This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
This article may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards. (May 2017)
|Part of a series on Islam|
Sayyid (also spelt Syed, Saiyed, Seyd, Sayed, Sayyad, Sayyed, Saiyid, Seyed, Said and Seyyed) (pronounced [səj.jɪd], Arabic: سيد; meaning Mister) (plural Sadah Arabic: سادة, Sāda(h), also spelled Sadat) is an honorific title denoting people (Sayyid for males, Sayyida for females) accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali (combined Hasnain),:31 sons of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and his son-in-law Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib).:149
Female sayyids are given the titles Sayyida, Alawiyah or Sharifa. In some regions of the Islamic world, such as in India, the descendants of Muhammad are given the title Amir or Mir, meaning commander, general or prince. Children of a Sayyida mother but a non-Sayyid father are referred to as Mirza.
In the Arab world, sayyid is the equivalent of the English word "liege lord" or "master" when referring to a descendant of Muhammad, as in Sayyid Ali Sultan. The word sidi (from the contracted form sayyidī, 'my liege')[clarification needed] is often used in Arabic.
Although not verified, many Arabic language experts state that it has its roots in the word Al Asad Arabic: الأسد, meaning lion, probably because of the qualities of valour and leadership.:158:265
In the early period, the Arabs used the term Sayyid and Sharif to denote descendants from both Hasan and Husayn. However, in the modern era, the term 'Sharif' (Sharifah for females) has been used to denote descendants from Hasan, and the term 'Sayyid' (Sayyidah for females) has been used to denote descendants from Husayn.
Although reliable statistics are unavailable, conservative estimates put the number of Sayyids in the tens of millions.
- 1 Indication of descent
- 2 Middle East
- 3 South Asia
- 4 Southeast Asia
- 5 Tesayyid
- 6 Maternal descendance
- 7 Family tree
- 8 References
- 9 Sources
Indication of descent
The Sayyids are by definition a branch of the Banu Hashim, a clan from the tribe of Quraish that traces its lineage to Adnan and therefore it is directly descended from Ishmael (Ismâ`îl), as well as being collaterally descended from his paternal half brother Isaac (Isha'aq), the sons of Abraham (Ibrahim). Sayyids often include the following titles in their names to indicate the figure from whom they trace their descent. The descendants of Ali and his other wives are called Alvi sayyid; they are titled Shah, Sain, Miya Fakir or Dewan.
|Ancestor||Arabic style||Arabic last name||Persian last name||Urdu last name|
|Hasan ibn Ali||al-Hasani الحسني او الهاشمي||al-Hasani الحسني
|Hashemi, Hasani, or Tabatabaei حسنى||Hassani or Hasani حسنی or Hashemi or Hashmi هاشمي|
|Husayn ibn Ali||al-Hussaini1 الحُسيني||al-Hussaini الحسيني
|Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin||al-Abidi العابدي||al-Abidi العابدي||Abedi عابدى||Abidi or Abdi عابدی|
|Zayd ibn Ali||az-Zaidi الزيدي||al-Zaydi الزيدي
|Zaydi زیدی||Zaidi زيدي
|Idris ibn Abdullah||al-Idrisi الإدريسي||al-Idrisi الإدريسي||His descendants are mostly from the Maghreb||His descendants are mostly from the Maghreb|
|Muhammad al-Baqir||al-Baqari الباقري||al-Baqiri الباقري||Baqeri باقری||Baqri باقری|
|Ja'far al-Sadiq||al-Ja'fari الجعفري||al-Ja'fari or al-Sadiq/Sadegh الصدق او الجعفري||Jafari or Sadeghi جعفرى/ صادقی||Jafri or Jafry جعفری
or Sherazi or Jaffery shamsi جعفریشمسی
|Musa al-Kadhim||al-Moussawi الموسوي او الكاظمي||al-Moussawi or al-Kadhimi الموسوي او الكاظمي||Moosavi or Kazemi موسوى / کاظمى||Kazmi کاظمی|
|Ali al-Ridha||ar-Radawi الرضوي||al-Ridawi or al-Radawi الرضوي||Razavi or Rezavi رضوى||Rizvi or Rizavi رضوی|
|Muhammad at-Taqi||at-Taqawi التقوي||al-Taqawi التقوي||Taqavi تقوى||Taqvi تقوی|
|Ali al-Hadi||an-Naqawi النقوي||al-Naqawi النقوي or al-Bukhari البخاري||Naghavi نقوى||Naqvi نقوی or Bhaakri/Bukhari بھاکری/بخاری|
|Hasan al-Askari||al-Askari العسکري||al-Bukhari البخاري||Naqshbandi نقشبندی or Attar/Atar عطار Sadat سادات||Sadat سادات or Bukhari بخاري|
Note: (For non-Arabic speakers) When transliterating Arabic words into English there are two approaches.
- 1. The user may transliterate the word letter for letter, e.g., "الزيدي" becomes "a-l-z-ai-d-i".
- 2. The user may transcribe the pronunciation of the word, e.g., "الزيدي" becomes "a-zz-ai-d-i". This is because in Arabic grammar, some consonants (n, r, s, sh, t and z) cancel the l (ل) from the word "the" al (ال) (see sun and moon letters). When the user sees the prefixes an, ar, as, ash, at, az, etc... this means the word is the transcription of the pronunciation.
- An i, wi (Arabic), or vi (Persian) ending could perhaps be translated by the English suffixes -ite or -ian. The suffix transforms a personal name or place name into the name of a group of people connected by lineage or place of birth. Hence Ahmad al-Hassani could be translated as Ahmad, the descendant of Hassan, and Ahmad al-Manami as Ahmad from the city of Manami. For further explanation, see Arabic names.
1Also, El-Husseini, Al-Husseini, Husseini, and Hussaini.
2Those who use the term Sayyid for all descendants of Ali ibn Abi Talib regard Allawis or Alavis as Sayyids. However, Allawis are not descendants of Muhammad, as they are descended from the children of Ali and the women he married after the death of Fatima, such as Umm ul-Banin (Fatima bint Hizam). Those who limit the term Sayyid to descendants of Muhammad through Fatima, do not consider Allawis/Alavis to be Sayyids.
