the decline of 45 rpm vinyl records, after the introduction of cassette and compact disc singles in the late 1980s, the A-side/B-side differentiation became much less meaningful. At first, cassette singles would have one song on each side of the cassette, matching the arrangement of vinyl records, but cassette maxi-singles, containing more than two songs, became more popular. Cassette singles were phased out beginning in the late 1990s, the A-side/B-side dichotomy became extinct, as the remaining dominant medium, the compact disc, lacked an equivalent physical distinction.
However, the term "B-side" is still used to refer to the "bonus" tracks or "coupling" tracks on a CD single. With the advent of downloading music via the Internet, sales of CD singles and other physical media have declined, the term "B-side" is now less used. Songs that were not part of an artist's collection of albums are made available through the same downloadable catalogs as tracks from their albums, are referred to as "unreleased", "bonus", "non-album", "rare", "outtakes" or "exclusive" tracks, the latter in the case of a song being available from a certain provider of music. B-side songs may be released on the same record as a single to provide extra "value for money". There are several types of material released in this way, including a different version, or, in a concept record, a song that does not fit into the story lin