A Dalecarlian horse or Dala horse is a traditional carved, painted wooden statue of a horse originating in the Swedish province of Dalarna. In the old days the Dalecarlian horse was used as a toy for children. Several different types of Dalecarlian horses are made, with distinguishing features common to the locality of the site where they are produced. One particular style has, become much more common and widespread than others, it is stoutly carved and painted bright red with details and a harness in white, green and blue. It was in the small log cabins deep in the forests during the long winter nights in front of a log fire that the forerunner of the Dala horse was born. Using simple tools only a knife, woodcarvers made toys for their children, it was only natural that many of these toys were horses, because the horse was invaluable in those days, as a trusty friend and worker who could pull great loads of timber from the forests during the winter months, in the summer could be of just as much use on the farm.
The art of carving and painting the small horses flourished in the 19th century, as economic hardship in the region inspired greater production of the small horses, they became an important item of barter. Horse-making may have started as something to do during the long dark winter months, but soon the Dala horses were traded in exchange for household goods and their carving and painting blossomed into a full-fledged cottage industry; the rural families depended on horse production to help keep food on the table, as the skills of horse carving and painting were passed on from generation to generation. The carving of Dala horses as a livelihood is thought to have started in the village of Bergkarlås in central Sweden, though the nearby "horse" villages of Risa, Vattnäs, Nusnäs were centres of horse-making; the villages were involved in the art of furniture and clock-making, it is the leftover scraps of wood were put to use in the production of Dala horses. Many early Dala horses were not painted at all, but in the beginning of the 19th century painting them in a single color, white or red, became common practice.
The decoration of the Dala horse has its roots in furniture painting and was perfected over the years. According to a local tale, a wandering painter in the style of kurbits came across one of these Dala horses in a farm he was decorating; when asked by one of the children why that horse was not as beautifully painted as the ones in the decorations, he painted the Dala horse in the same style. This tradition was carried on in order to raise the market value of the Dala horses; the earliest references to wooden horses for sale are from 1623. In the 19th century, Stikå-Erik Hansson from the village Risa in the parish of Mora introduced the technique of painting with two colours on the same brush, still used today. In the book "The Wooden Horses of Sweden," the author mentions that this famous Dala painter is buried in a small churchyard in Nebraska after having immigrated to the Midwest in 1887 at the age of 64.) He changed his name to Erik Erikson upon coming to America and is buried at Bega Cemetery in Stanton County Nebraska, outside of Norfolk.
While there were many horse whittlers in the early production of Dala horses, there were comparatively few horse painters. The large number of whittlers and a lack of distinguishing features makes it difficult to distinguish between different whittlers. Early painters rarely signed their work, but they did have their own distinct pattern from which it is possible to identify who painted a particular horse. In the 1930s mass production of Dala horses started; this marks the beginning of a new era for the Dala horse, transitioning from toy to a national symbol and popular souvenir. The Dalecarlian horse of today is still a handcrafted article, made of pine, its pattern is about 150 years old. At least nine different people contribute their skills to create each horse; the distinctive shape of the horse is due to the usage of flat-plane style carving. An apocryphal legend of the Dalecarlian horse is that they became the national toy in 1716. According to the legend, soldiers loyal to King Charles XII were quartered in the Dalecarlian region and carved the toys as gifts for their hosts.
In the 2003 Norwegian film Kitchen Stories, a small dala horse is part of a joke when a character expected a real horse as a reward. Early production of Dala horses was concentrated to four villages: Bergkarlås, Vattnäs, Nusnäs, all in the parish of Mora. Production is believed to have started in Bergkarlås and spread to nearby villages Risa and Vattnäs through kindred. At about the same time production started independently in Nusnäs, being farther away their style was less influenced by those of the other villages; the individual painters each had their particular style, the few who are old enough to remember first- or second-hand the history can tell which village, in some cases which carver or painter, turned out a particular horse. The distinguishing features of many early painters from these villages have now been documented. Many of the works by the earliest horse makers are no longer in existence but those that remain are cherished by their owners and have been passed down through generations.
