Flower chafers are a group of scarab beetles, comprising the subfamily Cetoniinae. Many species are visit flowers for pollen and nectar, or to browse on the petals; some species feed on fruit. The group is called fruit and flower chafers, flower beetles and flower scarabs. There are around 4,000 species, many of them still undescribed. By morphological characters, the adults can be separated from the other scarabs by the combination of the following characters: epipleuron recognizable, border lateral of elytra sinuate and antennal insertion visible from above. Twelve tribes are presently recognized: Cetoniini, Diplognathini, Gymnetini, Schizorhinini, Taenioderini, Trichiini and Xiphoscelidini; the tribe Gymnetini is the biggest of the American tribes, Goliathini contains the largest species, is found in the rainforest regions of Africa. Many species in the tribe Cremastocheilini are known to be predaceous, feeding on hymenopteran larvae or soft-bodied nymphs of Auchenorrhyncha. Spilophorus spp. have been noted feeding on the nesting material and excrement of South African passerine birds, while Spilophorus maculatus has been recorded feeding on Oxyrhachis sp. nymphs and Hoplostomus fuligineus is known to feed on the brood of honey bees in South Africa and the pupae of the wasp Belonogaster petiolata.
Campsiura javanica feeds on the larvae of Ropalidia montana in southern India. Cremastocheilus stathamae feeds on ants of the genus Myrmecocystus; the tribes of subfamily Cetoniinae, with some notable genera listed, are: Subtribus Cetoniina Aethiessa Burmeister, 1842 Anatona Burmeister, 1842 Anelaphinis Kolbe, 1912 Aphelinis Antoine, 1987 Atrichelaphinis Kraatz, 1898 Atrichiana Distant, 1911 Badizoblax Thomson, 1877 Callophylla Moser, 1916 Centrantyx Fairmaire, 1884 Cetonia Fabricius, 1775 Chiloloba Burmeister, 1842 Cosmesthes Kraatz, 1880 Cosmiophaena Kraatz, 1899 Dischista Burmeister, 1842 Dolichostethus Kolbe, 1912 Elaphinis Burmeister, 1842 Enoplotarsus Lucas, 1859 Erlangeria Preiss, 1902 Euglypta Mohnike, 1873 Gametis Burmeister, 1842 Gametoides Antoine, 2006 Glycosia Schoch, 1896 Glycyphana Burmeister, 1842 Gymnophana Arrow, 1910 Hemiprotaetia Mikšič, 1963 Heteralleucosma Antoine, 1989 Heterocnemis Albers, 1852 Heterotephraea Antoine, 2002 Latescutella Ruter, 1972 Lawangia Schenkling, 1921 Lorkovitschia Mikšič, 1968 Marmylida Thomson, 1880 Micrelaphinis Schoch, 1896 Miksicus Özdikmen & Turgat, 2009 Mireia Ruter, 1953 Niphobleta Kraatz, 1880 Pachnoda Burmeister, 1842 Paleopragma Thomson, 1880 Paralleucosma Antoine, 1989 Paranelaphinis Antoine, 1988 Paraprotaetia Moser, 1907 Pararhabdotis Kraatz, 1899 Parastraella Antoine, 2006 Parelaphinis Holm & Marais, 1989 Phaneresthes Kraatz, 1894 Phonotaenia Kraatz, 1880 Phoxomeloides Schoch, 1898 Podopholis Moser, 1915 Podopogonus Moser, 1917 Polybaphes Kirby, 1827 Polystalactica Kraatz, 1882 Protaetia Burmeister, 1842 Liocola Thomson, 1859 Potosia Mulsant & Rey, 1871 Protaetiomorpha Mikšič, 1968 Psacadoptera Kraatz, 1882 Pseudoprotaetia Kraatz, 1882 Pseudotephraea Kraatz, 1882 Pseudourbania Mikšič, 1965 Reineria Mikšič, 1968 Rhabdotis Burmeister, 1842 Rhabdotops Krikken, 1981 Rhyxiphloea Burmeister, 1842 Simorrhina Kraatz, 1886 Somalibia Lansberge, 1882 Stalagmosoma Burmeister, 1842 Sternoplus Wallace, 1868 Systellorhina Kraatz, 1895 Tephraea Burmeister, 1842 Thyreogonia Reitter, 1898 Trichocelis Moser, 1908 Trichocephala Moser, 1916 Trichostetha Burmeister, 