Some Sayyids also claim to be "Najeeb Al Tarfayn", meaning "Noble on both sides", which indicates that both of their parents are Sayyid. But in actuality this term is applied only to those Sayyids who have both Imam Hassan and Imam Hussain in their ancestry. These Sayyids, especially in the Arab world, would keep the prefix of Sayyid Alshareef or Shareefayn, or Sayyidayn or Sheikh Assayyid before their names, followed by their father's and grandfather's names and then the clan's and tribe's names followed by AlHasani bil Hussaini or Al Hussaini bil Hasani, depending on which Imam is patrilineal or matrilineal. Many feel proud to attach Al Hashmi bil Quraishi at the end as well. Many Sayyids, especially in South Asia and Shia Sayyids, think that only the progeny of both Sayyid parents are called Najeeb Al Tarfayn, but this idea may be attributed to a lack of knowledge in Arabic language and Genealogy. The importance of this concept of Najeeb AlTarfayn has its source in the Hadeeth of Muhammad wherein he stated that the Mahdi, or "The Hidden One", would be Najeeb AlTarfayn from his lineage. Hence, Shia and Sunni Sayyids have different interpretations of this concept. However, the descendants of many Sufi Saints such as Abdul-Qadir Gilani, Bande Nawaz, and Moinuddin Chishti claim themselves as Najeeb AlTarfayn although this fact is disputed. In the Arab world Najeeb AlTarfayn Saadah would keep two white-colored daggers as opposed to just one by other Sayyids to demarcate their superiority amongst them. Hence their International coat of arms also shows two daggers.
Existence of descendants of Imam Hasan Al-Askari
The existence of any descendant of Imam Hasan al Askari is disputed by many people. However, it is believed by Sunni and Shia followers of the Twelve Imams that Imam Hasan al-Askari had a son called Imam Muhammad al-Mahdi, who will be the redeemer of Islam. Genealogy trees of Middle Eastern and Central Asian families, mostly from Persia, Khorasan, Samarqand and Bukhara, show that Imam Hasan al-Askari had also a second son called Sayyid Ali Akbar. It definitely indicates that Imam al-Askari had children and it also substantiates the existence of Imam Muhammad al Mahdi. Whether Imam Al Askari had children or not is still disputed may be because of the political conflicts between the followers of the Imamah and the leadership of the Abbasids and Ghulat Shiites who do not believe in Imam Hasan al-Askaris Imamah. Another group of historians studying the pedigrees of some Central Asian saints' "shejere" (genealogy trees), believe that the Twelfth Imam was not the only son of Imam Hasan al-Askari, and that the Eleventh Imam had two sons, Sayyid Muhammad (i.e., Imam Mahdi) and Sayyid Ali Akbar. One descendant of Sayyid Ali Akbar was Saint Ishan (Eshon) Imlo of Bukhara. Ishan Imlo is called "saint of the last time" in Bukhara, as it is believed that after him there were no more Saints – Asian Muslims generally revere him as the last of the Saints. According to the source, Ishan Imlo died in 1162 AH (1748–1749); his mausoleum (mazar) is in a cemetery in Bukhara. Notable descendants of Sayyid Ali Akbar are Sufi Saints like Bahauddin Naqshband, descendant after eleven generations, Khwaja Khawand Mahmud known as Hazrat Ishaan, descendant after eighteen generations, the two brothers Sayyid ul Sadaat Sayyid Mir Jan and Sayyid ul Sadaat Mir Sayyid Mahmud Agha, maternal descendants of Imam Hasan al Askari and Hazrat Ishaan. and also qadi Qozi Sayyid Bahodirxon., Sufi saints Tajuddin Muhammad Badruddin and Pir Baba.
In her book Pain and Grace: A Study of Two Mystical Writers of Eighteenth-Century Muslim India, Dr. Annemarie Schimmel writes:
Khwaja Mir Dard`s family, like many nobles, from Bukhara; led their pedigree back to Baha'uddin Naqshband, after whom the Naqshbandi order is named, and who was a descendent, in the 11th generation of the 11th Shia imam al-Hasan al-Askari.
Although Shiite historians generally reject the claim that Hasan al-Askari fathered children other than Muhammad al-Mahdi, the Shiite hadith book Usul al-Kafi, in Bab Mawlid Abi Muhammad al-Hasan b. 'Ali confirms the Sufi claim that Hasan al-Askari had more than one wife, in addition to slave girls, with whom he had relations. In his Usul, al-Kafi writes:
When the caliph got news of Imam Hasan 'Askari's illness, he instructed his agents to keep a constant watch over the house of the Imam...he sent some of these midwives to examine the slave girls of the Imam to determine if they were pregnant. If a woman was found pregnant she was detained and imprisoned....
Men belonging to the Sayyid families or tribes in the Arab world used to wear White or Ivory colored daggers like Jambiyas, Khanjars or Shibriyas to demarcate their nobility amongst the other Arab men although this custom has been restricted due to the local laws of the variously divided Arab countries. Wearing Turbans of various colors especially white, black, green, yellow, orange or maroon is still done in its place and this practice has been followed more by the Non Arab Sayyids than Arabic speaking ones.
The Sayyid families in Iraq are so numerous that there are books written especially to list the families and connect their trees. Some of these families are the Al-Nasrullah, Al-Wahab, Al-Hashimi, Al-Quraishi, Al-Obaidi, Al-Yasiri, Al-Samarai, Al-Zaidi, Al-A'araji, Al-Hasani, Al-Hussaini, Al-Shahristani, Al-Qazwini Al-Qadri, Tabatabaei, Al-Alawi, Al-Ghawalib (Al-Ghalibi), Al-Musawi, Al-Awadi (not to be confused with the Al-Awadhi Huwala family), Al-Sabzewari, Al-Shubber, Al-Hayali, and many others.