These are coveted by collectors, their value has risen markedly over the years. Today, many of the villages in Dalarna county make Dala horses with individual styles representing the district of origin; these horses have distinctive shapes and come in different sizes. Some hor
Sandpaper and glasspaper are names used for a type of coated abrasive that consists of sheets of paper or cloth with abrasive material glued to one face. Despite the use of the names neither sand nor glass are now used in the manufacture of these products as they have been replaced by other abrasives such as aluminium oxide or silicon carbide. Sandpaper is produced in a range of grit sizes and is used to remove material from surfaces, either to make them smoother, to remove a layer of material, or sometimes to make the surface rougher, it is common to use the name of the abrasive when describing the paper, e.g. "aluminium oxide paper", or "silicon carbide paper". The grit size of sandpaper is stated as a number, inversely related to the particle size. A small number such as 20 or 40 indicates a coarse grit, while a large number such as 1500 indicates a fine grit; the first recorded instance of sandpaper was in 13th-century China when crushed shells and sand were bonded to parchment using natural gum.
Shark skin has been used as an abrasive and the rough scales of the living fossil, Coelacanth are used for the same purpose by the natives of Comoros. Boiled and dried, the rough horsetail plant is used in Japan as a traditional polishing material, finer than sandpaper. Glass paper was manufactured in London in 1833 by John Oakey, whose company had developed new adhesive techniques and processes, enabling mass production. Glass frit has sharp-edged particles and cuts well whereas sand grains are smoothed down and do not work well as an abrasive. Cheap sandpaper was passed off as glass paper. In 1921, 3M invented a sandpaper with silicon carbide grit and a waterproof adhesive and backing, known as Wet and dry; this allowed use with water, which would serve as a lubricant to carry away particles that would otherwise clog the grit. Its first application was in automotive paint refinishing. There are many varieties of sandpaper, with variations in the paper or backing, the material used for the grit, grit size, the bond.
In addition to paper, backing for sandpaper includes cloth, PET film, "fibre", or rubber. Cloth backing is used for sandpaper discs and belts, while mylar is used as backing for fine grits. Fibre or vulcanized fibre is a strong backing material consisting of many layers of polymer impregnated paper; the weight of the backing is designated by a letter. For paper backings, the weight ratings range from "A" to "F", with A designating the lightest and F the heaviest. Letter nomenclature follows a different system for cloth backings, with the weight of the backing rated J, X, Y, T, M, from lightest to heaviest. A flexible backing allows sandpaper to follow irregular contours of a workpiece. Sandpaper backings may be glued to the paper or form a separate support structure for moving sandpaper, such as used in sanding belts and discs. Stronger paper or backing increases the ease of sanding wood; the harder the backing material, the faster the sanding, the faster the wear of the paper and the rougher the sanded surface.
Types of abrasive materials include: glass: no longer used flint: no longer used garnet: used in woodworking emery: used to abrade or polish metals aluminium oxide: The most common in modern use, with the widest variety of grits, lowest unit cost. Sandpaper may be "stearated". Stearated papers are useful in sanding coats of finish and paint as the stearate "soap" prevents clogging and increases the useful life of the sandpaper; the harder the grit material, the easier the sanding of surfaces like wood. The grit material for polishing granite slab must be harder than granite. Different adhesives are used to bond the abrasive to the paper. Hide glue is still used, but this glue cannot withstand the heat generated during machine sanding and is not waterproof. Waterproof sandpapers or wet/dry sandpapers use a waterproof backing. Sandpapers can be open coat, where the particles are separated from each other and the sandpaper is more flexible; this helps prevent clogging of the sandpaper. Wet and dry sandpaper is more effective used wet because clogging is reduced by particles washing away from the grinding surface.
