30 Rock is an American satirical television sitcom created by Tina Fey that ran on NBC from October 11, 2006, to January 31, 2013. The series, based on Fey's experiences as head writer for Saturday Night Live, takes place behind the scenes of a fictional live sketch comedy show depicted as airing on NBC; the series's name refers to 30 Rockefeller Plaza in New York City, the address of the Comcast Building, where the NBC Studios are located and where Saturday Night Live is written and performed. This series is produced by Broadway Video and Little Stranger, Inc. in association with NBCUniversal.30 Rock episodes were produced in a single-camera setup, were filmed in New York. The pilot episode premiered on October 11, 2006, seven seasons followed; the series stars Fey with a supporting cast that includes Alec Baldwin, Tracy Morgan, Jane Krakowski, Jack McBrayer, Scott Adsit, Judah Friedlander, Katrina Bowden, Keith Powell, Lonny Ross, John Lutz, Kevin Brown, Grizz Chapman, Maulik Pancholy. Tonally, 30 Rock uses surreal humor to parody the complex corporate structure of NBC and its parent company General Electric.
Television critic Todd VanDerWerff of The A. V. Club once remarked that it "usually adopts the manic pacing of a live-action cartoon." The show was influential in its extensive use of cutaways: sudden, short cuts to unrelated scenes showing something the characters are discussing. 30 Rock became known for its dedication to making sets elaborate, once showing a set that took three days to build for only six seconds of video.30 Rock won several major awards, appeared on many critics' year-end "best of" 2006–2013 lists. On July 14, 2009, the series was nominated for 22 Primetime Emmy Awards, the most in a single year for a comedy series. Over the course of the series, it was nominated for 103 Primetime Emmy Awards and won 16, in addition to numerous other nominations and wins from other awards shows. Despite the high praise, the series struggled in the ratings throughout its run, something of which Fey herself has made light. In 2009, Comedy Central and WGN America bought the syndication rights to the show, which began airing on both networks on September 19, 2011.
Today, 30 Rock is regarded as a landmark series. Its series finale in particular has been named as one of the greatest in television history by several publications. In 2013, the Writers Guild of America West named 30 Rock the 21st best-written television series of all time. Liz Lemon is head writer and showrunner of the NBC sketch comedy series TGS with Tracy Jordan, filmed in Studio 6H in 30 Rockefeller Plaza, she supervises cast and crew including star Jenna Maroney, her best friend, while working with network executive Jack Donaghy and page Kenneth Parcell. In the first episode, Donaghy forces Lemon to hire the unpredictable Tracy Jordan as costar. Episodes depict conservative liberal Lemon's disagreements; the show satirizes the cultures of NBC, parent company General Electric, the entertainment industry. The network airs programs like reality shows MILF Island, Queen of Jordan and America's Kidz Got Singing as well as paranormal drama Hunchbacks, game show Gold Case. In seasons, the show depicts the network being acquired by Philadelphia-based media company Kabletown.
In 2002, Fey was a performer on the television show Saturday Night Live. She pitched the show that became 30 Rock to NBC as a sitcom about cable news. NBC Entertainment president Kevin Reilly felt that "Fey was using the news setting as a fig leaf for her own experience and encouraged her to write what she knew." The show was subsequently reworked to revolve around an SNL-style sketch show. After being presented to Reilly once more, the show was set to air during the 2005–2006 television season. In May 2003, Fey signed a contract with NBC to remain in her SNL head writer position until at least the 2004–2005 television season and to develop a primetime project to be produced by Broadway Video and NBC Universal. Filming was postponed due to Tina Fey's first pregnancy. During the 2004–2005 pilot season, a pilot was announced named Untitled Tina Fey Project; the 30 Rock pilot focused on the boss of a variety show who must manage her relationships with the show's volatile star and its charismatic executive producer.
