Sbeitla or Sufetula is a city in north-central Tunisia. Nearby are the Roman ruins of Sufetula, containing the best preserved Roman forum temples in Tunisia, it was the entry point of the Muslim conquest of North Africa. Sbeitla is the capital of the largest delegation in Kasserine Governorate with an area of 1133.5 km2. It is located in 33 km in the west of the governorate, 264 km to Tunis, it has a population of 23,844. The oldest traces of civilisation in the zone are funereal stelae; the region was inhabited by nomadic tribes until the Legio III Augusta established a camp at Ammaedara. Through the surrender of the Berber leader Tacfarinas, the region was pacified and populated under the Roman emperor Vespasian and his sons between 67 and 69, becoming a bishopric in the Roman province of Byzacena; some inscriptions found in the city suggest that the settlement had success along the lines of others in North Africa during the 2nd century, reaching great prosperity through the olive industry, whose cultivation benefited from excellent climatic conditions in the region.
The olive presses found in the ruins of the city further bolster this conclusion. The resulting prosperity made possible the construction of a splendid forum and other important buildings; the city began to decline during the Late Empire, during which the city was surrounded and occupied by Vandals, a fact, demonstrated by the appearance of temples dedicated to their gods. The arrival of the Byzantines inaugurated a new period of splendor. In 647, the fields before the city were the site of a major battle between the Byzantines and Berbers of Gregory the Patrician and the Rashidun Caliphate's governor of Egypt, Abdullah ibn Saad; the Battle of Sufetula ended in a decisive Muslim victory, which shook Byzantine control over the region and signalled the beginning of the Muslim conquest of North Africa. The caliph at the time of the battle was Uthman ibn Affan, who set the army under the leadership of Abdullah ibn Saad. At his arrival to Barqa, Uqba ibn Nafi and his troops joined the main army and the two commanders prepared together the plan to conquer Sbeitla.
The battle was long and hard, Caliph Uthman sent reinforcement under the leadership of Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr. The three leaders prepared a new battle plan and they succeeded in taking Sufetula; the Muslim conquest marked the end of the diocese of Sufetula, however nominally revived as a Catholic titular bishopric. Sbeitla is located in western central Tunisia. By road it is 33 kilometres north-east of Kasserine, 246 kilometres south-west of Tunis, 166 kilometres south-west of Sousse; the city is known by its semi-arid climate. Thanks to the well preserved archaeological site with its prestigious Roman forum, the cultural activities in Sbeitla have prospered. An annual festival is organised in the forum; the archaeological museum of Sbeitla houses several mosaics. It consists of three exhibition rooms: the first one is about the Capsian culture, the second about the rest of Dionysus' empire, the third contains two mosaics. Since 2000, the city holds her Spring International festival each year, it is an international celebration where many famous actors like Mahmoud Yacine and authors like Mahmoud Messadi were honored.
The city celebrates its international festival named festival abadelah of Sbeitla. It was founded in 2000, it became international in 2013; the economy of Sbeitla relays on handicraft and petroleum production managed by ETAP in the oil field of Douleb. The city is surrounded by a large field of agriculture of olive and animal husbandry, it contains 919 shallow wells, 137 deep wells, a mountain lake and a mountain dam the irrigated Area remains limited to 2930 hectares. The Oil field of Douleb is one of the fields explored by ETAP, since April 12, 1968 and it produces 230 000 barrels\year. In 1974, the field reached; the majority of handicraft known in Sbeitla relay on wool processing. Tunisian barnous is one of those handcrafts. Sbeitla's most popular sport club is the Union Sportive Sbeitla, it belongs to Tunisian ligue professionnelle 3 before being promoted to ligue 2 at the season 2013. At June 5, 2013, the club advanced to the Quarter-finals of Tunisian Cup for the first time in its history.
