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Scandinavian Airlines

Scandinavian Airlines known as SAS, is the flag carrier of Denmark and Sweden. SAS is an abbreviation of the company's full name, Scandinavian Airlines System or Scandinavian Airlines System Denmark-Norway-Sweden. Part of the SAS Group and headquartered at the SAS Frösundavik Office Building in Solna, the airline operates 180 aircraft to 90 destinations; the airline's main hub is at Copenhagen-Kastrup Airport, with connections to 109 destinations around the world. Stockholm-Arlanda Airport is the second largest hub and Oslo Airport, Gardermoen being the third major hub of SAS. Minor hubs exist at Bergen Airport, Flesland, Göteborg Landvetter Airport, Stavanger Airport and Trondheim Airport, Værnes. SAS Cargo is an independent, wholly owned subsidiary of Scandinavian Airlines and its main office is at Copenhagen Airport. In 2017, SAS carried 28.6 million passengers. This makes it the eighth-largest airline in Europe; the SAS fleet is composed of 180 aircraft consisting of Airbus A319, Airbus A320, Airbus A320neo, Airbus A321, Airbus A330 and Airbus A340.

SAS wet leases Airbus A320neo, ATR 72, Bombardier CRJ900 aircraft. The airline was founded in 1946 as a consortium to pool the transatlantic operations of Swedish airline Svensk Interkontinental Lufttrafik, Norway's Det Norske Luftfartselskap and Det Danske Luftfartselskab of Denmark; the consortium was extended to cover domestic cooperation two years later. In 1951, all the airlines were merged to create SAS. SAS has been described as "an icon of Norwegian–Swedish–Danish cooperation". On 27 June 2018, the Norwegian government announced that it had sold all its shares in SAS. In 1997, SAS was a founding member of one of Star Alliance; the airline was founded on 1 August 1946, when Svensk Interkontinental Lufttrafik AB, Det Danske Luftfartselskab A/S, Det Norske Luftfartselskap AS formed a partnership to handle the intercontinental air traffic of these three Scandinavian countries. Operations started on 17 September 1946. In 1948 the Swedish flag carrier AB Aerotransport joined SAS and the companies coordinated European operations and merged to form the SAS Consortium in 1951.

When established, the airline was divided between SAS Danmark, SAS Norge, SAS Sverige, all owned 50% by private investors and 50% by their governments. In 1954 SAS was the first airline to start scheduled flights on a polar route; the Douglas DC-6B flew from Copenhagen to Los Angeles with stops in Søndre Strømfjord in Greenland and Winnipeg in Canada. By summer 1956 frequency had increased to three flights per week, it was popular with Hollywood celebrities and film industry people, the route turned out to be a publicity coup for SAS. Thanks to a tariff structure that allowed free transit to other European destinations via Copenhagen, this trans-polar route gained increasing popularity with American tourists throughout the 1950s. In 1957 SAS started a second polar route when a Douglas DC-7C flew from Copenhagen to Tokyo via Anchorage International Airport in Alaska; the flight via Alaska was a compromise solution since the Soviet Union would not allow SAS, among other air carriers, to fly across Siberia between Europe and Japan, Chinese airspace was closed.

SAS entered the jet age in 1959 when the Sud Aviation Caravelle entered service, with the Douglas DC-8 joining the fleet the next year. In 1971, SAS put its first Boeing 747 jumbo jet into service. During its first decades, the airline built two large hotels in central Copenhagen, SAS Royal Hotel and the larger SAS Hotel Scandinavia. After the deregulation of European commercial aviation and the crisis afterwards which affected SAS, like many other national airline corporations, Scandinavian Airlines sold its hotels to Radisson. SAS acquired control of the domestic markets in all three countries by acquiring full or partial control of local airlines, including Braathens and Widerøe in Norway. In 1989, SAS acquired 18.4% of Texas Air Corporation, the parent company of Continental Airlines, in a bid to form a global alliance. This stake was sold. During the 1990s, SAS bought a 20% stake in British Midland. SAS bought the second-largest airline in Spain, as well as Air Greenland. An agreement to divest more than 80 percent of the holdings in Spanair was signed with a Catalan group of investors led by Consorci de Turisme de Barcelona and Catalana d'Inciatives in January 2009.

In May 1997, SAS formed the global Star Alliance network with Air Canada, Thai Airways International, United Airlines. Four years earlier SAS unsuccessfully tried to merge with KLM, Star Alliance partner Austrian Airlines, the now-defunct Swissair, in a project called Alcazar; this failure led to the departure the following year of CEO Jan Carlzon, credited for the financial turnaround of the company starting in 1981 and who envisioned SAS ownership of multiple airlines worldwide. The ownership structure of SAS was changed in June 2001, with a holding company being created in which the holdings of the governments changed to Sweden and Denmark and the remaining 50% publicly held and traded on the stock market. In 2004 Scandinavian Airlines System was divided into four companies. SAS Braathens was re

Out of Africa

Out of Africa is a memoir by the Danish author Karen Blixen. The book, first published in 1937, recounts events of the seventeen years when Blixen made her home in Kenya called British East Africa; the book is a lyrical meditation on Blixen's life on her coffee plantation, as well as a tribute to some of the people who touched her life there. It provides a vivid snapshot of African colonial life in the last decades of the British Empire. Blixen wrote the book in English and rewrote it in Danish; the book has sometimes been published under Isak Dinesen. Karen Blixen moved to British East Africa in late 1913, at the age of 28, to marry her second cousin, the Swedish Baron Bror von Blixen-Finecke, make a life in the British colony known today as Kenya; the young Baron and Baroness bought farmland below the Ngong Hills about ten miles southwest of Nairobi, which at the time was still shaking off its rough origins as a supply depot on the Uganda Railway. The Blixens had planned to raise dairy cattle, but Bror developed their farm as a coffee plantation instead.