1842 Tropinota Mulsant, 1842 Urbania Mikšič, 1963 Xeloma Kraatz, 1881 Xiphosceloides Holm, 1992Subtribus Euphoriina Euphoria Burmeister, 1842 Chlorixanthe Bates, 1889Subtribus Leucocelina Acrothyrea Kraatz, 1882 Alleucosma Schenkling, 1921 Analleucosma Antoine, 1989 Cyclophorellus Krikken, 1982 Cyrtothyrea Kolbe, 1895 Discopeltis Burmeister, 1842 Grammopyga Kraatz, 1895 Homothyrea Kolbe, 1895 Leucocelis Burmeister, 1842 Leucochilus Kraatz, 1896 Lonchothyrea Kolbe, 1895 Mausoleopsis Lansberge, 1882 Mecaspidiellus Antoine, 1997 Mecaspidius Bourgoin, 1921 Megalleucosma Antoine, 1989 Molynoptera Kraatz, 1897 Molynopteroides Antoine, 1989 Oxythyrea Mulsant, 1842 Paleira Reiche, 1871 Phoxomela Schaum, 1844 Pseudalleucosma Antoine, 1989 Pseudooxythyrea Baraud, 1985 Trichothyrea Kolbe, 1895Incertae sedis Chewia Legrand, 2004 Pachnodoides Alexis & Delpont, 2002 Subtribus Aspilina Aspilus Schaum, 1848 Protochilus Krikken, 1976Subtribus Coenochilina Arielina Rossi, 1958 Astoxenus Péringuey, 1907 Basilewskynia Schein, 1957 Coenochilus Schaum, 1841 Ruterielina Rojkoff, 2010Subtribus Cremastocheilina Centrochilus Krikken, 1976 Clinterocera Motschulsky, 1857 Cremastocheilus Knoch, 1801 Cyclidiellus Krikken, 1976 Cyclidinus Westwood, 1874 Cyclidius MacLeay, 1838 Genuchinus Westwood, 1874 Lissomelas Bates, 1889 Paracyclidius Howden, 1971 Platysodes Westwood, 1873 Psilocnemis Burmeister, 1842Subtribus Cymophorina Cymophorus Kirby, 1827 Myrmecochilus Wasmann, 1900 Rhagopteryx Burmeister, 1842Subtribus Genuchina Genuchus Kirby, 1825 Meurguesia Ruter, 1969 Problerhinus Deyrolle, 1864Subtribus Goliathopsidina Goliathopsis Janson, 1881Subtribus Heterogeniina Heterogenius Moser, 1911Subtribus Lissogeniina Chtonobius Burmeister, 1847 Lissogenius Schaum, 1844Subtribus Macromina Brachymacroma Kraatz, 1896 Campsiura Hope, 1831 Macromina Westwood, 1874 Pseudopilinurgus Moser, 1918Subtribus Nyassinina Nyassinus Westwood, 1879Subtribus Oplostomatina Anatonochilus Péringuey, 1907 Laurentiana Ruter, 1952 Oplostomus W.
S. MacLeay, 1838 Placodidus Péringuey, 1900 Scaptobius Schaum, 1841Subtribus Pilinurgina Callynomes Mohnike, 1873 Centrognathus Guérin-Méneville, 1840 Parapilinurgus Arrow, 1910 Pilinurgus Burmeister, 1842Subtribus Spilophorina Spilophorus Schaum, 1848Subtribus Telochilina Telochilus Krikken, 1975Subtribus Trichoplina Lecanoderus Kolbe, 1908 Trichoplus Burmeister, 184
Pierre André Latreille
Pierre André Latreille was a French zoologist, specialising in arthropods. Having trained as a Roman Catholic priest before the French Revolution, Latreille was imprisoned, only regained his freedom after recognising a rare beetle species he found in the prison, Necrobia ruficollis, he published his first important work in 1796, was employed by the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. His foresighted work on arthropod systematics and taxonomy gained him respect and accolades, including being asked to write the volume on arthropods for George Cuvier's monumental work, Le Règne Animal, the only part not by Cuvier himself. Latreille was considered the foremost entomologist of his time, was described by one of his pupils as "the prince of entomologists". Pierre André Latreille was born on 29 November 1762 in the town of Brive in the province of Limousin, as the illegitimate child of Jean Joseph Sahuguet d'Amarzit, général baron d'Espagnac, who never recognzed him, an unknown mother, who abandoned him at birth.