The storyline evolved into one that dealt with a head writer of a variety show who dealt with both of the stars, as well as the show's new network executive. 30 Rock was given the green light to air May 15, 2006, along with a 13-episode order. The series underwent further changes during the months following its debut. A May 2006 press release mentioned that sketches from The Girlie Show would be made available in their entirety on NBC's broadband website, DotComedy.com. The idea was to air the fictitious TGS with Tracy Jordan online; this aspect of the series was abandoned prior to its debut. Inside scenes for 30 Rock were filmed at Silvercup Studios in Long Island City, Queens, NYC. In the episodes "Cleveland" and "Hiatus", Battery Park City and Douglaston, doubled for Cleveland and Needmore, respectively. In the episode "Gavin Volure", stock footage of the Arkansas Governor's Mansion was used for exterior shots of the home of Steve Martin's character
Naples is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan. In 2017, around 967,069 people lived within the city's administrative limits while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,115,320 residents, its continuously built-up metropolitan area is the second or third largest metropolitan area in Italy and one of the most densely populated cities in Europe. First settled by Greeks in the second millennium BC, Naples is one of the oldest continuously inhabited urban areas in the world. In the ninth century BC, a colony known as Parthenope or Παρθενόπη was established on the Island of Megaride refounded as Neápolis in the sixth century BC; the city was an important part of Magna Graecia, played a major role in the merging of Greek and Roman society and a significant cultural centre under the Romans. It served as the capital of the Duchy of Naples of the Kingdom of Naples and of the Two Sicilies until the unification of Italy in 1861.
Between 1925 and 1936, Naples was expanded and upgraded by Benito Mussolini's government but subsequently sustained severe damage from Allied bombing during World War II, which led to extensive post-1945 reconstruction work. Naples has experienced significant economic growth in recent decades, helped by the construction of the Centro Direzionale business district and an advanced transportation network, which includes the Alta Velocità high-speed rail link to Rome and Salerno and an expanded subway network. Naples is the third-largest urban economy in Italy, after Rome; the Port of Naples is one of the most important in Europe and home of the Allied Joint Force Command Naples, the NATO body that oversees North Africa, the Sahel and Middle East. Naples' historic city centre is the largest in Europe and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, with a wide range of culturally and significant sites nearby, including the Palace of Caserta and the Roman ruins of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Naples is known for its natural beauties such as Posillipo, Phlegraean Fields and Vesuvius.
Neapolitan cuisine is synonymous with pizza – which originated in the city – but it includes many lesser-known dishes. The best-known sports team in Naples is the Serie A club S. S. C. Napoli, two-time Italian champions who play at the San Paolo Stadium in the southwest of the city, in the Fuorigrotta quarter. Naples has been inhabited since the Neolithic period; the earliest Greek settlements were established in the Naples area in the second millennium BC. Sailors from the Greek island of Rhodes established a small commercial port called Parthenope on the island of Megaride in the ninth century BC. By the eighth century BC, the settlement had expanded to include Monte Echia. In the sixth century BC the new urban zone of Neápolis was founded on the plain becoming one of the foremost cities of Magna Graecia; the city grew due to the influence of the powerful Greek city-state of Syracuse, became an ally of the Roman Republic against Carthage. During the Samnite Wars, the city, now a bustling centre of trade, was captured by the Samnites.
During the Punic Wars, the strong walls surrounding Neápolis repelled the invading forces of the Carthaginian general Hannibal. Naples was respected by the Romans as a paragon of Hellenistic culture. During the Roman era, the people of Naples maintained their Greek language and customs, while the city was expanded with elegant Roman villas and public baths. Landmarks such as the Temple of Dioscures were built, many emperors chose to holiday in the city, including Claudius and Tiberius. Virgil, the author of Rome's national epic, the Aeneid, received part of his education in the city, resided in its environs, it was during this period. Januarius, who would become Naples' patron saint, was martyred there in the fourth century AD; the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, Romulus Augustulus, was exiled to Naples by the Germanic king Odoacer in the fifth century AD. Following the decline of the Western Roman Empire, Naples was captured by the Ostrogoths, a Germanic people, incorporated into the Ostrogothic Kingdom.