Arguably there are benefits due to lubrication and cooling. Sandpaper comes in a number of different shapes and sizes: sheet: 9 by 11 inches, but other sizes may be available belt: cloth backed, comes in different sizes to fit different belt sanders. Disk: made to fit different models of disc and random orbit sanders. May be perforated for some models of sanders. Attachment includes pressure-sensitive adhesive and "hook-and-loop". Rolls: known as "shag rolls" by many contractors sponge: for tight places Grit size refers to the size of the particles of abrading materials embedded in the sandpaper. Several standards have been established for grit size; these standards establish not
Wood carving is a form of woodworking by means of a cutting tool in one hand or a chisel by two hands or with one hand on a chisel and one hand on a mallet, resulting in a wooden figure or figurine, or in the sculptural ornamentation of a wooden object. The phrase may refer to the finished product, from individual sculptures to hand-worked mouldings composing part of a tracery; the making of sculpture in wood has been widely practised, but survives much less well than the other main materials such as stone and bronze, as it is vulnerable to decay, insect damage, fire. It therefore forms an important hidden element in the art history of many cultures. Outdoor wood sculptures do not last long in most parts of the world, so it is still unknown how the totem pole tradition developed. Many of the most important sculptures of China and Japan, in particular, are in wood, so are the great majority of African sculpture and that of Oceania and other regions. Wood is light and can take fine detail so it is suitable for masks and other sculpture intended to be worn or carried.
It is much easier to work on than stone. Some of the finest extant examples of early European wood carving are from the Middle Ages in Germany, Russia and France, where the typical themes of that era were Christian iconography. In England, many complete examples remain from the 16th and 17th century, where oak was the preferred medium. In the fall of 2018, after the presence of representatives in Iran, abadeh was chosen for first woodcarving city. Nickname of abadeh is the city of wood carving Chip carving Relief carving Scandinavian flat-plane Caricature carving Lovespoon Treen Whittling Chainsaw carving Pattern, Detailing and Smoothening the carving knife: a specialized knife used to pare and smooth wood; the gouge: a tool with a curved cutting edge used in a variety of forms and sizes for carving hollows and sweeping curves. The coping saw: a small saw, used to cut off chunks of wood at once; the chisel: large and small, whose straight cutting edge is used for lines and cleaning up flat surfaces.
The V-tool: used for parting, in certain classes of flat work for emphasizing lines. The U-Gauge: a specialized deep gouge with a U-shaped cutting edge. Sharpening equipment, such as various stones and a strop: necessary for maintaining edges. A special screw for fixing work to the workbench, a mallet, complete the carvers kit, though other tools, both specialized and adapted, are used, such as a router for bringing grounds to a uniform level, bent gouges and bent chisels for cutting hollows too deep for the ordinary tool; the nature of the wood being carved limits the scope of the carver in that wood is not strong in all directions: it is an anisotropic material. The direction in which wood is strongest is called "grain", it is smart to arrange the more delicate parts of a design along the grain instead of across it. However, a "line of best fit" is instead employed, since a design may have multiple weak points in different directions, or orientation of these along the grain would necessitate carving detail on end grain.
Carving blanks are sometimes assembled, as with carousel horses, out of many smaller boards, in this way, one can orient different areas of a carving in the most logical way, both for the carving process and for durability. Less this same principle is used in solid pieces of wood, where the fork of two branches is utilized for its divergent grain, or a branch off of a larger log is carved into a beak; the failure to appreciate these primary rules may be seen in damaged work, when it will be noticed that, whereas tendrils, tips of birds beaks, etc. arranged across the grain have been broken away, similar details designed more in harmony with the growth of the wood and not too undercut remain intact. The two most common woods used for carving in North America are basswood and tupelo. Chestnut, oak, American walnut and teak are very good woods. Decoration, to be painted and of not too delicate a nature is carved in pine, soft and inexpensive. A wood carver begins a new carving by selecting a chunk of wood the approximate size and shape of the figure he or she wishes to create or if the carving is to be large, several pieces of wood may be laminated together to create the required size.