Latreille orphaned from his earliest age, but had influential protectors – first a physician a merchant from Brive, a baron and his family, who brought him to Paris in 1778. He studied in Brive and in Paris at the Collège du Cardinal-Lemoine attached to the University of Paris to become a priest, he entered the Grand Séminaire of Limoges in 1780, left as a deacon in 1786. Despite being qualified to preach, Latreille wrote that he had never carried out his functions as a minister, although for a few years he signed the letters he wrote "l'Abbé Latreille" or "Latreille, Prêtre". During his studies, Latreille had taken on an interest in natural history, visiting the Jardin du Roi planted by Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, catching insects around Paris, he received lessons on botany from René Just Haüy, which brought him in contact with Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. After the fall of the Ancien Régime and the start of the French Revolution, the Civil Constitution of the Clergy was declared in 1790, which required priests to swear an oath of allegiance to the state.
Latreille was therefore imprisoned in November 1793 under threat of execution. When the prison's doctor inspected the prisoners, he was surprised to find Latreille scrutinising a beetle on the dungeon floor; when Latreille explained that it was a rare insect, the physician was impressed, sent the insect to a 15-year-old local naturalist, Jean Baptiste Bory de Saint-Vincent. Bory de St.-Vincent knew Latreille's work, managed to obtain the release of Latreille and one of his cell-mates. All the other inmates were dead within one month; the beetle had been described by Johan Christian Fabricius in 1775, but recognising it had saved Latreille's life. Thereafter, Latreille lived as a teacher and corresponded with various entomologists, including Fabricius. In 1796, with Fabricius' encouragement, Latreille published his Précis des caractères génériques des insectes at his own expense, he was placed under house arrest in 1797, his books were confiscated, but the influence of Georges Cuvier, Bernard Germain de Lacépède and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck succeeded in freeing Latreille.
In 1798, Latreille was appointed to the museum, where he worked alongside Lamarck, curating the arthropod collections, published a number of zoological works. Following the death of Guillaume-Antoine Olivier in 1814, Latreille succeeded him as titular member of the Académie des sciences de l'Institut de France. In the following few years, Latreille was productive, producing important papers for the Mémoires du Muséum, all of the volume on arthropods for George Cuvier's Le Règne Animal, hundreds of entries in the Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturelle on entomological subjects; as Lamarck became blind, Latreille took on an increasing proportion of his teaching and research work. In 1821, Latreille was made a knight of the Légion d'honneur. In 1829 he succeeded Lamarck as professor of entomology. From 1824, Latreille's health deteriorated, he handed his lectures over to Jean Victoire Audouin and took on several assistants for his research work, including Amédée Louis Michel Lepeletier, Jean Guillaume Audinet-Serville and Félix Édouard Guérin-Méneville.
He was instrumental in the founding of the Société entomologique de France, served as its honorary president. Latreille's wife died in May of that year, he resigned his position at the museum on 10 April 1832, in order to move to the country and thereby avoid the cholera epidemic. He returned to Paris in November, died of bladder disease on 6 February 1833, he was survived by a niece whom he had adopted. The Société entomologique raised the money to pay for a monument to Latreille; this was erected over Latreille's grave at Père Lachaise Cemetery, comprised a 9-foot obelisk with various inscriptions, including one to the beetle which had saved Latreille's life: "Necrobia ruficollis Latreillii salvator". As testimony to the high esteem in which Latreille was held, many books were dedicated to him, up to 163 species were named in his honour between 1798 and 1850. Taxa commemorating Latreille include: Lumbrineris latreilli Audouin & H. Milne-Edwards, 183
Ancient Egyptian religion
Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals that formed an integral part of ancient Egyptian society. It centered on the Egyptians' interaction with many deities believed to be present in, in control of, the world. Rituals such as prayer and offerings were provided to the gods to gain their favor. Formal religious practice centered on the pharaoh, the rulers of Egypt, believed to possess a divine power by virtue of their position, they acted as intermediaries between their people and the gods, were obligated to sustain the gods through rituals and offerings so that they could maintain maat, the order of the cosmos. The state dedicated enormous resources to the construction of the temples. Individuals could interact with the gods for their own purposes, appealing for help through prayer or compelling the gods to act through magic; these practices were distinct from, but linked with, the formal rituals and institutions. The popular religious tradition grew more prominent in the course of Egyptian history as the status of the pharaoh declined.