However, Belisarius of the Byzantine Empire recaptured Naples in 536, after entering the city via an aqueduct. In 543, during the Gothic Wars, Totila took the city for the Ostrogoths, but the Byzantines seized control of the area following the Battle of Mons Lactarius on the slopes of Vesuvius. Naples was expected to keep in contact with the Exarchate of Ravenna, the centre of Byzantine power on the Italian Peninsula. After the exarchate fell, a Duchy of Naples was created. Although Naples' Greco-Roman culture endured, it switched allegiance from Constantinople to Rome under Duke Stephen II, putting it under papal suzerainty by 763; the years between 818 and 832 were tumultuous in regard to Naples' relations with the Byzantine Emperor, with numerous local pretenders feuding for possession of the ducal throne. Theoctistus was appointed without imperial approval. However, the disgruntled general populace chased him from the city, instead elected Stephen III, a man who minted coins with his own initials, r
Mumbai is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. As of 2011 it is the most populous city in India with an estimated city proper population of 12.4 million. The larger Mumbai Metropolitan Region is the second most populous metropolitan area in India, with a population of 21.3 million as of 2016. Mumbai has a deep natural harbour. In 2008, Mumbai was named an alpha world city, it is the wealthiest city in India, has the highest number of millionaires and billionaires among all cities in India. Mumbai is home to three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Elephanta Caves, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus, the city's distinctive ensemble of Victorian and Art Deco buildings; the seven islands that constitute Mumbai were home to communities of Koli people, who originated in Gujarat in prehistoric times. For centuries, the islands were under the control of successive indigenous empires before being ceded to the Portuguese Empire and subsequently to the East India Company when in 1661 Charles II of England married Catherine of Braganza and as part of her dowry Charles received the ports of Tangier and Seven Islands of Bombay.
During the mid-18th century, Bombay was reshaped by the Hornby Vellard project, which undertook reclamation of the area between the seven islands from the sea. Along with construction of major roads and railways, the reclamation project, completed in 1845, transformed Bombay into a major seaport on the Arabian Sea. Bombay in the 19th century was characterised by educational development. During the early 20th century it became a strong base for the Indian independence movement. Upon India's independence in 1947 the city was incorporated into Bombay State. In 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra Movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital. Mumbai is the financial and entertainment capital of India, it is one of the world's top ten centres of commerce in terms of global financial flow, generating 6.16% of India's GDP and accounting for 25% of industrial output, 70% of maritime trade in India, 70% of capital transactions to India's economy. The city houses important financial institutions such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock Exchange, the National Stock Exchange of India, the SEBI and the corporate headquarters of numerous Indian companies and multinational corporations.
It is home to some of India's premier scientific and nuclear institutes like Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Power Corporation of India, Indian Rare Earths, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Atomic Energy Commission of India, the Department of Atomic Energy. The city houses India's Hindi and Marathi cinema industries. Mumbai's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over India, making the city a melting pot of many communities and cultures; the name Mumbai is derived from Mumbā or Mahā-Ambā—the name of the patron goddess Mumbadevi of the native Koli community— and ā'ī meaning "mother" in the Marathi language, the mother tongue of the Koli people and the official language of Maharashtra. The Koli people originated in Kathiawad and Central Gujarat, according to some sources they brought their goddess Mumba with them from Kathiawad, where she is still worshipped. However, other sources disagree.
The oldest known names for the city are Galajunkja. In 1508, Portuguese writer Gaspar Correia used the name "Bombaim" in his Lendas da Índia; this name originated as the Galician-Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning "good little bay", Bombaim is still used in Portuguese. In 1516, Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa used the name Tana-Maiambu: Tana appears to refer to the adjoining town of Thane and Maiambu to Mumbadevi. Other variations recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries include: Mombayn, Bombain, Monbaym, Mombaym, Bombaiim, Boon Bay, Bon Bahia. After the English gained possession of the city in the 17th century, the Portuguese name was anglicised as Bombay. Ali Muhammad Khan, imperial dewan or revenue minister of the Gujarat province, in the Mirat-i Ahmedi referred to the city as Manbai; the French traveller Louis Rousselet who visited in 1863 and 1868 tells us in his book L’Inde des Rajahs: "Etymologists have wrongly derived this name from the Portuguese Bôa Bahia, or, not knowing that the tutelar goddess of this island has been, from remote antiquity, Bomba, or Mamba Dévi, that she still... possesses a temple".