Sayyids (in Persian: سید seyyed) are found in vast numbers in Iran. The Chief of “National Organization for Civil Registration” of Iran declared that more than 6 million of Iranians are Sayyid. The majority of Sayyids migrated to Iran from Arab lands predominantly in the 15th to 17th century during the Safavid era. The Safavids began transforming the religious landscape of Iran by imposing Twelver Shiism on the populace. Since most of the population embraced Sunni Islam, and since an educated version of Shiism was scarce in Iran at the time, Ismail imported a new Shia Ulama corps who predominantly were Sayyids from traditional Shiite centers of the Arabic-speaking lands, such as Jabal Amel (of southern Lebanon), Syria, Bahrain, and southern Iraq in order to create a state clergy. The Safavids offered them land and money in return for loyalty. These scholars taught the doctrine of Twelver Shiism, made it accessible to the population, and energetically encouraged conversion to Shiism.
During the reign of Shah Abbas the Great, the Safavids also imported to Iran more Arab Shias, predominantly Sayyids, built religious institutions for them, including many Madrasas (religious schools), and successfully persuaded them to participate in the government, which they had shunned in the past (following the Hidden imam doctrine).
They were given accommodation free of charge.
In Yemen the Sayyids are more generally known as sadah; they are also referred to as Hashemites. In terms of religious practice they are Shia, Sunni, and Sufi. Sayyid families in Yemen include the Rassids, the Qasimids, the Mutawakkilites, the Hamideddins, some Al-Zaidi of Ma'rib, Sana'a, and Sa'dah, the Ba 'Alawi sada families in Hadhramaut, Al-Wazir of Sana'a, Al-Shammam of Sa'dah, the Sufyan of Juban, the Al-Jaylani of Juban, and others.
The Sayyids in Libya are Sunni, including the former royal family, which is originally Zaidi-Moroccan (also known as the Senussi family). Add to that the El-Barassa Family are Ashraf as claimed by the sons of Abdulsalam ben Meshish, a descendant of Hassan bin Ali bin Abi Talib
Millions of people in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal claim Hashemite descent. In 1901 the total number of Sayyids in British India was counted as 1,339,734. Recent estimates show that in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal there are more than fifteen million Sayyids: eight million in Pakistan, seven million in India, over one million in Bangladesh, and around seventy thousand in Nepal.
History of South Asian sayyids
Sayyids migrated many centuries ago from different parts of the Middle East, Central Asia (Turkestan), during the invasion of the Mongols, and other periods of turmoil such as during the periods of the Ghaznavid dynasty, Delhi Sultanate, and Mughal Empire, encompassing a timespan of roughly until the late 19th century. Sayyids migrated to Sindh in the north and settled there very early. Other early migrant Sayyids moved deep into the south, to the Deccan sultanates located in the Deccan Plateau region in the time of the Bahmani Sultanate, and later the Qutb Shahi kings of Golkonda, Nizam Shahi of Ahmednagar, and other kingdoms of Bijapur, Bidar, and Berar. Several visited India as merchants or escaped from the Abbasid, Umayyad, Safavid, and Ottoman Empires. Their names figure in Indian history at the breakup of the Mughal Empire, when the Sayyid Brothers created and dethroned Emperors at their will (1714–1720). The first Muslims appointed to the Council of India and the first appointed to the privy council were both Sayyids.
Syeds, wherever they went, were respected by local communities. Most of them were assigned religious duties by local leaders. When the Muslim conquest of South Asia began, Islamic forces from Central Asia also brought with them many Syed religious scholars who not only used to perform religious rites in the army but also preached Islam to the local population. Among them were the ancestors of modern-day Tirmizi Syeds.
During the entire period of Mughal ascendancy in the Indian sub-continent, the Mughals acknowledged Karlughs as the rulers of Pakhli sarkar. In addition, probably due to their common Central Asian origin, Mughals never levied taxes on the state of Pakhli Sarkar. Sultan Maqarrab revolted against his own brother Sultan Mehmud Khurd, but was defeated by the Sultan due to intervention from the Delhi Sultanate under the command of Syed Jalal Tirmizi Baba the grandson of Pir Baba. In honor Sultan Mehmud Khurd marry his daughter with to Syed Jalal Baba in 1701. Around 1713 Sultan Mehmud Khurd went to Delhi; in his absence Shamsher Khan, a general of Sultan Khurd, revolted against the Mughals, citing increased interference on the part of the Mughal Empire at the Jhanjal fort of Thakot. This revolt was successfully put down after a siege of several months by Syed Jalal Baba, and their allies, the Yousafzais, defeated Shamsher Khan, who was killed in battle and Sultan Khurd imprisoned by Syed Hussain Ali Khan Barha in Delhi until his death. Syed Hussain Ali Khan Barha, the cousin of Syed Jalal Baba, who were both powerful Mughal Army generals of the Mughal Empire during the early 18th century. The Sayyid Brothers became highly influential in the Mughal Court after Aurangzeb's death and became kingmakers during the anarchy following the death of Emperor Aurangzeb in 1707. They created and dethroned Mughal Emperors at their will during the 1710s. Syed Hassan Ali Khan Barha was fatally poisoned in 1722.
Another main fight was fought between the Hindus and Sikhs of Shamdhara and Syed Jalal Baba troops in the Agror Valley (Shamdhara was a great centre of business run by Hindu Baniyas as like Qissa Khawani Bazaar Peshawer and was located on Silk road to China). Syed Jalal Baba issued an ultimatum to either accept Islam or be ready for battle. The Hindus and Sikhs chose battle, so Syed Jalal sent his brother, Pir Imam Tirmizi (the grandson of Pir Baba), along with Yosafzai's troops, to capture the Agror Valley. A bloody battle started among Hindus, Sikhs, and Muslims at the place of Shamdhara named "Kundiyan"; this area still exists between Shamdhara (Yousafzai families still live there and are called Khankhel) and Chajjar Syedan (the Tirmizi families still live there). Signs of the ancient battles are easily found: hundred of human skulls can be unearthed after digging just a meter of ground. After a siege of several months, Hindus and Sikhs asked for safe passage to leave Shamdhara.
After the Karlugh Turks were overthrown (the Turks retained small lands everywhere), the tribes of the Syeds and Yousafzai established their rule on the plains of Pakhli the Chattar, in the mountains of Kaghan, and in the Agror Valley. These areas were then divided among the above-mentioned tribes.
However, after the fall of Jhanjer Fort and Shamdhara, Syed JalalBaba and his allies gained control of the area, and from that base embarked on military campaigns across the state. Since they met with little resistance, the Syeds and Yousafzai easily entered the Rush area of Hazara.
