Coburg is a town located on the Itz river in the Upper Franconia region of Bavaria, Germany. Long part of one of the Thuringian states of the Wettin line, it joined Bavaria by popular vote only in 1920; until the revolution of 1918, it was one of the capitals of the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. Through successful dynastic policies, the ruling princely family married into several of the royal families of Europe, most notably in the person of Prince Albert, who married Queen Victoria in 1840; as a result of these close links with the royal houses of Europe in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Coburg was visited by the crowned heads of Europe and their families. Coburg is known as the location of Veste Coburg, one of Germany's largest castles. In 1530, Martin Luther lived there for six months during which he worked on translating the Bible into German. Today, Coburg's population is close to 41,500. Since it was little damaged in World War II, Coburg retains many historic buildings, making it a popular tourist destination.
Coburg lies about 90 kilometres south of Erfurt and about 100 kilometres north of Nuremberg on the river Itz. It is surrounded by the Landkreis Coburg. Coburg lies at the foot of the Thuringian Highland. Coburg, Bavaria was part of West Germany until reunification in 1990, but on three sides it borders Thuringia, East Germany; the border between Bavaria and Thuringia was the inner German border. Coburg is divided into 15 Stadtteile: Coburg Beiersdorf Bertelsdorf Cortendorf Creidlitz Glend Ketschendorf Löbelstein Lützelbuch Neu- and Neershof Neuses Rögen Scheuerfeld Seidmansdorf Wüstenahorn Coburg was first mentioned in a monastic document dated 1056, which marked the transfer of ownership to the Archbishop-Elector of Cologne, although there was a settlement at the site that predates it called Trufalistat; the origin of the name Coburg is unclear. Its oldest remains date to the 13th century. In 1248, the castle came into possession of the House of Henneberg and in 1353 it passed to the House of Wettin with the marriage of Frederick III with Catherine of Henneberg and was regarded by them as a Saxon outpost within Franconia.
During the Diet of Augsburg in 1530 reformer Martin Luther spent six months at the castle while his liege lord, Elector of Saxony, attended the Diet. Luther was forbidden to attend by the Elector, who feared that he would be imprisoned and burned as a heretic. While quartered at the castle Luther continued with his translation of the Bible into German. In 1547, the princely residence was moved from the Veste to a former monastery, rebuilt as a Renaissance palace, the Ehrenburg. In 1596, Coburg was raised to the status of capital of one of the dynasty's splintered Saxon-Thuringian territories, the newly created Duchy of Saxe-Coburg under the leadership of Duke John Casimir. From 1699 to 1826, it was one of the two capitals of the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, from 1826–1918 it was a capital of the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. Ernest Frederick, the fourth Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, moved his capital from Saalfeld to Coburg in 1764. Coburg became capital of the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and of the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.
In the early 19th century, the town's medieval fortifications were replaced by parks. The duke started the collection of copperplate engravings, today part of the Veste Coburg museum. Under his son, the Schlossplatz with what is today the Landestheater Coburg was created, he rebuilt the Ehrenburg in Gothic revival style. In the mid-19th century, Duke Ernest II supported national and liberal ideas and Coburg hosted the first meeting of the German National Association, the founding of the Deutscher Sängerbund and the first Deutsches Turnfest. During the 19th century, dynastic marriages created ties with the royal families of Belgium, Bulgaria and Britain; this turned the ducal family from the rulers of a obscure backwater duchy into one playing an influential role in European politics. The era of political influence peaked with Leopold Frederick; the marriage between Albert and Victoria established the present British royal house, which renamed itself Windsor during World War I. This marriage in turn led to a union with Germany's ruling dynasty, the Hohenzollerns, when the couple's eldest child, married the future Kaiser Friedrich III.