By the late 20th century, the city was referred to as Mumbai or Mambai in Marathi, Gujarati and Sindhi, as Bambai in Hindi. The Government of India changed the English name to Mumbai in November 1995; this came at the insistence of the Marathi nationalist Shiv Sena party, which had just won the Maharashtra state elections, mirrored similar name changes across the country and in Maharashtra. According to Slate magazine, "they argued that'Bombay' was a corrupted English version of'Mumbai' and an unwanted legacy of British colonial rule." Slate said "The push to rename Bombay was part of a larger movement to strengthen Marathi identity in the Maharashtra region." While the city is still referred to as Bombay by some of its residents and by Indians from other regions, mention of the ci
World Trade Center (1973–2001)
The original World Trade Center was a large complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States. It was destroyed in 2001 during the September 11 attacks. At the time of their completion, the Twin Towers — the original 1 World Trade Center, at 1,368 feet. Other buildings in the complex included the Marriott World Trade Center, 4 WTC, 5 WTC, 6 WTC, 7 WTC; the complex was located in New York City's Financial District and contained 13,400,000 square feet of office space. The core of the complex was built with a cost of $400 million; the World Trade Center experienced a fire on February 13, 1975, a bombing on February 26, 1993, a bank robbery on January 14, 1998. In 1998, the Port Authority decided to privatize the World Trade Center, leasing the buildings to a private company to manage, awarded the lease to Silverstein Properties in July 2001. On the morning of September 11, 2001, Al-Qaeda-affiliated hijackers flew two Boeing 767 jets into the North and South Towers within minutes of each other.
The attacks killed 2,606 people in and within the vicinity of the towers, as well as all 157 on board the two aircraft. Falling debris from the towers, combined with fires that the debris initiated in several surrounding buildings, led to the partial or complete collapse of all the buildings in the complex and caused catastrophic damage to ten other large structures in the surrounding area; the cleanup and recovery process at the World Trade Center site took eight months, during which the remains of the other buildings were demolished. The World Trade Center complex was rebuilt over more than a decade; the site is being rebuilt with six new skyscrapers, while a memorial to those killed in the attacks, a new rapid transit hub, an elevated park were all opened. One World Trade Center, the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere at 1,776 feet, is the lead building for the new complex, having been completed in November 2014; the western portion of the World Trade Center site was under the Hudson River, with the shoreline in the vicinity of Greenwich Street.
It was on this shoreline close to the intersection of Greenwich and the former Dey Street that Dutch explorer Adriaen Block's ship, burned to the waterline in November 1613, stranding Block and his crew and forcing them to overwinter on the island. They built the first European settlement in Manhattan; the remains of the ship were buried under landfill when the shoreline was extended starting in 1797, were discovered during excavation work in 1916. The remains of a second ship from the eighteenth century were discovered in 2010 during excavation work at the site; the ship, believed to be a Hudson River sloop, was found just south of where the Twin Towers stood, about 20 feet below the surface. The area became Radio Row. New York City's Radio Row, which existed from 1921 to 1966, was a warehouse district on the Lower West Side in the Financial District. Harry Schneck opened City Radio on Cortlandt Street in 1921, the area held several blocks of electronics stores, with Cortlandt Street as its central axis.
The used radios, war surplus electronics and parts piled so high they would spill out onto the street, attracting collectors and scroungers. According to a business writer, it was the origin of the electronic component distribution business; the idea of establishing a World Trade Center in New York City was first proposed in 1943. The New York State Legislature passed a bill authorizing New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey to begin developing plans for the project but the plans were put on hold in 1949. During the late 1940s and 1950s, economic growth in New York City was concentrated in Midtown Manhattan. To help stimulate urban renewal in Lower Manhattan, David Rockefeller suggested that the Port Authority build a World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan. Plans for the use of eminent domain to remove the shops in Radio Row bounded by Vesey, Church and West Streets began in 1961 when the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey was deciding to build the world's first world trade center, they had two choices: the east side of Lower Manhattan, near the South Street Seaport.