In the 1850s the British captured Pakhli, Kaghan, and the Agror Valley from the Syeds and Yousafzai. Many Syeds and Yousafzai were killed and arrested by the British. Some Yousafzai made a truce with British, and now they all are titled as Khan of their areas. The majority of Syed and Yousafzai allies moved to the Black Mountain (Tor Ghar) (the location of famous villages Parari Syedan, Tikari, and Tilli Syedan) and in the mountains of Kaghan and Naran (village of Bugarmang). The British built a fort in 1865 (currently the headquarters of the Frontier Constabulary (FC)Oghi District) and deployed a battalion there. They also built a check post on the highest place of Oghi from which they watched and observed their enemies (this check post still exists and is known as "Picket"). The Black Mountain (Tor Ghar) tribes (Syeds and Yousafzai) had never been under direct British rule, although it was generally accounted to be part of the 'Frontier Region/Provincial Tribal Areas' from about 1901 onward and nominally attached to the then Hazara district. The tribes had been involved in fighting with British for quite some time, and a number of famous 'Black Mountain Expeditions' or 'Campaigns' took place between 1852 and the 1920s. A brief account of the British Expeditions against the Tor Ghar tribes follows:
- Under Lieutenant Colonel F. Mackeson, 1852–53, against the Hassanzais. The occasion was the murder of two British customs officers. A force of 3,800 British troops traversed their country, destroying their villages, grain, and crops.
- Under Major-General A. T. Wilde, 1868. The occasion was an attack on a British police post at Oghi in the Agror Valley by all three tribes. A force of 12,544 British troops entered the country and the tribes made peace.
- The First Hazara Expedition 1888. The cause was the constant raids made by the tribes on villages in British territory, culminating in an attack on a small British detachment, in which two English officers were killed. A force of 9,416 British troops traversed the country of the tribes, and severely punished them.
- The Second Hazara Expedition, 1891. The Black Mountain tribes fired on a force within British limits. A force of 7,300 British troops traversed the country. The tribesmen made peace and entered into an agreement with government to preserve the peace of the border.
Meanwhile, The Islamic State of Swat was established in 1849 under Syed Akbar Shah (the grandson of Pir Baba) with Sharia law remaining in force, but the state was in abeyance from 1878 to 1915. Thereafter, Syedd Abdul-Jabbar Shah, nephew of Syed Akbar Shah, was made ruler by a local Jirga and had trouble exercising power. Syed Abdul-Jabbar Shah become prime minister of the State of Amb in the late 1920s.
In India, Sayyids of Hadramawt (who originated mainly from the Arabian Peninsula and the Persian Gulf) gained widespread fame. There is a big community of Sayyids settled in and around the Nanganallur region in Chennai. They can trace their ancestry directly to the Sayyids of Iraq.
The Sayyid population in India is distributed. The total population of Sayyids in India is 7,017,000, the largest populations being those of Uttar Pradesh (1,493,000), Maharashtra (1,108,000), Karnataka (766,000), Andhra Pradesh (727,000), Rajasthan (497,000), Bihar (419,000), West Bengal (372,000), Madhya Pradesh (307,000), Gujarat (245,000), and Tamil Nadu (206,000), with 25,000 in Jammu and Kashmir. Sayyids are also found in the north-eastern state of Assam, where locally they are also referred to as Dawans.
The earliest migration of Sayyids from Afghanistan to North India took place in 1032 AD when Gazi Saiyyed Salar Sahu (general and brother-in-law of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni) and his son Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud established their military headquarters at Satrikh (16 km (9.9 mi) from Zaidpur) in the Barabanki district, Uttar Pradesh. They are considered to be the first Muslim settlers in North India. In 1033 AD Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud was killed at the battle of Bahraich, the location of his mazr. Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud had no children. Iraqi Sayyids or Iraqi biradri in Eastern Uttar Pradesh are descendants of Sayyid Masud Al Hussaini who was direct descendant of Prophet's grandson Hussain ibn Ali and came to India from Iraq during the reign of Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq in 1330 A.D. He settled with his seven sons and forty champions in Ghazipur (U.P.). This is because some of them converted to Sunni Islam in the reign of Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi. His Shia descendants are now known as Sayyids of Ghazipur. Syed Ahmed Rizvi Kashmiri and Khan Bahadur Aga Syed Hussain were both Rizvi Sayyids through Aaqa Meer Sayyid Hussain Qomi Rizvi, whose sacred shrine is in the Zainageer Village of Sopore, Kashmir.
Sayyids of Syed nagli, or Said Nagli, or the Baquari Syeds had migrated from Termez (Present day Uzbekistan) during the Sultanate era. Sikandar Lodi was the ruler of Delhi when Mir Syed Mohammad al Hussain al Hussaini al Termezi Haji al Haramain came to India and settled at Syed Nagli. He was a Baquari Syed who drew his lineage from Imam Mohammad al Baqir.
Middle East and Central Asia
The ancestor of the Bārha Sayyids, Sayyid Abu'l Farah Al Hussaini Al Wastileft his original home in Wasit, Iraq, with his twelve sons at the end of the 13th century (or the beginning of the 14th century) and migrated to India, where he obtained four villages in Sirhind-Fategarh. By the 16th century Abu'l Farah's descendants had taken over Bārha villages in Muzaffarnagar.
The Sayyids of Bilgram are Hussaini Sayyids, who first migrated from Wasit, Iraq, in the 13th century. Their ancestor, Syed Mohammad Sughra, a Zaidi Sayyid of Iraq, arrived in India during the rule of Sultan Iltutmish. In 1217–18 the family conquered and settled in Bilgram.
Perhaps the most famous Sufi that belonged to a Sayyid family was Syed Salar Masud, from whom many of the Sayyid families of Awadh claim their descent. Sayyids of Salon (Raebareli), Jarwal (Bahraich), Kintoor (Barabanki), and Zaidpur (Barabanki) were well known Taluqadars (feudal lords) of Awadh province.