After her marriage, Queen Victoria said of Coburg: If I were not who I am, this would have been my real home, but I shall always consider it my second one. Due to the royal connections among the royal houses of Europe, Coburg was the site of many royal Ducal weddings and visits. Britain's Queen Victoria made six visits to Coburg during her 63-year reign. In 1894 the wedding of Ernest Louis, Grand Duke of Hesse and Princess Victoria Melita of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha brought together Queen Victoria, her son Edward, her second son Alfred, her daughter the German Dowager Empress Friedrich, many of her grandchildren, such as future Tsar Nicholas and Alexandra of Russia, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany, the future King George V of the United Kingdom. In November 1918, the last Duke of Saxe
Residenz is a German word for "place of living", now obsolete except in the formal sense of an official residence. A related term, denotes a city where a sovereign ruler resided, therefore carrying a similar meaning as the modern expressions seat of government or capital; as there were many sovereign rulers in the Holy Roman Empire, ranking from Lord to prince elector and king, there are many cities and castles in this territory which used to be a residenz and are still so referred to today. The former residenz status of a city is reflected by the architecture of its center. During the baroque period many prestigious buildings were erected, sometimes new towns were founded. Today, former Residenzstädte still serve as cultural and administrative centers. Examples of buildings or cities: Munich Residenz, the former residence of the monarchs of Bavaria. Munich remains capital of the German state of Bavaria. Würzburg Residenz, the former residence of the prince-bishops of Würzburg. Würzburg today is capital of the Lower Franconia government district of Bavaria.
Alte Residenz, the former residence of the Archbishops of Salzburg. Salzburg today is capital of the Salzburg state of Austria. Prussia's three Residenzstädte, where, in theory at least, the royal family could live, were Berlin, Königsberg, Breslau. Residenzes newly founded in the baroque era: Louis William, Margrave of Baden-Baden, general field marshal of the Holy Roman Empire, nicknamed "Turkish Louis" for his successes against the Turks and now in possession of a great war prize, in 1699 altered plans for a hunting lodge being built near the village of Rastatt since 1697. Aiming to become prince elector, he spent 12 million guilders on Rastatt Castle; the village grew accordingly and was incorporated as a town in 1700. Louis William lived at the castle from 1702, the court followed from Baden in 1705. Eberhard Louis, Duke of Württemberg, had in 1704 begun reconstruction of a destroyed hunting lodge north of his residenz of Stuttgart. In 1705, he named the site Ludwigsburg. Plans were enlarged again in 1715, resulting in Ludwigsburg Palace.
In 1709, Eberhard Louis moved to the new castle. Beginning in the same year, a planned community was constructed near the palace, incorporated as a town in 1718. Ludwigsburg became the Württemberg residenz in 1718. After Eberhard Louis' death in 1733, his successor took the court back to Stuttgart. Once again from 1764 to 1775, Charles Eugene, in quarrelling with the duchy's estates over yet another residenz, the Stuttgart New Palace, moved the residenz to Ludwigsburg. In 1715, Margrave Charles William of Baden-Durlach chose to build a new residenz in a space in the woods he called Karlsruhe. From 1717 on, Karlsruhe was residenz of Baden-Durlach of the grand duchy of Baden, in 1719 the administration had been transferred from Durlach. After 1952, when the states of Baden and Württemberg were merged into Baden-Württemberg, the Württemberg capital Stuttgart becoming capital of the new state, Karlsruhe not only remained capital of a government district of the same name, but in compensation became "Residenz des Rechts" for all Germany, seating the Federal Constitutional Court and the Federal Court of Justice.
Charles III Philip, Elector Palatine since 1716, in 1720 transferred his residenz from Heidelberg to Mannheim, a fort at the confluence of the rivers Rhine and Neckar, destroyed in the war and was now being reconstructed. Construction of Mannheim Palace began in 1720 in place of the former citadel
Neuhaus am Rennweg
Neuhaus am Rennweg is a town in the district of Sonneberg, in Thuringia, Germany. It is situated in the Thuringian Forest, 17 km north of Sonneberg, 22 km southwest of Saalfeld; the former municipalities Lichte and Piesau were merged into Neuhaus am Rennweg in January 2019
Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha
Ernest I, called "Ernest The Pious", was a duke of Saxe-Gotha and Saxe-Altenburg. The duchies were merged into Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, he was the ninth but sixth surviving son of Johann II, Duke of Saxe-Weimar, Dorothea Maria of Anhalt. His mother was a granddaughter of Christoph, Duke of Württemberg, great-granddaughter of Ulrich, Duke of Württemberg. Left an orphan early in life, he was brought up in a strict manner, was gifted and precocious but not physically strong, he soon showed traits of the piety of the time. As ruler, by his character and governmental ability as well as by personal attention to matters of state, he introduced a golden age for his subjects after the ravages of the Thirty Years' War. By wise economy, which did not exclude fitting generosity or display on proper occasions, he freed his land from debt, left at his death a considerable sum in the treasury, reduced taxation. Public security and an incorruptible and efficient judiciary received much of his attention, his regulations served as models for other states.
