Maine is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Maine is the 12th smallest by area, the 9th least populous, the 38th most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. It is bordered by New Hampshire to the west, the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast, the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and northwest respectively. Maine is the easternmost state in the contiguous United States, the northernmost state east of the Great Lakes, it is known for its rocky coastline. There is a humid continental climate throughout most of the state, including in coastal areas such as its most populous city of Portland; the capital is Augusta. For thousands of years, indigenous peoples were the only inhabitants of the territory, now Maine. At the time of European arrival in what is now Maine, several Algonquian-speaking peoples inhabited the area; the first European settlement in the area was by the French in 1604 on Saint Croix Island, by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons.
The first English settlement was the short-lived Popham Colony, established by the Plymouth Company in 1607. A number of English settlements were established along the coast of Maine in the 1620s, although the rugged climate and conflict with the local peoples caused many to fail over the years; as Maine entered the 18th century, only a half dozen European settlements had survived. Loyalist and Patriot forces contended for Maine's territory during the American Revolution and the War of 1812. During the War of 1812, the largely-undefended eastern region of Maine was occupied by British forces, but returned to the United States after the war following major defeats in New York and Louisiana, as part of a peace treaty, to include dedicated land on the Michigan peninsula for Native American peoples. Maine was part of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts until 1820, when it voted to secede from Massachusetts to become a separate state. On March 15, 1820, under the Missouri Compromise, it was admitted to the Union as the 23rd state.
There is no definitive explanation for the origin of the name "Maine", but the most origin is that the name was given by early explorers after the former province of Maine in France. Whatever the origin, the name was fixed for English settlers in 1665 when the English King's Commissioners ordered that the "Province of Maine" be entered from on in official records; the state legislature in 2001 adopted a resolution establishing Franco-American Day, which stated that the state was named after the former French province of Maine. Other theories mention earlier places with similar names, or claim it is a nautical reference to the mainland. Attempts to uncover the history of the name of Maine began with James Sullivan's 1795 "History of the District of Maine", he made the unsubstantiated claim that the Province of Maine was a compliment to the queen of Charles I, Henrietta Maria, who once "owned" the Province of Maine in France. This was quoted by Maine historians until the 1845 biography of that queen by Agnes Strickland established that she had no connection to the province.
A new theory, put forward by Carol B. Smith Fisher in 2002, is that Sir Ferdinando Gorges chose the name in 1622 to honor the village where his ancestors first lived in England, rather than the province in France. "MAINE" appears in the Domesday Book of 1086 in reference to the county of Dorset, today Broadmayne, just southeast of Dorchester. The view held among British place name scholars is that Mayne in Dorset is Brythonic, corresponding to modern Welsh "maen", plural "main" or "meini"; some early spellings are: MAINE 1086, MEINE 1200, MEINES 1204, MAYNE 1236. Today the village is known as Broadmayne, primitive Welsh or Brythonic, "main" meaning rock or stone, considered a reference to the many large sarsen stones still present around Little Mayne farm, half a mile northeast of Broadmayne village; the first known record of the name appears in an August 10, 1622 land charter to Sir Ferdinando Gorges and Captain John Mason, English Royal Navy veterans, who were granted a large tract in present-day Maine that Mason and Gorges "intend to name the Province of Maine".
Mason had served with the Royal Navy in the Orkney Islands, where the chief island is called Mainland, a possible name derivation for these English sailors. In 1623, the English naval captain Christopher Levett, exploring the New England coast, wrote: "The first place I set my foote upon in New England was the Isle of Shoals, being Ilands in the sea, above two Leagues from the Mayne." Several tracts along the coast of New England were referred to as Main or Maine. A reconfirmed and enhanced April 3, 1639, from England's King Charles I, gave Sir Ferdinando Gorges increased powers over his new province and stated that it "shall forever hereafter, be called and named the PROVINCE OR COUNTIE OF MAINE, not by any other name or names whatsoever..." Maine is the only U. S. state whose name has one syllable. The original inhabitants of the territory, now Maine were Algonquian-speaking Wabanaki peoples, including the Passamaquoddy, Penobscot and Kennebec. During the King Philip's War, many of these peoples would merge in one form or another to become the Wabanaki Confederacy, aiding the Wampanoag of Massachusetts & the Mahican of New York.
Afterwards, many of these people were driven from their natural territories, but most of the tribes of Maine continued, until the American Revolution
Carroll County, New Hampshire
Carroll County is a county in the U. S. state of New Hampshire. As of the 2010 census, the population was 47,818, making it the third-least populous county in New Hampshire, its county seat is Ossipee. The county was organized at Ossipee from towns removed from Strafford County, it was named in honor of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, who had died in 1832, the last surviving signer of the United States Declaration of Independence. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 992 square miles, of which 931 square miles is land and 61 square miles is water, it is the third-largest county in New Hampshire by total area. Northern Carroll County is known for being mountainous. Several ski areas, including Cranmore Mountain, King Pine, Black Mountain, are located here. Coos County Oxford County, Maine York County, Maine Strafford County Belknap County Grafton County White Mountain National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 43,666 people, 18,351 households, 12,313 families residing in the county.