In Gujarat, most of the Sayyid families are descended from individuals invited by the Muslim rulers of Gujarat to serve as advisers and administrators, and granted jagirs. During the period of Sultan Mahmud Begada (1458–1511), the Sayyid of Gothada, Thasra, and Pali, a Zaidi Sayyid – Saadat-e-Bara. Sultan Mahmud Begada provided land to three Sayyid brothers and a grant to settle there after the victory of Pavagadh fort. In 1484 the young Sultan, after laying siege to the fort for twenty months, conquered it on 21 November 1484. He then transferred his capital to Champaner, which he completely rebuilt at the foothills of the Pavagadh fort, calling it Muhammadabad. During Mughal rule in Gujarat (1570–1750), they held the majority of the civil and ecclesiastical posts. For example, the Sayyids of Thasra, Kheda district were invited to serve as administrators and judges by the Mughal Emperor, Aurangzeb, and provided land grants to settle there. They also provided an important element in the Mughal army, and many are still found in the old Muslim garrison towns such as Ahmedabad. In addition, many of the early Sufi saints that came to Gujarat belonged to Sayyid families. Most of these Sayyid families came from Central Asia, Iran, Yemen, Oman, Basra, and Bahrain.[verification needed]
Kerala has a two-thousand-year-old association with Arabia. In Malayalam, Thangal is an honorific Muslim title almost equivalent to the Arabic term Sayyid, which is given to males believed to be descendants of Muhammad. The present day Thangals are supposed to be descended from Sayyid families who migrated from the historic city of Tarim, in the Hadhramaut Province, Yemen, during the 17th century in order to propagate Islam on the Malabar Coast. Sayyids selected coastal areas to settle. The royal family of Arakkal in Kerala had Thangal origins.
There are numerous Sayyids in Pakistan. Some of these Sayyids first migrated to Gardez, Bukhara, and Termez, and then to South Asia. Many settled early in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh, and Punjab. There are many sayyids of both Shia and Sunni sects of Islam. Amongst the famous Sayyids who migrated to this region were Shah Yousaf Gardez of Multan, who came to Multan, Punjab, around 1050 AD. His grandfather, Syed Ali Qaswer, a decedent of Imam Jafar Sadiq, the grandson of Imam Hussain, migrated from Bughdad and was settled in Gardez, Afghanistan. The Gardezis of Pakistan and the Azad of Jammu and Kashmir are his descendants. Other saints include Syed Ali Shah Tirmizi (Pir Baba) of Buner, Syed Kastir Gul (Kaka Sahib) of Nowshera, Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari, Shaykh Syed Mir Mirak Andrabi of Khanqi Andrabi in Kashmir, Haji Syed Ahmed Shah (Haji Baba) of Dir and Sayyid Muhammad Al-Makki. Sayyid people of Pakistan are figured as the most prominent and well-established people of the country, with a number of them having become popular and well-known religious icons, political leaders, and professionals. Furthermore, Pakistan currently holds the largest Sayyid population in all of South Asia. Mashwanis are also living in Pakistan.
The Sayyids from Sheraz, Iran migrated to Baluchistan and later to Sindh are known as Sherazi Sayyid. They are living in Jacobabad and Thatta. The first Sherazi Sayyid to migrate from Baluchistan to Sindh was Malook Shah who was saint. He is buried near Jacobabad cities. Another famous saint of Sindh Mehr Shah was from the lineage of Malook Shah. MPA Aijaz Ali Shah and Ex-Provincial Secretary Arbab Ali Shah are Sherazi Sayyid.
The Tirmizis, who settled in Pakistan, are mostly descendants of the great Sufi spiritual saint Syed Ali Shah Tirmizi Pir Baba. Pir Baba's grave and shrine is in Bacha Killay village in the mountainous Buner District of present Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. He was also known as "Shāh Kurassan" ("King of Kurassan").
The syed in Balochistan are present in the Pishine and District Harnai. The Harnai Syed include sub-categories such as Bukhari, Qadree, Pahchi, Maswani, and Miagan. The Syed Bukhari is popular in Harnai district because of his religious thoughts. The popular mazar of Syed Bukhari in the districts of Harnai Shaikh Mussa Baba and Shaik Zirak and Mubarak are also populated...
The Sayyids of Punjab belong to the Hasani (descendants of Hasan), Husaini (descendants of Husayn), Zaidi (descendants of Zayd ibn Ali, grandson of Husayn), Rizvi, (descendants of Ali al-Ridha), and Naqvi (descendants of Ali al-Hadi).
South Asian Sayyid communities
This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: Copyediting & shortening required (December 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Important Sayyid communities in South Asia include:
- Hasani syeds of Rudauli District Barabanki
Ibraheem al-Ghamar bin Hasan Muthanna had a son named Isma'eel ad-Deebaj. Ad-Deebaj had two sons: Hasan bin Isma'eel ad-Deebaj – he left a large progeny; and Ibraheem bin Isma'eel ad-Deebaj – he came to be known as Tabataba. It is mostly his progeny who have spread across Iran and Iraq who are known as the Tabatabai and use that as their last name.
It was the children of Imam Hasan and their children who came to India as the first Muslims in Sind. This was in the time of Hajjaj bin Yusuf. Later many of them moved from Sind to other parts of India. Hasani Syeds populate a town named Rudawlee near Lucknow, in Punjab and in other areas of the sub-continent.
- Rizvi Sayyids of Zaidpur, Barabanki, Uttar Pradesh
- Naqvi syed, sadat e dokoha, Jaladhar, Punjab, India - now settled in saman abad Lahore, Pakistan after the partition of sub-continent. Sadat-e-dokoha migrated from Tirmiz Iran during the reign of Ibrahim lodhi
- Sadaate Kichaucha or Ashrafi Saadat - these Sayyids are the direct descendants of the Sufi saint Syed Sheikh Abdul Qadir jeelani who was a hasni, and also Indirect descendants of Syed Ashraf Jahangir Semnani who himself was a descendant of Husayn
- Sadaate Safipur or Baqai Sadaat - these Sayyids are the descendants of Syed Baqaullah Shah, the descendants of imam Husayn.