Initial plans, made public in 1961, identified a site along the East River for the World Trade Center. As a bi-state agency, the Port Authority required approval for new projects from the governors of both New York and New Jersey. New Jersey Governor Robert B. Meyner objected to New York getting a $335 million project. Toward the end of 1961, negotiations with outgoing New Jersey Governor Meyner reached a stalemate. At the time, ridership on New Jersey's Hudson and Manhattan Railroad had declined from a high of 113 million riders in 1927 to 26 million in 1958 after new automobile tunnels and bridges had opened across the Hudson River. In a December 1961 meeting between Port Authority director Austin J. Tobin and newly elected New Jersey Governor Richard J. Hughes, the Port Authority offered to take over the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad; the Port Authority decided to move the World Trade Center project to the Hudson Terminal building site on the west side of Lower Manhattan, a more convenient location for New Jersey commuters arriving via PATH.
With the new location and Port Authority acquisition of the H&M Railroad, New Jersey agreed to support the World Trade Center project. As part of the deal, the Port Authority renamed the H&M "Port Authority Trans-Hudson", or PATH for short. In compensation for Radio Row b
New York-style pizza
New York-style pizza is pizza made with a characteristically large hand-tossed thin crust sold in wide slices to go. The crust is thick and crisp only along its edge, yet soft and pliable enough beneath its toppings to be folded in half to eat. Traditional toppings are tomato sauce and shredded mozzarella cheese; this style evolved in the U. S. from the pizza that originated in New York City in the early 1900s, itself derived from the Neapolitan style pizza made in Italy. Today it is the dominant style eaten in the New York Metropolitan Area states of New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, variously popular throughout the United States. Regional variations exist throughout the Northeast and elsewhere in the U. S; the first pizzeria in the United States of America was claimed to have been founded by Gennaro Lombardi in New York City's Little Italy in 1905, though this has been debunked by author Peter Regas. An immigrant pizzaiolo from Naples, he opened a grocery store in 1897. An employee, Antonio Totonno Pero, began making pizza.
Many people, could not afford a whole pie and instead would offer what they could in return for a corresponding sized slice, wrapped in paper tied with string. In 1924, Totonno left; the original pizzerias in New York used coal-fired ovens and baked their pizza with the cheese on the bottom and sauce on top. By 2010, over 400 pizza restaurants existed in New York City, with hundreds more of varied cuisine offering the dish. New York-style pizza is traditionally hand-tossed, consisting in its basic form of a light layer of tomato sauce sprinkled with dry, full-fat mozzarella cheese. Pies are around 18 inches in diameter, cut into 8 slices; these large wide slices are eaten as fast food while folded in half from the crust, as their size and flexibility can make them unwieldy to eat flat. Folding the slice collects the abundant oil in the crease, allows the slice to be eaten with one hand. New York-style pizza gets its distinguishing crust from the high-gluten bread flour with which it is made. Minerals present in New York City's tap water supply are credited with giving the dough in metro area pies their characteristic texture and flavor.
Some out-of-state pizza bakers transport the water cross-country for the sake of authenticity. Typical condiments include dried oregano, dried red chili pepper flakes, dried basil, grated Parmesan cheese. New York-style pizza is most prevalent in New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, but can be found throughout the Northeastern region and beyond. Outside this area, many pizzas described as "New York style", including those of major pizza chains such as Pizza Hut do not fall within the variations accepted as genuine in its native area. A detailed recipe for the domestic production of authentic New York-style pizza by Jeff Varasano Top 10 Pizzas in New York-2006 Serious Eats: Pizza Lab article on New York-style Pizza
Maharashtra is a state in the western peninsular region of India occupying a substantial portion of the Deccan plateau. It is third-largest state by area in India. Spread over 307,713 km2, it is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, the Indian states of Karnataka and Goa to the south and Chhattisgarh to the east and Dadra and Nagar Haveli to the north west, Madhya Pradesh to the north, it is the world's second-most populous subnational entity. It was formed by merging the western and south-western parts of the Bombay State and Vidarbha, the north-western parts of the Hyderabad State and splitting Saurashtra by the States Reorganisation Act, it has over 112 million inhabitants and its capital, has a population around 18 million making it the most populous urban area in India. Nagpur hosts the winter session of the state legislature. Pune is known as'Oxford of the East' due to the presence of several well-known educational institutions; the Godavari and the Krishna are the two major rivers in the state.