The type of wood is important. Hardwoods have greater luster and longevity. Softer woods are more prone to damage. Any wood can be carved but they all have different qualities and characteristics; the choice will depend on the requirements of carving being done: for example, a detailed figure would need a wood with a fine grain and little figure as a strong figure can interfere with'reading' fine detail. Once the sculptor has selected their wood, he or she begins a general shaping process using gouges of various sizes; the gouge is a curved blade. For harder woods, the sculptor may use gouges sharpened with stronger bevels, about 35 degrees, a mallet similar to a stone carver's; the terms gouge and chisel are open to confusion. A gouge is a tool with a curved cross-section and a chisel is a tool with a flat cross-section. However, professional carvers tend to refer to them all as'ch
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical and linguistic ties. The term Scandinavia in local usage covers the three kingdoms of Denmark and Sweden; the majority national languages of these three, belong to the Scandinavian dialect continuum, are mutually intelligible North Germanic languages. In English usage, Scandinavia sometimes refers to the Scandinavian Peninsula, or to the broader region including Finland and Iceland, always known locally as the Nordic countries. While part of the Nordic countries, the remote Norwegian islands of Svalbard and Jan Mayen are not in Scandinavia, nor is Greenland, a constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark; the Faroe Islands are sometimes included. The name Scandinavia referred to the former Danish, now Swedish, region of Scania. Scandinavia and Scandinavian entered usage in the late 18th century, being introduced by the early linguistic and cultural Scandinavist movement; the majority of the population of Scandinavia are descended from several North Germanic tribes who inhabited the southern part of Scandinavia and spoke a Germanic language that evolved into Old Norse.
Icelanders and the Faroese are to a significant extent descended from the Norse and are therefore seen as Scandinavian. Finland is populated by Finns, with a minority of 5% of Swedish speakers. A small minority of Sami people live in the extreme north of Scandinavia; the Danish and Swedish languages form a dialect continuum and are known as the Scandinavian languages—all of which are considered mutually intelligible with one another. Faroese and Icelandic, sometimes referred to as insular Scandinavian languages, are intelligible in continental Scandinavian languages only to a limited extent. Finnish and Meänkieli are related to each other and more distantly to the Sami languages, but are unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Apart from these, German and Romani are recognized minority languages in parts of Scandinavia. "Scandinavia" refers to Denmark and Sweden. Some sources argue for the inclusion of the Faroe Islands and Iceland, though that broader region is known by the countries concerned as Norden, or the Nordic countries.
The use of "Scandinavia" as a convenient general term for Denmark and Sweden is recent. According to some historians, it was adopted and introduced in the eighteenth century, at a time when the ideas about a common heritage started to appear and develop into early literary and linguistic Scandinavism. Before this time, the term "Scandinavia" was familiar to classical scholars through Pliny the Elder's writings and was used vaguely for Scania and the southern region of the peninsula; as a political term, Scandinavia was first used by students agitating for pan-Scandinavianism in the 1830s. The popular usage of the term in Sweden and Norway as a unifying concept became established in the nineteenth century through poems such as Hans Christian Andersen's "I am a Scandinavian" of 1839. After a visit to Sweden, Andersen became a supporter of early political Scandinavism. In a letter describing the poem to a friend, he wrote: "All at once I understood how related the Swedes, the Danes and the Norwegians are, with this feeling I wrote the poem after my return:'We are one people, we are called Scandinavians!'".
The clearest example of the use of Scandinavia is Finland, based on the fact that most of modern-day Finland was part of the Swedish kingdom for hundreds of years, thus to much of the world associating Finland with all of Scandinavia. However, the creation of a Finnish identity is unique in the region in that it was formed in relation to two different imperial models, the Swedish and the Russian, as described by the University of Jyväskylä based editorial board of the Finnish journal Yearbook of Political Thought and Conceptual History. Various promotional agencies of the Nordic countries in the United States serve to promote market and tourism interests in the region. Today, the five Nordic heads of state act as the organization's patrons and according to the official statement by the organization its mission is "to promote the Nordic region as a whole while increasing the visibility of Denmark, Iceland and Sweden in New York City and the United States"; the official tourist boards of Scandinavia sometimes cooperate under one umbrella, such as the Scandinavian Tourist Board.