- Sadaat Nasirabad
One of the earliest settlements of Naqvis is reported from Nasirabad, Raibareli in North India. Naqvi Sadats migrated from Sabzevar, Iran and arrived in Nasirabad around 410 Hijri (around 1027 AD) and settled there. After some time adjacent Patakpur (Nasirabad), was also inhabited by Mu'mins and rechristened as Nasirabad after the name of Syed Naseerudin companion and sipahsalar of Hazrath Shah Jalal (Rh:). Nasirabad is the earliest known Naqvi Sadats of India. Naseerabad is the native land of Khandan e Ijtihad and a multitude of very high-ranking scholars have come from there. The first Mujtahid from India, Dildar Ali Naseerabadi was from here and later his family came to be called "Khandan e Ijtihad" due to the heavy presence of high-ranking scholars. Some famous and known religious scholars from this lineage include Syedul Ulema Ayatullah Syed Ali Naqi Naqvi 'Naqqan', Jannat Ma'ab Ayatullah Syed Mohammad Naqvi, Ayatullah Aqa Hasan Sb, Ayatullah Syed Kalbe Hussain Naqvi, Hujjatul Islam Syed Kalbe Abid Naqvi, Hujjatul Islam Syed Kalbe Jawwad Naqvi, Hujjatul Islam Syed Hasan Zafar Naqvi (based in Karachi), Allama Syed Razi Jafar, Allama Nasir Ijtehadi, Dr Kalbe Sadiq, Hujjatul Islam Syed Ali Mohammad Naqvi.
The Sadaat Amroha or Amrohi Syed are a community of Sayyids, historically settled in the town of Amroha, in Uttar Pradesh, India. Many members of the Sadaat Amroha community have migrated to Pakistan after independence and have settled in Karachi, Sindh.
- Sadaat Bukhari of Pargana Chail of Allahabad
The Sadaat Bukhari of pargana Chail are Naqvi Syeds and being descended from syed Hussam aldin Bukhari ibn Sadruddin Rajju Qattal (brother of Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari) ibn Syed Ahmed Kabir ibn Syed Jalaluddin Bukhari.
Sadat-e-Bara (Urdu: ہسادات بار), sometimes pronounced Sadaat-e-Barha, are a community of Sayyids, originally from a group of twelve villages situated in the Muzaffarnagar district of Uttar Pradesh in India. This community had considerable influence during the latter days of the Mughal Empire. They were also found in the Karnal district and Haryana in India. Many members of this community have migrated to Pakistan after independence and have settled in Karachi, Khairpur State in Sind and Lahore.
- Zaidi Sadat Of Kandipur, Ambedkar Nagar, Uttar Pradesh
Zaidi Sayyed migrated from Jansath to the eastern part of Uttar Pradesh namely Sikanderpur, Kandipur in the Ambedkar Nagar district. These Sayyeds are descendants of Abul Farah Wasti who came to India from Wasit, Iraq in the late 13th century along with his four sons.
Kintoor or Kintur is a village about 10 mi (16 km) north-east of Badosarai in the Barabanki district, famous for the battle of Kintoor of 1858 during the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
- Sayyids of Hallaur
- Sadaat-e-Saithal Founded by Syed Faiz ullaah These are the zaidi Syed from wasit Iraq, Descendants of Sayyid bu'l Farah Al Hussaini Al Wasti who migrated India in 10th century last or beginning of 11th century
Hallaur or Hallor (Urdu, Persian and Arabic: هلور, Hindi: हल्लौर, Bhojpuri: हलूर) is a town or a big village in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, situated near the banks of the West Rapti River. Residents of Hallaur are referred as Hallauri.
- Sayyids of Wasa Dargah
Wasa Dargah is a village in the eastern part of Uttar Paradesh. Situated 12 km (7.5 mi) from Domariaganj.
- Sayyid of Gujarat
- Sayyid of Uttar Pradesh
- Syed Iqbal Asif also known as Abu Hamza al-Hindi, a great Islamic leader of the 21st Century
Genetic studies of Sayyids of the Indian sub-continent
A study of Y chromosomes of self-identified Syeds from the Indian subcontinent by Elise M. S. Belle, Saima Shah, Tudor Parfitt and Mark G. Thomas showed that "self-identified Syeds had no less genetic diversity than those non-Syeds from the same regions, suggesting that there is no biological basis to the belief that self-identified Syeds in this part of the world share a recent common ancestry. However, self-identified men belonging to the ‘Islamic honorific lineages’ (Syeds, Hashemites, Quraysh and Ansari) show a greater genetic affinity to Arab populations—despite the geographic distance – than do their neighbouring populations from India and Pakistan."
In Northern India, 29 percent of the Shia Muslim belong to Haplogroup J. There are 18 percent belonging mainly to Haplogroup J2 and another 11 percent belong to Haplogroup J1, which both represent Middle Eastern lineages. But Haplogroup J2 reflects presence from the neolithic period in the subcontinent.[specify] J2 occurs among 11 percent of Austro-Asiatic tribals. The frequency of J2 is higher in South Indian castes (19%) than in North Indian castes (11%) or Pakistan (12%). J2 appears at 20 percent among the Yadavas of South India while among the Lodhas of West Bengal it is 32 percent. In the Maldives, 22 percent of the Maldivian population were found to be haplogroup J2 positive. Overall, the presence of J1 and J2 markers in Indian populations is thought to be at least 3000–4000 years old.
Most of the Alawi Sayyids who moved to Southeast Asia were descendants of Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin, especially of Ba 'Alawi sada, majority descendants of migrants from Hadhramaut. Even though they are alleged descendants of Imam Husain, it is uncommon for the female Sayyids to be called Sayyidah, they are more commonly called Sharifah. Most of them live in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Moro Province in Philippines, and Pattani.
Some common surnames of these Sayyids are al-Saqqaf, Shihab (or Shahab), al-Aidaroos, al-Habsyi (or al-Habshi), al-Kaff, al-Aththos, al-Haddad, al-Jufri (or al-Jifri), al-Muhdhar, al-Shaikh Abubakar, al-Qadri, al-Munawwar (see Ba 'Alawi sada for a more complete list).
In the Ottoman Empire, tax breaks for "the People of the House" encouraged many people to buy certificates of descent or forge genealogies; the phenomenon of teseyyüd – falsely claiming noble ancestry – spread across ethnic, class, and religious boundaries. In the 17th century, an Ottoman bureaucrat estimated that there were 300,000 impostors. In 18th-century Anatolia, nearly all upper-class urban people claimed descent from Muhammad.