The Narmada and Tapi Rivers flow near Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. Maharashtra is the third-most urbanized state of India. Prior to Indian independence, Maharashtra was chronologically ruled by the Satavahana dynasty, Rashtrakuta dynasty, Western Chalukyas, Deccan sultanates and Marathas, the British. Ruins, tombs and places of worship left by these rulers are dotted around the state, they include the UNESCO World Heritage Sites of the Ellora caves. The numerous forts are associated with the life of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. Maharashtra is the wealthiest state by all major economic parameters and the most industrialized state in India; the state continues to be the single largest contributor to the national economy with a share of 15% in the country's gross domestic product. Maharashtra accounts for 17% of the industrial output of the country and 16% of the country's service sector output; the economy of Maharashtra is the largest state economy in India with ₹27.96 lakh crore in GDP and a per capita GDP of ₹180,000.
The modern Marathi language developed from the Maharashtri Prakrit, the word Marhatta is found in the Jain Maharashtri literature. The terms Maharashtra, Maharashtri and Maratha may have derived from the same root. However, their exact etymology is uncertain; the most accepted theory among the linguistic scholars is that the words Maratha and Maharashtra derived from a combination of Maha and rashtrika, the name of a tribe or dynasty of petty chiefs ruling in the Deccan region. Another theory is that the term is derived from Maha and ratha / rathi, which refers to a skilful northern fighting force that migrated southward into the area. An alternative theory states that the term derives from Rashtra. However, this theory is somewhat controversial among modern scholars who believe it to be the Sanskritised interpretation of writers. Chalcolithic sites belonging to the Jorwe culture have been discovered throughout the state. Maharashtra was ruled by the Maurya Empire in the fourth and third centuries BCE.
Around 230 BCE, Maharashtra came under the rule of the Satavahana dynasty for 400 years. The greatest ruler of the Satavahana dynasty was Gautamiputra Satakarni. In 90 CE, son of the Satavahana king Satakarni, the "Lord of Dakshinapatha, wielder of the unchecked wheel of Sovereignty", made Junnar, 30 miles north of Pune, the capital of his kingdom; the state was ruled by Western Satraps, Gupta Empire, Gurjara-Pratihara, Kadambas, Chalukya Empire, Rashtrakuta Dynasty, Western Chalukya before the Yadava rule. The Buddhist Ajanta Caves in present-day Aurangabad display influences from the Satavahana and Vakataka style; the caves were excavated during this period. The Chalukya dynasty ruled from the sixth to the eighth centuries CE, the two prominent rulers were Pulakeshin II, who defeated the north Indian Emperor Harsha, Vikramaditya II, who defeated the Arab invaders in the eighth century; the Rashtrakuta dynasty ruled Maharashtra from the eighth to the tenth century. The Arab traveller Sulaiman described the ruler of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty as "one of the four great kings of the world".
Shilahara dynasty began as vassals of the Rashtrakuta dynasty which ruled the Deccan plateau between the eighth and tenth centuries. From the early 11th century to the 12th century, the Deccan Plateau, which includes a significant part of Maharashtra, was dominated by the Western Chalukya Empire and the Chola dynasty. Several battles were fought between the Western Chalukya empire and the Chola dynasty in the Deccan Plateau during the reigns of Raja Raja Chola I, Rajendra Chola I, Jayasimha II, Someshvara I, Vikramaditya VI. In the early 14th century, the Yadava Dynasty, which ruled most of present-day Maharashtra, was overthrown by the Delhi Sultanate ruler Ala-ud-din Khalji. Muhammad bin Tughluq conquered parts of the Deccan, temporarily shifted his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad in Maharashtra. After the collapse of the Tughluqs in 1347, the local Bahmani Sultanate of Gulbarga took over, governing the region for the next 150 years. After the break-up of the Bahamani sultanate in 1518, Maharashtra split into five Deccan Sultanates: Nizamshah of Ahmednagar, Adilshah of Bijapur, Qutubshah of Golkonda, Bidarshah of Bidar and Imadshah of Elichpur.
