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Saxophone

The saxophone is a woodwind instrument made of brass and played with a single-reed mouthpiece. Although most saxophones are made from brass, they are categorized as woodwind instruments, because sound is produced by an oscillating reed, traditionally made out of woody cane, rather than lips vibrating in a mouthpiece cup as with the brass instrument family; as with the other woodwind instruments, the pitch of the note being played is controlled by covering holes in the body tube to control the resonant frequency of the air column by changing the effective length of the tube. The player covers holes by pressing mechanical keys, triggering a system of pads and linkages; the saxophone is used in classical music, military bands, marching bands and contemporary music. The saxophone is used as a solo and melody instrument or as a member of a horn section in some styles of rock and roll and popular music. Saxophone players are called saxophonists. Since the first saxophone was invented by the Belgian instrument maker Adolphe Sax in the early 1840s, saxophones have been produced in a variety of series distinguished by transpositions within instrument sets and tuning standard.

Sax patented the saxophone on 28 June 1846, in two groups of seven instruments each. Each series consisted in alternating transposition; the series pitched in B♭ and E♭ soon became dominant and most saxophones encountered today are from this series. Instruments from the series pitched in C and F never gained a foothold and constituted only a small percentage of instruments made by Sax. High Pitch saxophones tuned sharper than the A = 440 Hz standard were produced into the early twentieth century for sonic qualities suited for outdoor uses, but are not playable to modern tuning and are considered obsolete. Low Pitch saxophones are equivalent in tuning to modern instruments. C soprano and C melody saxophones were produced for the casual market as parlor instruments during the early twentieth century. Saxophones in F never gained acceptance; the modern saxophone family consists of instruments in the B♭ – E♭ series and experimental instruments notwithstanding. The saxophones with widest use and availability are the soprano, alto and baritone saxophones.

In the keyed ranges of the various saxophones, the pitch is controlled by keys with shallow cups in which are fastened leather pads that seal toneholes, controlling the resonant length, thereby frequency, of the air column within the bore. Small holes called vents, located between the toneholes and the mouthpiece, are opened by an octave key to raise the pitch by eliminating the fundamental frequency, leaving the first harmonic as the frequency defining the pitch. Most modern saxophones are keyed to produce a low B♭ with all keys closed; the highest keyed note has traditionally been F two and a half octaves above low B♭, while the keyed range is extended to F♯ on most recent performance-class instruments. A high G key is most common on modern soprano saxophones. Notes above F are considered part of the altissimo register of any saxophone, can be produced using advanced embouchure techniques and fingering combinations. Keywork facilitating altissimo playing is a feature of modern saxophones. Modern saxophone players have extended the range to over four octaves on alto.

Music for most saxophones is notated using treble clef. Because all saxophones use the same key arrangement and fingering to produce a given notated pitch, it is not difficult for a competent player to switch among the various sizes when the music has been suitably transposed, many do so. Since the baritone and alto are pitched in E♭, players can read concert pitch music notated in the bass clef by reading it as if it were treble clef and adding three sharps to the key signature; this process, referred to as clef substitution, makes it possible for the Eb instruments to play from parts written for baritone horn, euphonium, string bass, trombone, or tuba. This can be useful if a orchestra lacks one of those instruments; the straight soprano and sopranino saxophones consist of a straight conical tube with a flared bell at the end opposite the mouthpiece. Because of this, these two saxophones look rather similar to oboe. Alto and larger saxophones include a detachable curved neck above the highest tone hole, directing the mouthpiece to the player's mouth and, with rare exceptions, a U-shaped bow that directs the bore upward and a curve in the throat of the bell directing it forward.

The set of curves near the bell has become a distinctive feature of the saxophone family, to the extent that soprano and sopranino saxes are sometimes made in the curved style. The baritone and contrabass saxophones accommodate the length of the bore with extra bows and right-angle bends between the main body and the mouthpiece; the left hand operates keys from the upper part of the body tube while the right hand operates keys from the lower part. The right thumb sits under a thumb hook and left thumb is placed on a thumb rest to stabilize and balance the saxophone, while the weight of most saxophones is shared by the right thumb and a neckstrap attached to a strap ring on the rear of the body of the instrument. With the smaller instruments more of the weight is supported by the thumb; the left thumb operates the

Carlos Llorens

Carlos Llorens Mestre is a Spanish retired footballer who played as a left back. A player of offensive penchant, he was a penalty kick specialist, he played for 11 different teams during his career, amassing La Liga totals of 125 games and four goals with Rayo Vallecano and Alavés and retiring at the age of 40. Born in Alicante, Valencian Community, Llorens had to wait until the age of 26 to make his professional debuts, in the second division with UE Lleida, he went on to establish himself in the category with CD Leganés and Rayo Vallecano, winning a promotion with the latter, a club to which he would be intimately connected. In the summer of 2000, unwilling to leave the club, Llorens was nonetheless part of a package deal that sent him to Atlético, by in the second level. In January 2001, however, he returned to the top flight with CA Osasuna. Subsequently, he experienced two different seasons at Deportivo Alavés: in his first he scored six goals in 36 games, four in penalties, the Basque team qualified for Europe once again, but suffered relegation in the following campaign.

