Sawtooth National Forest

Sawtooth National Forest is a National Forest that covers 2,110,408 acres in the U. S. states of Utah. Managed by the U. S. Forest Service in the U. S. Department of Agriculture, it was named the Sawtooth Forest Reserve in a proclamation issued by President Theodore Roosevelt on May 29, 1905. On August 22, 1972 a portion of the forest was designated as the Sawtooth National Recreation Area, which includes the Sawtooth, Cecil D. Andrus–White Clouds, Hemingway–Boulders wilderness areas; the forest is managed as four units: the SNRA and the Fairfield and Minidoka Ranger Districts. Sawtooth National Forest is named for the Sawtooth Mountains, which traverse part of the SNRA; the forest contains the Albion, Black Pine, Boulder, Raft River, Soldier and White Cloud mountain ranges, as well as Hyndman Peak, the ninth-highest point in Idaho at 12,009 feet above sea level. Sawtooth National Forest contains land cover types which include sagebrush steppe, spruce-fir forests, alpine tundra, over 1,100 lakes and 3,500 miles of rivers and streams.

Plants and animals found only in the Sawtooth National Forest and adjacent lands include Christ's Indian paintbrush, Davis' springparsley, the South Hills crossbill, the Wood River sculpin. The area, now Sawtooth National Forest was first occupied by people as early as 8000 BC and by the Shoshone tribe after 1700 AD; the first European descendants migrating from the eastern United States arrived in the area around the 1820s. Sawtooth National Forest offers facilities for recreation, with four ski areas and flatwater boating, hunting, 81 campgrounds, over 1,000 mi of trails and roads for hiking, mountain biking, all-terrain vehicle use, including two National Recreation Trails; the Forest Reserve Act of 1891 gave the President the authority to establish forest reserves in the U. S. Department of the Interior. After passage of the Transfer Act of 1905, forest reserves became part of the U. S. Department of Agriculture in the newly created U. S. Forest Service. Sawtooth National Forest was created as the Sawtooth Forest Reserve in the Department of Agriculture by proclamation of President Theodore Roosevelt on May 29, 1905.

The forest's initial area was 1,947,520 acres, it was named after the Sawtooth Mountains in the northwestern part of the forest. On November 6, 1906, President Roosevelt announced the addition of 1,392,640 acres to the Sawtooth Forest Reserve, which also constituted much of the present-day Salmon-Challis and Boise National Forests; these lands were split into separate National Forests by executive order on June 26 and July 1, 1908. The forest's area underwent a number of smaller changes in the early 20th century; the Fairfield Ranger District was established in 1906 and merged with the Shake Creek Ranger District in 1972 to form the present-day Fairfield District. The Cassia Forest Reserve was established on June 12, 1905 and the Raft River Forest Reserve on November 5, 1906; the names of the forest reserves were changed to national forests on March 4, 1907. Formed from the consolidation of Cassia and Raft River National Forests, the Minidoka National Forest was created on July 1, 1908, added to Sawtooth National Forest on July 1, 1953.

In 1936, Senator James Pope, a one-term Democrat from Idaho, introduced the first legislation to establish a national park in the Sawtooths. Under his proposal, the park would have been thirty miles in length and 8 to 15 mi wide; the rest of Idaho's congressional delegation did not support the proposal, which occurred at a time when the National Park Service was taking a more preservation-oriented stance, the bill died. On October 12, 1937, the Forest Service established the Sawtooth Primitive Area in the Sawtooth Mountains. Subsequently, Sawtooth National Forest began to extensively develop recreation opportunities, including new campgrounds and roads. In 1960, Democratic Senator Frank Church of Idaho introduced legislation for a feasibility study to survey the area for national park status. While Church allowed the 1960 feasibility study legislation to die, he introduced a bill in 1963 to create Sawtooth Wilderness National Park, which would encompass the existing Sawtooth Primitive Area. Although the 1963 bill was not voted on, Church admitted that it was not designed to pass but rather to encourage thorough feasibility studies by both the Forest Service and National Park Service.

A 1965 joint report by the two agencies recommended either a national park administered by the National Park Service or a national recreation area managed by the Forest Service. In April 1966, Church introduced two bills, one to establish Sawtooth National Park and another to establish the Sawtooth National Recreation Area; the SNRA bill was cosponsored by Republican Senator Len Jordan, a former governor and sheep rancher, because it preserved the area while permitting traditional uses such as logging and grazing. The legislation was not supported by Idaho's two members of the House. In 1968, the American Smelting and Refining Company discovered a molybdenum deposit at the base of Castle Peak, the highest peak in the White Cloud Mountains. ASARCO filed paperwork with the Forest Service to construct roads and to allow for an open pit mine below Castle Peak to extract the ore; the proposed mine would have been 350 ft deep, 700 ft wide

Beagle Airedale

The Beagle A.109 Airedale was a British light civil aircraft developed in the 1960s. The Airedale was a four-seat, high-wing braced monoplane with a fixed, tricycle undercarriage of steel tube construction and fabric covered, it was designed as the Auster D.8, a modified tricycle version of the Auster D.6. Although similar in many respects, the Airedale was not based on the earlier Auster C.6 Atlantic design, of which a single aircraft was built and flown in 1958. The first three D.8 airframes were in construction when Beagle Aircraft bought the Rearsby-based Auster company in 1960. At this stage Beagle began introducing a series of major modifications to the D.8, which included moving the pilot's door aft and adding a second door on the right, widening the rear cabin, lengthening the rear fuselage and adding a swept fin, as well as many minor changes Following the first flight of the 1st prototype G-ARKE, seven further development and pre-production aircraft were flown.. As changes continued, these eight aircraft were modified and rebuilt.