The cooperation was introduced for the Asian market in 1986, when the Swedish national tourist board joined the Danish national tourist board to coordinate intergovernmental promotion of the two countries. Norway's government entered one year later. All five Nordic governments participate in the joint promotional efforts in the United States through the Scandinavian Tourist Board of North America. While the term "Scandinavia" is used for Denmark and Sweden, the term "Nordic countries" is used unambiguously for Denmark, Sweden and Iceland, including their associated territories. Scandinavia can thus be considered a subset of the Nordic countries. Furthermore, the term Fennoscandia refers to Scandinavia and Karelia, excluding Denmark and overseas territories, but the usage of this term is restricted to geology when speaking of the Fennoscandian Shield. In addition to the mainland Scandinavian countries of: Denmark Norway (constitutional monarchy with a parliament
The decorative arts are arts or crafts whose object is the design and manufacture of objects that are both beautiful and functional. It includes interior design, but not architecture; the decorative arts are categorized in distinction to the "fine arts", namely painting, drawing and large-scale sculpture, which produce objects for their aesthetic quality and capacity to stimulate the intellect. The distinction between the decorative and fine arts arose from the post-Renaissance art of the West, where the distinction is for the most part meaningful; this distinction is much less meaningful when considering the art of other cultures and periods, where the most valued works, or all works, include those in decorative media. For example, Islamic art in many periods and places consists of the decorative arts using geometric and plant forms, as does the art of many traditional cultures; the distinction between decorative and fine arts is not useful for appreciating Chinese art, neither is it for understanding Early Medieval art in Europe.
In that period in Europe, fine arts such as manuscript illumination and monumental sculpture existed, but the most prestigious works tended to be in goldsmith work, in cast metals such as bronze, or in other techniques such as ivory carving. Large-scale wall-paintings were much less regarded, crudely executed, mentioned in contemporary sources, they were seen as an inferior substitute for mosaic, which for the period must be considered a fine art, though in recent centuries mosaics have tended to be considered decorative. The term "ars sacra" is sometimes used for medieval Christian art executed in metal, ivory and other more valuable materials but not for rarer secular works from that period. Modern understanding of the art of many cultures tends to be distorted by the modern privileging of fine art media over others, as well as the different survival rates of works in different media. Works in metal, above all in precious metals, are liable to be "recycled" as soon as they fall from fashion, were used by owners as repositories of wealth, to be melted down when extra money was needed.
Illuminated manuscripts have a much higher survival rate in the hands of the church, as there was little value in the materials and they were easy to store. The promotion of the fine arts over the decorative in European thought can be traced to the Renaissance, when Italian theorists such as Vasari promoted artistic values, exemplified by the artists of the High Renaissance, that placed little value on the cost of materials or the amount of skilled work required to produce a work, but instead valued artistic imagination and the individual touch of the hand of a supremely gifted master such as Michelangelo, Raphael or Leonardo da Vinci, reviving to some extent the approach of antiquity. Most European art during the Middle Ages had been produced under a different set of values, where both expensive materials and virtuoso displays in difficult techniques had been valued. In China both approaches had co-existed for many centuries: ink and wash painting of landscapes, was to a large extent produced by and for the scholar-bureaucrats or "literati", was intended as an expression of the artist's imagination above all, while other major fields of art, including the important Chinese ceramics produced in industrial conditions, were produced according to a different set of artistic values.
The lower status given to works of decorative art in contrast to fine art narrowed with the rise of the Arts and Crafts movement. This aesthetic movement of the second half of the 19th century was born in England and inspired by William Morris and John Ruskin; the movement represented the beginning of a greater appreciation of the decorative arts throughout Europe. The appeal of the Arts and Crafts movement to a new generation led the English architect and designer Arthur H. Mackmurdo to organize the Century Guild for craftsmen in 1882, championing the idea that there was no meaningful difference between the fine and decorative arts. Many converts, both from professional artists' ranks and from among the intellectual class as a whole, helped spread the ideas of the movement; the influence of the Arts and Crafts movement led to the decorative arts being given a greater appreciation and status in society and this was soon reflected by changes in the law. Until the enactment of the Copyright Act 1911 only works of fine art had been protected from unauthorised copying.