Egyptian belief in the afterlife and funerary practices is evident in great efforts made to ensure the survival of their souls after death, providing tombs, grave goods, offerings to preserve the bodies and spirits of the deceased. The religion lasted for more than 3,000 years; the details of religious belief changed over time as the importance of particular gods rose and declined, their intricate relationships shifted. At various times, certain gods became preeminent over the others, including the sun god Ra, the creator god Amun, the mother goddess Isis. For a brief period, in the theology promulgated by the Pharaoh Akhenaten, a single god, the Aten, replaced the traditional pantheon. Ancient Egyptian religion and mythology left behind many writings and monuments, along with significant influences on ancient and modern cultures; the beliefs and rituals now referred to as "ancient Egyptian religion" were integral within every aspect of Egyptian culture. The Egyptian language possessed no single term corresponding to the modern European concept of religion.
Ancient Egyptian religion consisted of a vast and varying set of beliefs and practices, linked by their common focus on the interaction between the world of humans and the world of the divine. The characteristics of the gods who populated the divine realm were inextricably linked to the Egyptians' understanding of the properties of the world in which they lived; the Egyptians believed that the phenomena of nature were divine forces of themselves. These deified forces included animal characteristics, or abstract forces; the Egyptians believed in a pantheon of gods, which were involved in all aspects of nature and human society. Their religious practices were efforts to sustain and placate these phenomena and turn them to human advantage; this polytheistic system was complex, as some deities were believed to exist in many different manifestations, some had multiple mythological roles. Conversely, many natural forces, such as the sun, were associated with multiple deities; the diverse pantheon ranged from gods with vital roles in the universe to minor deities or "demons" with limited or localized functions.
It could include gods adopted from foreign cultures, sometimes humans: deceased pharaohs were believed to be divine, distinguished commoners such as Imhotep became deified. The depictions of the gods in art were not meant as literal representations of how the gods might appear if they were visible, as the gods' true natures were believed to be mysterious. Instead, these depictions gave recognizable forms to the abstract deities by using symbolic imagery to indicate each god's role in nature; this iconography was not fixed, many of the gods could be depicted in more than one form. Many gods were associated with particular regions in Egypt. However, these associations changed over time, they did not mean that the god associated with a place had originated there. For instance, the god Montu was the original patron of the city of Thebes. Over the course of the Middle Kingdom, however, he was displaced in that role by Amun, who may have arisen elsewhere; the national popularity and importance of individual gods fluctuated in a similar way.
Deities had complex interrelationships, which reflected the interaction of the forces they represented. The Egyptians grouped gods together to reflect these relationships. One of the more common combinations was a family triad consisting of a father and child, who were worshipped together; some groups had wide-ranging importance. One such group, the Ennead, assembled nine deities into a theological system, involved in the mythological areas of creation and the afterlife; the relationships between deities could be expressed in the process of syncretism, in which two or more different gods were linked to form a composite deity. This process was a recognition of the presence of one god "in" another when the second god took on a role belonging to the first; these links between deities were fluid, did not represent the permanent merging of two gods into one. Sometimes, syncretism combined deities with similar characteristics. At other times it joined gods with different natures, as when Amun, the god of hidden power, was linked with Ra, the god of the sun.
The resulting god, Amun-Ra, thus united the power that lay behind all things with the greatest and most visible force in nature. Many deities could be given epithets that seem to indicate that they were greater than any other god, suggesting some kind of u
Scarabaeus sacer, common name Sacred scarab, is a species of dung beetle belonging to the family Scarabaeidae. Scarabaeus sacer was described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1758 10th edition of Systema Naturae, the starting point of zoological nomenclature, it is considered the type species of the genus Scarabaeus, despite some controversy surrounding Latreille's 1810 type designation, resolved by a ruling of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature in 2014, to accept Hope's 1837 designation of S. sacer as the type rather than Latreille's 1810 designation. OPINION 2344: Scarabaeus Linnaeus, 1758, Dynastes MacLeay, 1819, SCARABAEINAE Latreille, 1802 and DYNASTINAE MacLeay, 1819: usage conserved Scarabaeus sacer occurs in coastal dunes and marshes around the Mediterranean Basin, it can be found across southern Europe and parts of Asia. In the Camargue, the Scarabaeus sacer is exclusively a coastal species, living only in dunes and coastal marshes; the head of Scarabaeus sacer has a distinctive array of six projections, resembling rays.