Concerns about the weight, when it was suggested that "the increase in weight was resulting in a 2-seater aircraft", were ignored by the design team. The performance of the Airedale, although faster than the D.6 on the same engine, was decidedly lacklustre due to its comparatively high structural weight, it was unable to compete in the market with its US competitors. This was because of the out-dated steel tube/fabric construction, compared to the more modern all-metal Piper Cherokee and Cessna 172 designs, but the performance was worse and production quality was poor. Beagle had retained the older construction method as development of monocoque techniques would have extended the design period. However, the benefit of this was lost by the subsequent protracted development period. Additionally the Airedale proved expensive to manufacture with the production man-hours remaining higher than anticipated and a higher price than the American imports.. It was reported that dealers abroad only consented to buying a demonstrator Airedale as they wanted to be appointed as agents for the Beagle-Miles M.218 which they viewed as far more saleable.

A single Airedale, the first prototype was refitted with a 180 hp Continental GO-300-E engine so that it could be part of the SBAC Display at the 1961 Farnborough Airshow, as the standard Airedale was not eligible on account of its US-built Lycoming O-360 engine. This model was designated A.111. Ostensibly this engine was made by Rolls-Royce under their new licence agreement but the engine came from the USA. Whether this expenditure was justified by the publicity is debatable, the performance was worse.. Production of the Airedale ceased in 1963 after production of only 43 aircraft, when it was calculated that the break-even figure could be as high as an unfeasible 675 aircraft.. The Airedale took some 6,900 man-hours and £2,037 in labour charges to build, against a selling price below £5,000; the Airedale and the Terrier were both built by Beagle as stop-gaps whilst more modern aircraft were designed, but both incurred significant losses, in the case of the Airedale £500,000. It appears that a decision in 1962 to continue production past the first 25 aircraft was only made due to the optimistic outlook and predictions of the Chairman, Peter Masefield.

Data from British Civil Aircraft since 1919 Volume I General characteristics Crew: 1 Capacity: 3 passengers Length: 26 ft 4 in Wingspan: 36 ft 4 in Height: 10 ft 0 in Wing area: 185 sq ft Aspect ratio: 6.9:1 Airfoil: NACA 23012 Empty weight: 1,630 lb Gross weight: 2,750 lb Fuel capacity: 50 imp gal maximum Powerplant: 1 × Lycoming O-360-A1A air-cooled, four-cylinder horizontally-opposed engine, 180 hp Propellers: 2-bladed McCauley 2D36C14/78KM/4 constant-speed propeller, 6 ft 2 in diameterPerformance Maximum speed: 140 mph Cruise speed: 133 mph Stall speed: 52 mph Range: 940 mi Service ceiling: 12,000 ft Rate of climb: 650 ft/min Aircraft of comparable role and era Cessna 172 Cessna 175 Piper Cherokee Airedale images

So Good to Me

"So Good to Me" is a song by American DJ and record producer Chris Malinchak. It was released in the United Kingdom on 5 May 2013 by Ministry of Sound; the song samples "If This World Were Mine" by Marvin Gaye & Tammi Terrell."So Good to Me" debuted and peaked at number two in the United Kingdom, failing to prevent "Get Lucky" by Daft Punk featuring Pharrell Williams from spending a third week at the top of the UK Singles Chart. It peaked at number four in Belgium and the Republic of Ireland and number seven in the Netherlands. Lewis Corner of Digital Spy gave the song a positive review stating: We're living in an age where social media-fuelled fan bases can propel rising YouTube stars as well as established artists to the top of the charts. However, every now and an act creeps up on the mainstream with their talent alone, such is the case with Chris Malinchak. After winning over fans from gig to gig, the New York-based DJ is heading to the upper echelons of the chart following his signing to Ministry of Sound.

He joins a wave of new mellowed-out house music that serves as an antidote to the sugary synth-led bangers of recent years. Gentle hi-hat, sunset riffs and soft coos underlie summer love lyrics: "You've been so good to me/ Give you anything/ You've been so good to me/ Your love inside me." The result is a masterclass in restrained euphoria, proving that when it comes to Chris Malinchak, less is more.. A music video to accompany the release of "So Good to Me" was first released onto YouTube on March 22, 2013 at a total length of two minutes and forty-three seconds, it features a little girl, trying to find her pet. The pet turns out to be a giraffe, who shows up near the end of the video