He did not rise far enough above his time to do away with torture, though he restricted it, in the century of trials for witchcraft he yielded to the common delusion, though he was not otherwise inclined to superstition and was a foe of alchemy. He imposed the death penalty for a mortal result. In 1640, according to the partition treaty with his brothers, Ernst received Gotha, his laws were not conceived in the spirit of modern ideas about individual liberty. His regulations promoted agriculture, commerce and art, his palace of Friedenstein in Gotha was rebuilt, its collections owe their origin to Ernest. Churches were built and by his Schulmethodus of 1642 Ernest became the father of the present grammar-school, it was a popular saying that his peasants were better instructed than the townsmen and nobles elsewhere, at his death, it was said, no one in his land was unable to read and write. He made the gymnasium in Gotha a model school which attracted pupils not only from all German lands, but from Sweden, Russia and Hungary.
In like manner he fostered the University of Jena, increasing its funds and regulating its studies, with too much emphasis on the religious side. The same fault is attached to his efforts in church affairs, which won him the nickname of "Praying Ernest"; the Bible was his own everyday book and he strove unceasingly to make his people religious after a strict Lutheran pattern. Religious instruction, consisting in catechetical exercises without Bible history, was kept up to advanced years and not unnaturally the rigid compulsion in some cases defeated its purpose. Ernest's system has maintained itself surprisingly, his efforts for Protestantism were not confined to his own land. He interceded with the emperor for his Austrian co-religionists, wanted to establish them in Gotha, he became a benefactor to the Evangelical Lutheran Church of the Germans in Moscow and entered into friendly relations with the tsar. He sent an embassy to introduce Lutheranism into Abyssinia, but this failed to accomplish its purpose.
His rule of his family is a miniature of his government of his land. Its life was industrious, regulated on all sides by religious exercises. Rules were added to rules. No detail was overlooked which could promote the spiritual and physical development of his children, their religious education was carried to excess, his children all turned out well and Ernest died with the name of "father and savior of his people." Oliver Cromwell counted him among the most sagacious of princes. In Altenburg on 24 October 1636, Ernst married his cousin Elisabeth Sophie of Saxe-Altenburg; as a result of this marriage Saxe-Gotha and Saxe-Altenburg were unified, when the last duke of the line died childless in 1672. Ernst and Elisabeth Sophie had eighteen children: Johann Ernest. Elisabeth Dorothea, married on 5 December 1666 to Louis VI, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. Johann Ernest. Christian. Sophie. Johanna. Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. Albert, Duke of Saxe-Coburg. Bernhard I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen. Henry, Duke of Saxe-Römhild.
Christian, Duke of Saxe-Eisenberg. Dorothea Maria. Ernest, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen. Johann Philip. Johann Ernest IV, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. Johanna Elisabeth (b
Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles VI succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia, King of Hungary and Croatia and Archduke of Austria in 1711. He unsuccessfully claimed the throne of Spain following the death of his relative, Charles II, In 1708 He married Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, by whom he had his two children: Maria Theresa, the last Habsburg sovereign, Maria Anna, Governess of the Austrian Netherlands. Four years before the birth of Maria Theresa, faced with his lack of male heirs, Charles provided for a male-line succession failure with the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713; the Emperor favoured his own daughters over those of his elder brother and predecessor, Joseph I, in the succession, ignoring the decree he had signed during the reign of his father, Leopold I. Charles sought the other European powers' approval, they exacted harsh terms: Britain demanded that Austria abolish its overseas trading company. In total, Great Britain, Saxony-Poland, the Dutch Republic, Venice, States of the Church, Russia, Savoy-Sardinia and the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire recognised the sanction.
France, Saxony-Poland and Prussia reneged. Charles died in 1740, sparking the War of the Austrian Succession, which plagued his successor, Maria Theresa, for eight years. Archduke Charles, the second son of the Emperor Leopold I and of his third wife, Princess Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg, was born on 1 October 1685, his tutor was Anton Prince of Liechtenstein. Following the death of Charles II of Spain, in 1700, without any direct heir, Charles declared himself King of Spain—both were members of the House of Habsburg; the ensuing War of the Spanish Succession, which pitted France's candidate, Duke of Anjou, Louis XIV of France's grandson, against Austria's Charles, lasted for 14 years. The Kingdom of Portugal, Kingdom of England, Scotland and the majority of the Holy Roman Empire endorsed Charles's candidature. Charles III, as he was known, disembarked in his kingdom in 1705, stayed there for six years, only being able to exercise his rule in Catalonia, until the death of his brother, Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor.