It was managed by Europeans, including, at the start, Karen's brother Thomas – but most of the labour was provided by “squatters.” This was the colonial term for local Kikuyu tribespeople who guaranteed the owners 180 days of labour in exchange for wages and the right to live and farm on the uncultivated lands which, in many cases, had been theirs before the British arrived and stole them. When the First World War drove coffee prices up, the Blixen family invested in the business, in 1917 Karen and Bror expanded their holdings to six thousand acres; the new acquisitions included the site of the house. The Blixens’ marriage started well – Karen and Bror went on hunting safaris which Karen remembered as paradisiacal, but it was not successful: Bror, a talented hunter and a well liked companion, was an unfaithful husband and a poor businessman who squandered much of the money to be invested in the farm. In 1921 the couple separated, in 1925 they were divorced, she was well suited to the work – fiercely independent and capable, she loved the land and liked her native workers.

But the climate and soil of her particular tract was not ideal for coffee-raising. The farm sank further and further into debt until, in 1931, the family corporation forced her to sell it; the buyer, Remi Martin, who planned to carve it into residential plots, offered to allow Blixen to stay in the house. She declined, returned to Denmark. Blixen lived with her mother. In 1934 she published a fiction collection, Nine Tales, now known as Seven Gothic Tales, in 1937 she published her Kenyan memoir, Out of Africa; the book's title was derived from the title of a poem, "Ex Africa," she had written in 1915, while recuperating in a Danish hospital from her fight with syphilis. The poem's title is an abbreviation of the famous ancient Latin adage Ex Africa semper aliquid novi, which translates as “Out of Africa, always something new.” Out of Africa is divided into five sections, most of which are non-linear and seem to reflect no particular chronology. The first two focus on Africans who lived or had business on the farm, include close observations of native ideas about justice and punishment in the wake of a gruesome accidental shooting.

The third section, called “Visitors to the Farm,” describes some of the more colourful local characters who considered Blixen's farm to be a safe haven. The fourth, “From an Immigrant’s Notebook,” is a collection of short sub-chapters in which Blixen reflects on the life of a white African colonist. In the fifth and final section, “Farewell to the Farm,” the book begins to take on a more linear shape, as Blixen details the farm's financial failure, the untimely deaths of several of her closest friends in Kenya; the book ends with the farm sold, with Blixen on the Uganda Railway, heading toward the steamer on the coast, looking back and watching her beloved Ngong Hills diminish behind her. Out of Africa has been noted for its melancholy and elegiac style – Blixen biographer Judith Thurman employs an African tribal phrase to describe it: “clear darkness.” It is not an insignificant fact that Blixen's tales encompass the deaths of at least five of the important people in the book. As the chapters proceed, Blixen begins to meditate more plainly on her feelings of loss and nostalgia for her days in Africa.

As she describes the economic realities of her failed business closing in on her, she comments wryly on her mixture of despair and denial, until the last days are upon her and she gives in to the inevitable. But Blixen's wistfulness is fueled and informed by a loss greater than her own farm: the loss of Kenya itself. In the first two decades of the 20th century, many of Kenya's European settlers saw their colonial home as a kind of timeless paradise. One frequent explorer referred to the atmosphere as a “tropical, neo-lithic slumber.” U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt, who explored the region in 1909, compared it to “the late Pleistocene.”Settlement was sparse. A few thousand European colonists, many of them well-educated Britons from the landed gentry, held dominion over vast plantation estates covering tens of thousands of acres, their farms were home to herds of elephants and

Mildura Airport

Mildura Airport is located 5 nautical miles southwest of Mildura, Australia. It is the busiest regional airport in Victoria, the 32nd busiest Australian airport and has twice been named Australia's Rural Airport of the Year. During World War II it was taken over by the Royal Australian Air Force as RAAF Base Mildura. From 1961 to 1976, Australia and the United States Atomic Energy Commission agreed to conduct "Project HIBAL" Upper Atmosphere Sampling at Mildura Airport. In 1967 the Airport was used to launch balloons for the French National Center for Scientific Research. QantasLink and Regional Express offer scheduled air services. Virgin Australia began the first scheduled jet service from 13 October 2008, it is home to Cobden Air and the Mildura Aero Club. Its terminal facilities underwent renovation in September 2012, a $6.4 million revamp by builders Mossop Construction + Interiors. This was completed to modernise the airport, as well as increase its passenger handling capabilities to support future air travel growth.

On 18 June 2013, a Virgin Australia Boeing 737-800 operating a flight from Brisbane to Adelaide with 91 passengers and crew on board diverted to Mildura due to heavy fog which had closed Adelaide airport. The flight carried enough fuel to allow 30 minutes holding. A Qantas 737 had diverted to Mildura, arriving after the Virgin flight and radioed that they were running low on fuel; this was interpreted by the Virgin crew as an urgent situation and they allowed the Qantas flight to land ahead. With the airport's automated weather service unavailable and the visibility deteriorating, the Virgin flight conducted a missed approach and now critically low on fuel were forced to commit to an immediate emergency landing. Mildura airport is not equipped with an Instrument Landing System approach aid and the crew performed the landing without visual reference to the runway on the second attempt; the aircraft landed with 535 kg remaining fuel. On 6 November 2015, the pilot of a Cessna 310R, on a private flight from Moorabbin, lost control and crashed on approach to land at Mildura, after the left engine was starved of fuel.

The pilot was fatally injured and the aircraft destroyed. List of airports in Victoria Official website