The 1911 Act extended the definition of an "artistic work" to include works of "artistic craftsmanship". In the context of mass production and consumerism some individuals will attempt to create or maintain their lifestyle or to construct their identity when forced to accept mass produced identical objects in their life. According to Campbell in his piece “The Craft Consumer”, this is done by selecting goods with specific intentions in mind to alter them. Instead of accepting a foreign object for what it is, the foreign object is incorporated and changed to fit one's lifestyle and choices, or customized. One way to achieve a customized look and feel to common objects is to change their external appearance by applying decorative techniques, as in decoupage, art cars, truck art in South Asia and IKEA hacking. American craft Art for art's sake Applied arts Design museum Faux painting Fine arts History of decorative arts Industrial design Ornament References Sources Dormer, The Culture of Craft, 1997, Manchester University Press, ISBN 0719046181, 9780719046186, google books Home Economics Archive: Tradition, History Cornell University Victoria and Albert Museum Argentine Decorativ
A knife is a tool with a cutting edge or blade attached to a handle. Mankind's first tool, knives were used at least two-and-a-half million years ago, as evidenced by the Oldowan tools. Made of rock, bone and obsidian, over the centuries, in step with improvements in metallurgy or manufacture, knife blades have been made from bronze, iron, steel and titanium. Most modern knives have either folding blades. Knives can serve various purposes. Hunters use a hunting knife, soldiers use the combat knife, scouts and hikers carry a pocket knife. A modern knife consists of: the blade the handle the point – the end of the knife used for piercing the edge – the cutting surface of the knife extending from the point to the heel the grind – the cross section shape of the blade the spine – the thickest section of the blade. Single-edged knives may have a reverse edge or false edge occupying a section of the spine; these edges are serrated and are used to further enhance function. The handle, used to grip and manipulate the blade safely, may include a tang, a portion of the blade that extends into the handle.
Knives are made with full tangs. The handle may include a bolster, a piece of heavy material situated at the front or rear of the handle; the bolster, as its name suggests, is used to mechanically strengthen the knife. Knife blades can be manufactured from a variety of materials, each of which has advantages and disadvantages. Carbon steel, an alloy of iron and carbon, can be sharp, it holds its edge well, remains easy to sharpen, but is vulnerable to rust and stains. Stainless steel is an alloy of iron, chromium nickel, molybdenum, with only a small amount of carbon, it is not able to take quite as sharp an edge as carbon steel, but is resistant to corrosion. High carbon stainless steel is stainless steel with a higher amount of carbon, intended to incorporate the better attributes of carbon steel and stainless steel. High carbon stainless steel blades do not discolor or stain, maintain a sharp edge. Laminated blades use combining the attributes of both. For example, a harder, more brittle steel may be sandwiched between an outer layer of softer, stainless steel to reduce vulnerability to corrosion.
In this case, the part most affected by corrosion, the edge, is still vulnerable. Damascus steel is a form of pattern welding with similarities to laminate construction. Layers of different steel types are welded together, but the stock is manipulated to create patterns in the steel. Titanium is a metal that has a better strength-to-weight ratio, is more wear resistant, more flexible than steel. Although less hard and unable to take as sharp an edge, carbides in the titanium alloy allow them to be heat-treated to a sufficient hardness. Ceramic blades are hard and lightweight: they may maintain a sharp edge for years with no maintenance at all, but are as fragile as glass and will break if dropped on a hard surface, they are immune to common corrosion, can only be sharpened on silicon carbide sandpaper and some grinding wheels. Plastic blades are not sharp and serrated, they are disposable. Steel blades are shaped by forging or stock removal. Forged blades are made by heating a single piece of steel shaping the metal while hot using a hammer or press.
Stock removal blades are shaped by removing metal. With both methods, after shaping, the steel must be heat treated; this involves heating the steel above its critical point quenching the blade to harden it. After hardening, the blade is tempered to make the blade tougher. Mass manufactured kitchen cutlery uses both the stock removal processes. Forging tends to be reserved for manufacturers' more expensive product lines, can be distinguished from stock removal product lines by the presence of an integral bolster, though integral bolsters can be crafted through either shaping method. Knives are sharpened in various ways. Flat ground blades have a profile that tapers from the thick spine to the sharp edge in a straight or convex line. Seen in cross section, the blade would form a long, thin triangle, or where the taper does not extend to the back of the blade, a long thin rectangle with one peaked side. Hollow ground blades have beveled edges; the resulting blade has a thinner edge, so it may have better cutting ability for shallow cuts, but it is lighter and less durable than flat ground blades and will tend to bind in deep cuts.