Not wanting to see Austria and Spain in personal union again, the new Kingdom of Great Britain withdrew its support from the Austrian coalition, the war culminated with the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt three years later. The former, ratified in 1713, recognised Philip as King of Spain. To prevent a union of Spain and France, Philip was forced to renounce his right to succeed his grandfather's throne. Charles was discontented at the loss of Spain, as a result, he mimicked the staid Spanish Habsburg court ceremonial, adopting the dress of a Spanish monarch, according to British historian Edward Crankshaw, consisted of "a black doublet and hose, black shoes and scarlet stockings". Charles's father and his advisors went about arranging a marriage for him, their eyes fell upon Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, the eldest child of Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. She was held to be strikingly beautiful by her contemporaries. On 1 August 1708, in Barcelona, Charles married her by proxy.
She gave him two daughters that survived to Maria Theresa and Maria Anna. When Charles succeeded his brother in 1711, he was the last male Habsburg heir in the direct line. Since Habsburg possessions were subject to Salic law, barring women from inheriting in their own right, his own lack of a male heir meant they would be divided on his death; the Pragmatic Sanction of 19 April 1713 abolished male-only succession in all Habsburg realms and declared their lands indivisible, although Hungary only approved it in 1723. Charles had Maria Theresa, Maria Anna and Maria Amalia but no surviving sons; when Maria Theresa was born, he disinherited his nieces and the daughters of his elder brother Joseph, Maria Josepha and Maria Amalia. It was this act that undermined the chances of a smooth succession and obliged Charles to spend the rest of his reign seeking to ensure enforcement of the Sanction from other European powers, they exacted harsh terms. However, by 1735 he had secured approvals from key states, most the Imperial Diet, which in theory bound all its members including Prussia and Bavaria.
Other signatories included Britain, the Dutch Republic, Russia and Savoy-Sardinia but subsequent events underlined Eugene of Savoy's comment that the best guarantee was a powerful army and full Treasury. His nieces were married to the rulers of Saxony and Bavaria, both of whom refused to be bound by the decision of the Imperial Diet and despite publicly agreeing to the Pragmatic Sanction in 1735, France signed a secret treaty with Bavaria in 1738 promising to back the'just claims' of Charles Albert of Bavaria. In the first part of his reign, Austrian continued to expand; this extended Austrian rule to the lower Danube. The War of the Quadruple Alliance followed, it too ended in an A
John Ernest IV, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Johann Ernest IV, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld was a reigning duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. He was the tenth but seventh surviving son of Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha and Elisabeth Sophie of Saxe-Altenburg. After the death of his father in 1675, Johann Ernest governed the duchy of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, jointly with his six older brothers, as set out in their father's will. However, in 1680, the brothers concluded a treaty dividing the paternal lands and Johann Ernest became duke of Saxe-Saalfeld, with the towns of Gräfenthal, Probstzella and Pössneck; as he was the youngest, he kept the smallest portion of the lands. Johann Ernest and his brother Ernest soon found themselves financially overstretched as a result of the partition, they both made a protest. Over the following years, the controversy continued and increased, as their older brothers Albert of Saxe-Coburg, Henry of Saxe-Römhild and Christian of Saxe-Eisenberg died without male heirs. During these years, Johann Ernest took possession of Römhild and 5/12 of Themar.
The "Coburg-Eisenberg-Römhilder Erbstreit" was resolved in 1735, six years after the death of Johann Ernest. His descendants retained Coburg; the decision was accepted, most by the descendants of his older brother Bernhard, who had a claim to Coburg. In Merseburg on 18 February 1680, Johann Ernst married firstly Sophie Hedwig of Saxe-Merseburg, a daughter of Christian I, Duke of Saxe-Merseburg, they had five children: Christiane Sophie. Stillborn daughter. Christian Ernst, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. Charlotte Wilhelmine, married on 26 December 1705 to Philip Reinhard, Count of Hanau-Münzenberg. Stillborn son. In Maastricht on 2 December 1690 Johann Ernst married secondly Charlotte Johanna of Waldeck-Wildungen, they had eight children: Wilhelm Frederick. Karl Ernst. Sophia Wilhelmina, married on 8 February 1720 to Frederick Anton, Prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt. Henriette Albertine. Louise Emilie. Charlotte. Francis Josias, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. Henriette Albertine. Carl-Christian Dressel: Die Entwicklung von Verfassung und Verwaltung in Sachsen-Coburg 1800 - 1826 im Vergleich.