After three additional seasons in division two with modest Polideportivo Ejido, Llorens returned to Rayo at 37, helping it return to the second tier in his second year. In the following year, as the Madrid side finished in mid-table, he was still going strong, aged nearly 40. Carlos Llorens at BDFutbol Carlos Llorens at FootballDatabase.eu

1938 FIFA World Cup qualification

A total of 37 teams entered the 1938 FIFA World Cup qualification rounds, competing for a total of 16 spots in the final tournament. For the first time the title holders and the host country were given automatic qualification. Therefore, France, as the hosts, Italy, as the defending champions, qualified automatically, leaving 14 spots open for competition. Due to the Spanish Civil War, Spain withdrew from the competition; the remaining 34 teams were divided into 12 groups, based on geographical considerations, as follows: Groups 1 to 9 - Europe: 11 places, contested by 23 teams. Groups 10 and 11 - The Americas: 2 places, contested by 9 teams. Group 12 - Asia: 1 place, contested by 2 teams. However, due to the withdrawal of Austria after qualifying, only 15 teams competed in the final tournament. FIFA did not offer participation to the runner-up of the group. A total of 21 teams played at least one qualifying match. A total of 22 qualifying matches were played, 96 goals were scored; the 12 groups had different rules, as follows: Group 1 had 4 teams.

The teams played against each other once. The group winner and runner-up would qualify. Groups 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 had 2 teams each; the teams, except in Group 5, played against each other on a home-and-away basis. The group winners would qualify. In Group 5, Switzerland and Portugal were to play only one match on a neutral ground with the winner to qualify. Groups 6 and 8 had 3 teams each; the strongest team of each group was seeded. There would be two rounds of play: First Round: The seeded team received a bye and advanced to the Final Round directly; the remaining 2 teams played against each other on a home-and-away basis. The winner would advance to the Final Round. Final Round: The seeded team played against the winner of the First Round at home; the winner would qualify. Group 9 had 3 teams; the teams played against each other once. The group winner and runner-up would qualify. Group 10 had 2 teams; the group winner would qualify. Group 11 had 7 teams; the group winner would qualify. Group 12 had 2 teams.

The group winner would qualify. Key: Teams highlighted in green qualified for the finals. Teams highlighted in Orange qualified for the final phase of their group. Germany and Sweden qualified. Norway qualified. Poland finished above Yugoslavia on goal average, thus qualified. Egypt were to play Romania on 17 December 1937, but Egypt refused to play Romania during the Ramadan month, with Egyptian officials arguing that it was "impossible" to play football during that time period. After Egyptian officials invited Austrian club side First Vienna FC to Egypt to participate in a friendly game against the national team during the holy month, Egypt were withdrawn by FIFA, Romania qualified automatically. Switzerland qualified. Greece qualified for the final round. Hungary qualified. Czechoslovakia qualified. Latvia qualified for the final round. Austria qualified, but was incorporated by Germany during the Anschluss. FIFA offered the place to England, who had opted not to enter the competition, but they declined the offer.

Netherlands and Belgium qualified. Argentina withdrew, so Brazil qualified automatically. Costa Rica, Dutch Guiana, El Salvador, Mexico and the United States all withdrew, so Cuba qualified automatically. Japan withdrew, so Dutch East Indies qualified automatically. Austria withdrew after qualifying due to the Anschluss. - qualified automatically as hosts - qualified automatically as defending champions11 of the 15 teams subsequently failed to qualify for the 1950 finals: Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Dutch East Indies, Germany, Netherlands, Norway and Romania. 5 goals 4 goals 3 goals 2 goals 1 goal It was intended that the World Cup would be held alternately between the continents of South America and Europe. However Jules Rimet, the creator of the World Cup, convinced FIFA to hold the competition in France, his home country; because of this controversial move, many American countries, including Argentina, Paraguay, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Dutch Guiana and the United States, all withdrew or refused to enter..

Brazil and Cuba were the only countries from the Americas to enter qualification and thus qualified for the World Cup by default. FIFA World Cup Official Site - 1938 World Cup Qualification RSSSF - 1938 World Cup Qualification