After defeating Stade Tunisien, the club was eliminated by CA Bizertin. Ali Ben Ghedhahem a famous Tunisian revolutionary. Mongi Soussi Zarrouki is an athlete who participated in 1960 Summer Olympics and in the 1959 Mediterranean Games. Lotfi Ben Jeddou is a politician, Minister of the Interior since March 2013. Sufetula, the former Catholic bishopric turned titular see LexicorientSbeitla is mentioned in Noman Douglas's Fountains in the Sand as being wooded by junipers and Aleppo pines as late as the 19th century, though he found them "bleak and bare" in the early 20th century
Dataphor is an open-source truly-relational database management system and its accompanying user interface technologies, which together are designed to provide declarative software application development. The Dataphor Server has its own storage engine or it can be a virtual, or federated, DBMS, meaning that it can utilize other database engines for storage. Dataphor has been praised for its adherence to relational principles, more so than any SQL product; the stated purpose of Dataphor is to attempt to raise the bar of automation when building and maintaining complex software applications. Referred to as a framework, Dataphor provides more of a software development platform, complete with its own programming and user interface paradigms. Dataphor is broadly divided into two components: the Dataphor Server, the Dataphor Frontend; the purpose of the Dataphor Server is to provide a standardized language and runtime for the definition and integrity of application data. The Frontend is concerned with the dynamic derivation of user interfaces and the presentation thereof in either the Windows or Web thin client.
Dataphor does not employ SQL as its primary database language since SQL purportedly violates important principles of the relational model. Dataphor's D4 language is based on the principles of Christopher J Date's and Hugh Darwen's Tutorial D, but with a Pascal-like imperative syntax. Though Dataphor espouses to be relational, it does incorporate the concept of NULLs as found in SQL, which many claim to be contraindicated by the Relational Model. NULLs and the matter of managing missing information, continue to be debated. In addition to the data management focus of the Dataphor Server, Dataphor includes tools which allow the presentation of user interfaces through Windows and Web "thin" clients. Dataphor takes advantage of the relational inference capabilities of the Dataphor compiler in order to allow complete GUI forms to be derived directly from the data model; the unique aspect of Dataphor's user interface "derivation" is that it may be based on any relational expression rather than base tables.
Dataphor strives for theoretical compliance to relational principles. While they try to adhere to the principles in The Third Manifesto, they deviated in a few places from what the Third Manifesto strived for, but not in places that were violations of Codd's 12 rules. E.g. they included nulls. While many systems built on SQL fail miserably with respect to Codd's rule 9 "Logical data independence", Dataphor applications can automatically change when the logical layer change. E.g. when a new column is added to the system, no additional development is needed to have that be a new field visible to the users for viewing or editing. Hugh Darwen has referred as a notable project in his talk entitled The Askew Wall. Chris Date refers to Dataphor as a product. Fabian Pascal calls Dataphor "Truly Relational", "superior to SQL" In 1999, point of sale systems developer Softwise Inc, found they were writing much of the same code over and over again, looked for a tool to automate their database applications.
They didn't find an application which did what they want, so they created a division of their company, called it Alphora, set some of their developers to build such a tool. That tool became Dataphor, it is said to be the first relational DBMS since IBM Business System 12. Development of Dataphor began shortly before 2000, with a 1.0 release in 2001. In early 2008, the Alphora name and the Dataphor product were acquired by Database Consulting Group, founded by the original architects of Dataphor, who left Softwise in 2007. After the acquisition, Dataphor was re-licensed as open source under the BSD License. Dataphor utilizes the Microsoft. NET Framework and is written in C#; the following is a summary of the various technology components of Dataphor: The Dataphor Server has several components including: Call-level interface - session management, process scheduler, etc. Data Dictionary Catalog - containing all of the Tables, Operators, Constraints and other schema objects. D4 Scanner, Parser and Compiler.
D4 Runtime - including relational, scalar processing Storage Integration layer - real-time translation to various dialects of SQL While Dataphor supports a SQL flavor they call "RealSQL", D4 is the preferred language for use within Dataphor, D4 supports DDL and DML statements. D4 queries tend to look like Relational Algebra expressions with written out names of operators. For example: D4 has a Pascal-like syntax. D4 sample code is written in UpperCamelCase, widely used in Pascal and Delphi systems. Like most query languages, D4 has a Data Manipulation Language. D4 has an Imperative Language for procedural code; the DDL for Dataphor bears many similarities to other DBMSs, but with an Pascal-like twist. Many of the allowed DDL operations, like constraints, allow relational declarative statements to be used, which many believe is superior to the procedural style operations used in SQL; the DML syntax at first glance may appear to be similar to SQLs syntax, but because of D4's closer ties to relational algebra, the syntax has a cleaner definition, most users prefer it over SQL.
The Imperative Language in D4 is remarkably similar to Pascal in many respects. The largest distinction being that D4 allows DDL and DML statements to be run in regular procedural code. D4 was named after the system that uses the language, it was some time after these names were decided that its creators discovered Tutorial D, the co
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