These kingdoms fought with each other. United, they decisively defeated the
An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilities for commercial air transport. Airports have facilities to store and maintain aircraft, a control tower. An airport consists of a landing area, which comprises an aerially accessible open space including at least one operationally active surface such as a runway for a plane to take off or a helipad, includes adjacent utility buildings such as control towers and terminals. Larger airports may have airport aprons, taxiway bridges, air traffic control centres, passenger facilities such as restaurants and lounges, emergency services. In some countries, the US in particular, they typically have one or more fixed-base operators, serving general aviation. An airport serving helicopters is called a heliport. An airport for use by seaplanes and amphibious aircraft is called a seaplane base; such a base includes a stretch of open water for takeoffs and landings, seaplane docks for tying-up. An international airport has additional facilities for customs and passport control as well as incorporating all of the aforementioned elements.
Such airports rank among the most complex and largest of all built typologies with 15 of the top 50 buildings by floor area being airport terminals. The terms aerodrome and airstrip may be used to refer to airports, the terms heliport, seaplane base, STOLport refer to airports dedicated to helicopters, seaplanes, or short take-off and landing aircraft. In colloquial use in certain environments, the terms airport and aerodrome are interchanged. However, in general, the term airport may imply or confer a certain stature upon the aviation facility that other aerodromes may not have achieved. In some jurisdictions, airport is a legal term of art reserved for those aerodromes certified or licensed as airports by the relevant national aviation authority after meeting specified certification criteria or regulatory requirements; that is to say, all airports are aerodromes, but not all aerodromes are airports. In jurisdictions where there is no legal distinction between aerodrome and airport, which term to use in the name of an aerodrome may be a commercial decision.
In United States technical/legal usage, landing area is used instead of aerodrome, airport means "a landing area used by aircraft for receiving or discharging passengers or cargo". Smaller or less-developed airfields, which represent the vast majority have a single runway shorter than 1,000 m. Larger airports for airline flights have paved runways of 2,000 m or longer. Skyline Airport in Inkom, Idaho has a runway, only 122 m long. In the United States, the minimum dimensions for dry, hard landing fields are defined by the FAR Landing And Takeoff Field Lengths; these include considerations for safety margins during takeoff. The longest public-use runway in the world is at Qamdo Bamda Airport in China, it has a length of 5,500 m. The world's widest paved runway is 105 m wide; as of 2009, the CIA stated that there were 44,000 "... airports or airfields recognizable from the air" around the world, including 15,095 in the US, the US having the most in the world. Most of the world's large airports are owned by local, regional, or national government bodies who lease the airport to private corporations who oversee the airport's operation.
For example, in the United Kingdom the state-owned British Airports Authority operated eight of the nation's major commercial airports – it was subsequently privatized in the late 1980s, following its takeover by the Spanish Ferrovial consortium in 2006, has been further divested and downsized to operating just Heathrow now. Germany's Frankfurt Airport is managed by the quasi-private firm Fraport. While in India GMR Group operates, through joint ventures, Indira Gandhi International Airport and Rajiv Gandhi International Airport. Bengaluru International Airport and Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport are controlled by GVK Group; the rest of India's airports are managed by the Airports Authority of India. In Pakistan nearly all civilian airports are owned and operated by the Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority except for Sialkot International Airport which has the distinction of being the first owned public airport in Pakistan and South Asia. In the United States, commercial airports are operated directly by government entities or government-created airport authorities, such as the Los Angeles World Airports authority that oversees several airports in the Greater Los Angeles area, including Los Angeles International Airport.
In Canada, the federal authority, Transport Canada, divested itself of all but the remotest airports in 1999/2000. Now most airports in Canada are owned and operated by individual legal authorities or are municipally owned. Many U. S. airports still lease part or all of their facilities to outside firms, who operate functions such as retail management and parking. In the U. S. all commercial airport runways are certified by the FAA under the Code of Federal Regulations Title 14 Part 139, "Certification of Commercial Service Airports" but maintained by the local airport under the regulatory authority of the FAA. Despite the reluctance to privatize airports in the US, the government-owned, contractor-operated arrangement is the standard for the operation of commercial airports in the rest of the world. Airports are divided into airside areas; the landside area is open to the public, while access to the airside area is controlled. The airside area includes all parts of the airpo