According to Iran's religious leader and the Deobandi creed, which is a creed especially followed by patriarchal Pashtun tribes, the status of being a Sayyid can only be attributed through the patrilineal lineage. According to Shia opinions, children of a Sayyida mother and a non-Sayyid father are referred to as Mirza. The Persian notation "Mirza", which is a derivation of the word "Mirzada" i.e. Son of a "Mir" has various meanings. One of the meanings of "Mir" is a Sayyid leader of a Sayyid branch or community, simultaneously being a religious Islamic scholar. Thus, a Sayyid of patrilineal lineage, being the son of a Mir can also be called "Mirza". This example substantiates the fact that there are different opinions concerning the transmission of the title "Sayyid". Another historical opinion of Ottoman Naqib al Ashrafs expresses that children of maternal prophetical descent are called "Sharif".:131
However, in 1632 when an Ottoman court challenged a man wearing a sayyid's green turban, he established that he was a sayyid on his mother's side, and this was accepted by the court.:130
In patriarchal societies, women usually have to assimilate themselves into their husbands status. However, this does not affect female descendants of the prophet, since it is seen as a sacred blood relation. Thus, the heraldic title can be given to an individual through his or hers mother's line in accordance to Ottoman Naqib al-Ashrafs. Even the Zaynabids, the descendants of Lady Zainab, the daughter of Ali ibn Abi Talib can also be titled "Sayyid" or "Sharif", according to the Egyptian Imam al Suyuti. In Tajikistan matrilineal descendants are also honored. The fact why there is no total consensus indicating Sayyids and abandoning individuals of maternal descent, may be to limit the number, because of financial reasons, such as Khums or governmental support especially for Sayyids, although this manifestation of "charity" for descendants of the prophet is forbidden, according to Hadiths of Prophet Muhammad himself and Imams of the Prophets household.
Sayyids are descended from Muhammad through his grandsons Hasan and Husayn.
||Khadija bint Khuwaylid||
||Ali bin Abu Talib||
||Hasan bin Ali||
||Husayn bin Ali
- Parwej, Mohammad Khalid (2015). 365 days with Sahabah. Goodword Books. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
- Ho, Engseng (2006). The graves of Tarim genealogy and mobility across the Indian Ocean. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-93869-4. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
- Titles of Sayyids Written by Al- Sayyid Sadiq Al- Hossaini Al- Eshkevari. Translated by Mehdi sajjadi. Archived 27 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine.[better source needed]
- Cleveland, William L.; Bunton, Martin (2 August 2016). A History of the Modern Middle East. Westview Press. ISBN 978-0-8133-4980-0. Archived from the original on 15 February 2017. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
- People of India by Herbert Risely
- Hitchcock, Richard (2014-02-18). Muslim Spain Reconsidered. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 9780748678310. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
- Corriente, Federico (2008). Dictionary of Arabic and Allied Loanwords: Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan, Galician and Kindred Dialects. BRILL. ISBN 9004168583. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
- Encyclopaedic Ethnography of Middle-East and Central Asia: A-I, Volume 1 Archived 10 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine. edited by R. Khanam
- Morimoto, Kazuo, ed. (2012). Sayyids and Sharifs in Muslim Societies: The Living Links to the Prophet (illustrated ed.). Routledge. pp. 2, 11. ISBN 978-0-415-51917-5.
- Islamic Names: An Introduction Archived 3 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine. By Annemarie Schimmel.[page needed]
- Tazkare Khwanadane Hazrat Eshan(genealogy of the family of Hazrat Eshan)(by author and investigator:Muhammad Yasin Qasvari Naqshbandi company:Edara Talimat Naqshbandiyya Lahore)p. 63
- "АХЛ аль-БЕЙТ, Имам Махди (да приблизит Аллах его пришествие!) : Ислам в Азербайджане (iSLAM.Az)". 14 April 2012. Archived from the original on 14 April 2012.
- »ЭШОН ИМЛО БУХОРИЙ Archived 9 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine..
- "Maqolalar". www.shajara.info. Archived from the original on 3 August 2017.
- "Tasavvuf Ahli". www.shajara.info. Archived from the original on 3 August 2017.
- "Ishtixonning so'nggi qozisi Qozi Sayyid Bahodirxon -". Türkistan Seyyidler ve Şerifler derneği (Turkestan Sayyid and Sheriffs Association). Archived from the original on 8 August 2016.
- Dr.Annemarie Schimmels book «Pain and Grace: A Study of Two Mystical Writers of Eighteenth-Century Muslim India» BRILL, 1976, p.32
- al-Kafi, by Muhammad Ya'qub Kulayni. Translated by Muhammad Sarwar. Chap. 124, Birth of Abi Muhammad al-Hasan ibn 'Ali, p.705
- Dr.Annemarie Schimmels book "Pain and Grace: A Study of Two Mystical Writers of Eighteenth-Century Muslim India" BRILL, 1976, p.32
- "Gulzar Auliya: Hadhrat Khwaja Bahauddin Naqshband ZiaIslamic". Abu Hanifa Welfare and Education Trust / Abul Hasanaat Islamic Research Center. Archived from the original on 22 October 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
- "Bloodline & Family Lineage". 24 April 2011. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017.
- "Pokistondagi Sayyidlar Sulolasi". Archived from the original on 19 January 2017.
- Reclaiming Iraq: The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State Archived 30 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine. By Abbas Kadhim
- Six million people of Iran’s population are Sadaat (Sayyid) / Tehran and Mazandaran (provinces) are the record owner of Sadaats in the country farsnews.com 1 February 2018
- Floor, Willem; Herzig, Edmund (2015). Iran and the World in the Safavid Age. I.B.Tauris. p. 20. ISBN 978-1-78076-990-5. Archived from the original on 3 September 2017.
In fact, at the start of the Safavid period Twelver Shi'ism was imported into Iran largely from Syria and Mount Lebanon (...)