Duncker & Humblot Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-428-12003-1. Ernst Wülcker: Johann Ernst. In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie. Vol XIV. Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1881, pp. 372–374. Jahrbuch fur Europäische Geschichte 2007, vol. VIII, Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, 2007, p. 104. Johann Samuel Ersch, Allgemeine Encyclopädie der Wissenschaften und Künste, section 21, Leipzig, 1842, p. 254. WW-Person: A data base of the higher nobility in Europe, by Herbert Stoyan
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries and interests remain distinct. A real union, by contrast, would involve the constituent states being to some extent interlinked, such as by sharing some limited governmental institutions. In a federation and a unitary state, a central government spanning all member states exists, with the degree of self-governance distinguishing the two; the ruler in a personal union does not need to be a hereditary monarch. The term was coined by German jurist Johann Stephan Pütter, introducing it into Elementa iuris publici germanici of 1760. Personal unions can arise for several reasons, they can be codified or non-codified, in which case they can be broken. The Commonwealth realms are independent states; because presidents of republics are ordinarily chosen from within the citizens of the state in question, the concept of personal union has never crossed over from monarchies into republics, with the rare exception of the President of France being a co-prince of Andorra.
In 1860 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius was elected as the president of Transvaal and Orange Free State and he tried to unify the two countries but his mission failed and led to the Transvaal Civil War. Though France is now a republic with a president and not a monarchy, it has been in personal union with the neighboring nominal monarchy of Andorra since 1278. Personal union with Lands of the Bohemian Crown. Personal union with Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen. Personal union with Austrian Netherlands. Personal union with Spanish Empire. Personal union with Kingdom of Naples, Kingdom of Sardinia, Kingdom of Sicily, Duchy of Parma and Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia Personal union with Kingdom of Slavonia, Kingdom of Serbia, Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, Duchy of Bukovina, New Galicia, Kingdom of Dalmatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Personal union with Poland 1003–1004 Personal union with Poland 1300–1306 and Hungary 1301–1305 Personal union with Luxembourg 1313–1378 and 1383–1388 Personal union with Hungary 1419–1439 and 1490–1526 Personal union with Austria and Hungary 1526–1918 Personal union with the Principality of Ansbach from 1415–1440 and 1470–1486.
Personal union with the Duchy of Prussia from 1618, when Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia, died without male heirs and his son-in-law John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg, became ruler of both countries. Brandenburg and Prussia maintained separate governments and seats of power in Berlin and Königsberg until 1701, when Frederick I consolidated them into one government. Personal union with Portugal, under Maria I of Portugal and John VI of Portugal, from 16 December 1815 to 7 September 1822. Maria was the Queen of Portugal and the Algarves from 1777 to 1815, when Brazil, a Portuguese colony, was ranked Kingdom inside the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, she was succeeded by her older son and Regent in her name since 1792, who become King John VI. He reigned over Brazil until the dissolution of the United Kingdom with the Independence of Brazil. Personal union with Portugal, under Pedro I of Brazil, from 10 March to 28 May 1826. Pedro was the Prince Royal of Portugal and the Algarves when he declared the independence of Brazil in 1822, becoming its first emperor.
When his father died, Pedro became King of Portugal, but abdicated the Portuguese throne 79 days in favour of his older child Princess Maria da Glória. Personal union with Belgium from 1885 to 1908, when the Congo Free State became a Belgian colony; the only sovereign during this period was Leopold II, who continued as king of Belgium until his death a year in 1909. Personal union with the Kingdom of Hungary 1102–1918 In 1102, after a period of succession crisis following the death of King Demetrius Zvonimir, the Kingdom of Croatia entered a union with the Kingdom of Hungary in 1102; the crown passed into the hands of the Árpád dynasty with the crowning of King Coloman of Hungary with the Croatian crown as "King of Croatia and Dalmatia" in Biograd. Institutions of separate Croatian statehood were maintained through the ban. In addition, the Croatian nobles retained their titles; some of the terms of Coloman's coronation are summarized in Pacta Conventa by which the Croatian nobles agreed to recognise Coloman as king.
Although it is not an authentic document from 1102 and is a forgery from the 14th century, the contents of the Pacta Conventa correspond to the political situation of that time in Croatia. The precise terms of the union between the two realms became a matter of dispute in the 19th century; the nature of the relat