The population density was 18/km². There were 34,750 housing units at an average density of 14/km²; the racial makeup of the county was 98.22% White, 0.17% Black or African American, 0.28% Native American, 0.38% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.17% from other races, 0.77% from two or more races. 0.48% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 22.5% were of English, 15.6% Irish, 10.5% American, 9.7% French, 6.7% German, 5.8% Italian and 5.2% Scottish ancestry. 96.5 % spoke 1.6 % French as their first language. There were 18,351 households out of which 27.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.30% were married couples living together, 7.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.90% were non-families. 26.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.82. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.60% under the age of 18, 5.30% from 18 to 24, 26.50% from 25 to 44, 27.70% from 45 to 64, 17.80% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 96.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $39,990, the median income for a family was $46,922. Males had a median income of $31,811 versus $23,922 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,931. About 5.50% of families and 7.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.00% of those under age 18 and 6.70% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 47,818 people, 21,052 households, 13,569 families residing in the county; the population density was 51.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 39,813 housing units at an average density of 42.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.5% white, 0.6% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.3% black or African American, 0.2% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry,The largest ancestry group in Carroll County are people of English ancestry, who make up 29.3% of people in the county.
The second largest ancestry group in the county are people of Irish ancestry who make up 24.7%. The third largest group is people of French ancestry. Of the 21,052 households, 24.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.2% were married couples living together, 8.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.5% were non-families, 28.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.72. The median age was 48.3 years. The median income for a household in the county was $49,897 and the median income for a family was $60,086. Males had a median income of $41,634 versus $32,402 for females; the per capita income for the county was $28,411. About 6.1% of families and 9.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.6% of those under age 18 and 5.5% of those age 65 or over. The county is Republican, but in 2008 Barack Obama received 52.39% of the county's vote. This made him the first Democratic presidential nominee to win the county since 1912 and the first Democratic presidential nominee to win an absolute majority in the county since 1884.
The county is politically divided between the more conservative southern half, home to several seasonal communities along the north shore of Lake Winnipesaukee including Moultonborough and Wolfeboro, the more liberal northern half, with several ski towns and resort towns such as Bartlett and Conway. In both the 2012 Presidential and gubernatorial elections in New Hampshire, Democratic candidates won the northern half of the county, Republican candidates won the southern half of the county; the executive power of Carroll County's government is held by three county commissioners, each representing one of the three commissioner districts within the county. In addition to the County Commission, there are five directly-elected officials: they include County Attorney, Register of Deeds, County Sheriff, Register of Probate, County Treasurer; the legislative branch of Carroll County is made up of all of the members of the New Hampshire House of Representatives from the county. In total, as of August 2018 there are 15 members from 8 different districts.
Hale's Location National Register of Historic Places listings in Carroll County, New Hampshire Carroll County official websi
Barron County, Wisconsin
Barron County is a county located in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 45,870, its county seat is Barron. The county was created in 1859 and organized in 1874; the county was created in 1859 with the county seat located at Barron. It was renamed Barron County on March 4, 1869; the county took the name Barron in honor of Wisconsin lawyer and politician Henry D. Barron, who served as circuit judge of the Eleventh Judicial Circuit. Barron County was organized in 1874. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 890 square miles, of which 863 square miles is land and 27 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 8 U. S. Highway 53 U. S. Highway 63 Highway 25 Highway 48 KRPD - Rice Lake Regional Airport serves Barron County. KUBE - Cumberland Municipal Airport is located three miles south of Cumberland. Y23 - Chetek Municipal–Southworth Airport serves the county and surrounding communities. 9Y7 - Barron Municipal Airport enhances county service. As of the census of 2000, there were 44,963 people, 17,851 households, 12,352 families residing in the county.
The population density was 52 people per square mile. There were 20,969 housing units at an average density of 24 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.69% White, 0.14% Black or African American, 0.81% Native American, 0.32% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.32% from other races, 0.69% from two or more races. 0.96% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 34.4 % were of 5.3 % Irish ancestry. There were 17,851 households out of which 31.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.90% were married couples living together, 8.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.80% were non-families. 25.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 2.97. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.30% under the age of 18, 8.10% from 18 to 24, 26.80% from 25 to 44, 23.40% from 45 to 64, 16.40% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 98.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.00 males. Barron Chetek Cumberland Rice Lake Almena Cameron Dallas Haugen New Auburn Prairie Farm Turtle Lake Barronett National Register of Historic Places listings in Barron County, Wisconsin Curtiss-Wedge, Franklin. History of Barron County Wisconsin. Minneapolis: H. C. Cooper Jr. 1922. Barron County website Barron County map from the Wisconsin Department of Transportation
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
U.S. Route 63
U. S. Route 63 is a major 1,286-mile north–south United States highway in the Midwestern United States; the southern terminus of the route is at Interstate 20 in Louisiana. The northern terminus is at U. S. Route 2 in Benoit, about 60 miles east of Duluth, Minnesota. U. S. 63 overlaps US 167 for its entire route in Louisiana, from Ruston north, to Junction City, at the Arkansas state line, a distance of 35 miles. U. S. 63 overlaps numerous other Interstate and U. S. highways on its way from Junction City, at the Louisiana line, north to Mammoth Spring, at the Missouri line. S. highway twice, just misses crossing three others twice: Continuing from Ruston, Louisiana, U. S. 167 from Junction City to El Dorado I-530 and U. S. 65, along with U. S. 79, in Pine Bluff U. S. 79 again from Pine Bluff to Stuttgart U. S. 165 in Stuttgart U. S. 70 in Hazen I-40 from Hazen to West Memphis. A concurrent segment of U. S. 70 and U. S. 79 serves as its service road just west of West Memphis. S. 49 at Brinkley. I-55 from West Memphis to Turrell, silently picking up U.