- The failure of political Islam, by Olivier Roy, Carol Volk, pg.170
- The Cambridge illustrated history of the Islamic world, by Francis Robinson, pg.72
- The Middle East and Islamic world reader, by Marvin E. Gettleman, Stuart Schaar, pg.42
- The Encyclopedia of world history: ancient, medieval, and modern … by Peter N. Stearns, William Leonard Langer, pg.360
- Shaery-Eisenlohr, Roschanack (1 January 2008). "Shiʻite Lebanon: Transnational Religion and the Making of National Identities". Columbia University Press. pp. 12–13 – via Google Books.
- Deen, Sayyed M. (1 January 2007). "Science Under Islam: Rise, Decline and Revival". Lulu.com. p. 37 – via Google Books.
- Boyle, John Andrew (1968). The Cambridge History of Iran. Cambridge University Press. p. 543. ISBN 9780521069366. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
- A Tribal Order: Politics And Law in the Mountains of Yemen Archived 17 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine. By Shelagh Weir
- "sayyid – Arabic title". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 22 January 2012.
- From Religious Leaders to Ordinary Citizens The Changing Role of "Sadah" in Yemen Archived 26 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine. By Mohammed Al-Asadi
- The Senussi family Archived 26 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Sayyid." Archived 27 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine., Sarwat Elahi, Encyclopedia of World Cultures. 1996.
- Elahi, Sarwat S. "Countries and Their Cultures, South Asia, Sayyid". Advameg, Inc. Archived from the original on 31 October 2012.
- Early Modern India: Sayyids of Hadhramaut in Early Modern India Author: Omar Khalidi, Source: Asian Journal of Social Science, Volume 32, Issue 3, pages 329 – 352, Subjects: Social Sciences, Publication Year : 2004, DOI: 10.1163/1568531043584872, ISSN 1568-4849, E-ISSN 1568-5314
- "Sayyid in India". Joshua Project, a ministry of Frontier Ventures. Archived from the original on 24 November 2010.
- Stratification, hierarchy, and ethnicity in North-east India Archived 10 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Ranjit K. Bhadra, Sekh Rahim Mondal, Daya Pub. House, 1991
- The Eastern Anthropologist, Volume 41 Archived 16 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Ethnographic and Folk Culture Society, 1988
- Morimoto, Kazuo (1 January 2012). "Sayyids and Sharifs in Muslim Societies: The Living Links to the Prophet". Routledge – via Google Books.
- Welsford, Thomas (9 November 2012). "Four Types of Loyalty in Early Modern Central Asia: The T?q?y-T?m?rid Takeover of Greater M? War? Al-Nahr, 1598–1605". BRILL – via Google Books.
- The Encyclopaedia of Islam: Supplement : Fascicules 1–2 Archived 6 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Clifford Edmund Bosworth, Brill Archive, 1980
- Essays in Arabic Literary Biography: 1350–1850 Archived 28 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Roger M. A. Allen, Joseph Edmund Lowry, Terri DeYoung, Devin J. Stewart, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 30 December 2009
- Islam in South Asia in Practice Archived 25 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Barbara D. Metcalf, Princeton University Press, 8 September 2009
- People of India Uttar Pradesh Volume XLII Part Three, edited by A Hasan & J C Das
- King Wajid Ali Shah of Awadh, Volume 1 Archived 9 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine. by Mirza Ali Azhar, Royal Book Co., 1982
- Shajra-e-Nasab (Syed family tree,) Sadat e Gothada -Jahidali J.Saiyad, Gothada
- Hadrami diaspora in Indian Ocean territories, with special reference to Malabar Archived 18 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine. By Zubair Hudawi
- A Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province: L.-Z, Volume 3 Archived 4 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine. By H.A. Rose
- Y chromosomes of self-identified Syeds from the Indian subcontinent show evidence of elevated Arab ancestry but not of a recent common patrilineal origin Archived 10 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine., Elise M. S. Belle & Saima Shah & Tudor Parfitt & Mark G. Thomas; Received: 11 March 2010 / Accepted: 28 May 2010 / Published online: 29 June 2010
- "PLOS ONE: accelerating the publication of peer-reviewed science". Archived from the original on 19 December 2012.
- Sengupta 2006
- Mod, Rod (24 May 2013). "Ancestry of Maldivian Islanders in Light of Population Genetics: Maldivian Ancestry in light of Genetics". Archived from the original on 29 October 2013.
- "Dienekes' Anthropology Blog: Middle Eastern and Sub-Saharan lineages in Indian Muslim populations". 10 October 2009. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014.
- ‘Strangers’ and ‘stranger-kings’: The sayyid in eighteenth-century maritime Southeast Asia By Jeyamalar Kathirithamby-Wells
- "Development of Islam in Southeast Asia by Alawi Sayyids". Archived from the original on 11 November 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
- Sayyids and Sharifs in Muslim Society: The Living Links to the Prophet Archived 5 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine. By Kazuo Morimoto
- Southeast Asia (3 Volumes): A Historical Encyclopedia from Angkor Wat to East Timor Archived 9 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine. By Keat Gin Ooi
- Canbakal, Hülya (2009). "The Ottoman State and Descendants of the Prophet in Anatolia and the Balkans (c. 1500–1700)". Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient. Koninklijke Brill NV. 52 (3): 542–578. doi:10.1163/156852009X458241. ISSN 0022-4995.
- Ayatollah Khamenei. "Rules of Khums": 5. Archived from the original on 29 April 2017.
- Ahsan Ul Fatawa By Mufti Rasheed Ahmad Ludhyanvi احسن الفتاوی
- Kazuo Morimoto, ed. (2012). Sayyids and Sharifs in Muslim Societies: The Living Links to the Prophet. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-33738-3.
- Jalal al-Din Al-Suyuti, al-Ajaja al-zarnabiyya fi al-sulula al Zaynabiyya, in al-Suyuti Hawai li-l-fatawi, 2 vols (Cairo1352/1933) Vol II p.31-34
- The Origins of the Civil War in Tajikistan: Nationalism, Islamism, and Violent Conflict in Post-Soviet Space, Tim Epkenhans, Chapter 7 p.266
- Al-Kafi V-4 P-59, Tahzeeb V-4 P-62, WasailuShia V-9 P-272, Bihar V-65 P-331