S. 61 at Turrell and U. S. 64 at Marion U. S. 49 again in Jonesboro U. S. 412 alone from Portia to Imboden U. S. 62 and U. S. 412 from Imboden to Hardy. S. 167 again at its northern terminus at Ash Flat, near HardyMany of these concurrencies and multiple crossings occurred when the south end of U. S. 63 was extended from Turrell to Ruston in 1999, in a different direction from the Mammoth Spring-to-Turrell segment. In addition, U. S. 63 from Jonesboro to Turrell is now designated as Interstate 555, which involved building service roads and a few other upgrades to interstate standards. It has been questioned as to whether or not U. S. 63 will be rerouted to eliminate the dogleg from Jonesboro to West Memphis to Hazen. Possible reroutings could be U. S. 63/49 from Jonesboro to Brinkley and U. S. 63/70 from Brinkley to Hazen or U. S. 63/AR 1 from Jonesboro to Forrest City and U. S. 63/70 from Forrest City to Hazen. The highway passes south-to-north through Missouri, from Arkansas to Iowa, serving cities such as Rolla, Jefferson City, Moberly and Kirksville.
Notable routes that are intersected include U. S. Route 60 in Howell County, Interstate 44 at Rolla, U. S. Route 50, U. S. Route 54, Interstate 70 at Columbia, U. S. Route 24 at Moberly, U. S. Route 36 at Macon, U. S. Route 136 at Lancaster. U. S. 63 in Missouri was Route 7 from 1922 to 1926. U. S. 63 passes south-to-north through Iowa. It enters the state from Missouri south of Bloomfield. Between Ottumwa and Oskaloosa, the highway overlaps Iowa Highway 163; this segment is an expressway which connects Des Moines with Burlington, with freeway bypasses of Ottumwa and Eddyville. Near Malcom, U. S. 63 meets Interstate 80. Only a few miles it joins U. S. 6 westbound for several miles near Grinnell goes north again. At Toledo, it intersects U. S. 30 and at Waterloo, U. S. 63 meets U. S. 20. An expressway section opened in October 2012, completing the four-lane link between Waterloo and New Hampton; the highway enters Minnesota just north of Chester. U. S. 63 enters Minnesota from Iowa south of Spring Valley. After meeting Interstate 90, U.
S. 63 serves the local airport and intersects with U. S. Route 52. In this area, U. S. 63 is an expressway, but plans are to upgrade the highway to a freeway between Stewartville and the U. S. 52 interchange. In 2014, U. S. 63 was rerouted around downtown Rochester, running concurrently with U. S. 52 to 75th St NW, jutting back to the east to the existing route. North of Rochester, the highway meets U. S. Route 61 at Lake City. From there, the two routes run concurrent to Red Wing, where U. S. 63 crosses the Mississippi River to enter Wisconsin over the Eisenhower Bridge. The Minnesota section of U. S. 63 is defined as Routes 59 and 161 in Minnesota Statutes §§ 161.114 and 161.115. U. S. 63 enters Wisconsin south of Hager City. Near Baldwin, U. S. 63 intersects Interstate 94. The highway overlaps near Spooner with U. S. Route 53. At Trego, they separate and U. S. 63 runs southwest to northeast, ending near Benoit at U. S. Route 2. Though US 63 as a stand-alone highway had always ended at Turrell, Arkansas before the 1999 extension, in the past it was concurrent with US 61/US 64/US 70/US 79 on into Memphis, over the Memphis & Arkansas Bridge.
Unlike the 1999 extension, this concurrency to Memphis was in line with the rest of US 63. Though some maps continued to show this concurrency until 1999, Arkansas had not recognized US 63 south of Turrell for many years, since at least the 1960s. Louisiana I‑20 / US 167 in Ruston. US 63/US 167 travels concurrently to Arkansas. Arkansas US 82 in El Dorado Future I‑69 south of Warren US 278 in Warren I‑530 / US 65 / US 79 in Pine Bluff. I-530/US 63/US 65 travels concurrently through the city. US 63/US 79 travels concurrently to Stuttgart. I‑530 / US 65 / US 425 in Pine Bluff US 165 in Stuttgart US 70 in Hazen; the highways travel concurrently through the city. I‑40 in Hazen; the highways travel concurrently to West Memphis. US 49 in Brinkley US 79 south of Jennette; the highways travel concurrently to West Memphis. I‑40 / I‑55 / US 61 / US 64 / US 79 in West Memphis. I-55/US 63 travels concurrently to Turrel
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art