The projections are uniform with four more projections on each of the tibiae of the front legs, creating an arc of fourteen "rays". Functionally the projections are adaptations for shaping the ball of dung. Like the front legs of other beetles of its genus, but unlike those of dung beetles in most other genera, the front legs of Scarabaeus sacer are unusual. There is only a vestigial claw-like structure; the mid- and hind-legs of Scarabaeus have normal, well-developed 5-segmented tarsi, but the front legs are specialised for excavation and for forming balls of dung. Among the coprophagous species of beetles, Scarabaeus sacer is typical of those that collect dung into balls; such a beetle rolls its ball to a suitable location, where it digs an underground chamber in which it hides the ball. It eats the ball itself, a process that may take several days; when the female is ready to breed she selects fine-textured dung to make her breeding ball, digs an deep and large chamber for it. There she sculpts it into a pear-shape with a hollow cavity in the narrow part.
In that cavity she lays a single large egg. She seals the cavity and departs to repeat the process elsewhere. A successful female Scarabaeus sacer will produce only about half a dozen young in her life; the larva feeds on the ball of dung after the egg hatches. Scarabaeus sacer serves as the host for the phoretic mite Macrocheles saceri. Scarabaeus sacer is the most famous of the scarab beetles. To the Ancient Egyptians, S. sacer was a symbol of Khepri, the early morning manifestation of the sun god Ra, from an analogy between the beetle's behaviour of rolling a ball of dung across the ground and Khepri's task of rolling the sun across the sky. They accordingly held the species to be sacred; the Egyptians observed young beetles emerging from the ball of dung, from which they mistakenly inferred that the male beetle was able to reproduce without needing a female by injecting his sperm into the ball of dung. From this, they drew parallels with their god Atum, who begat children alone. Scarabaeus sacer was the species which first piqued the interest of William Sharp Macleay and drew him into a career in entomology.
Scarab in Ancient Egypt Scarab Commemorative scarabs of Amenhotep III Media related to Scarabaeus sacer at Wikimedia Commons Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Scarab". Encyclopædia Britannica. 24. Cambridge University Press. P. 301
Termitotroginae is a monotypic subfamily of the family Scarabaeidae, the scarab beetles. The only genus in the subfamily is Termititrox. A second genus, Arrow, 1920, has been synonymised with Termitotrox. All known members of this subfamily are tiny and flightless, dwell within the fungal gardens of colonies of species of termite in Africa or tropical Asia. Termitotrogins are characterised by having no eyes and no wings, their pronotum and elytra have a distinctive patterning of ribs and grooves; the function of the beetles in the termite colony is unclear but it seems that they are to be obligatory termitophiles and somehow play an important role in the nest environment of their fungus-growing hosts. The following species are included in the genus Termitotrox: Termitotrox ancoroides – Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo Termitotrox consobrinus Reichensperger, 1915 – Republic of South Africa and KwazuluNatal Termitotrox cupido Maruyama, 2012 - Cambodia Termitotrox kenyensis Paulian, 1985 – Kenya Termitotrox maynei Reichensperger, 1956 – Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo Termitotrox minutus – India Termitotrox monodi Paulian, 1947 – Ivory Coast Termitotrox permirus Wasmann, 1918 – India Termitotrox turkanicus Krikken, 2008 – Kenya Termitotrox usambaricus Krikken, 2008 – Tanzania Termitotrox vanbruggeni Krikken, 2008 – Kenya
Aegialiinae is a small subfamily of much larger Scarabaeidae family, which contains all species of scarab beetles. This subfamily contains four genera. A fifth genus known as Caeluilotia was proposed by Laporte to accommodate some species belonging to genus Silluvia, but was rejected by mainstream scientific community as unnecessary. Data related to Aegialiinae at Wikispecies
A larva is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults. Animals with indirect development such as insects, amphibians, or cnidarians have a larval phase of their life cycle; the larva's appearance is very different from the adult form including different unique structures and organs that do not occur in the adult form. Their diet may be different. Larvae are adapted to environments separate from adults. For example, some larvae such as tadpoles live exclusively in aquatic environments, but can live outside water as adult frogs. By living in a distinct environment, larvae may be given shelter from predators and reduce competition for resources with the adult population. Animals in the larval stage will consume food to fuel their transition into the adult form. In some species like barnacles, adults are immobile but their larvae are mobile, use their mobile larval form to distribute themselves; some larvae are dependent on adults to feed them. In many eusocial Hymenoptera species, the larvae are fed by female workers.
In Ropalidia marginata the males are capable of feeding larvae but they are much less efficient, spending more time and getting less food to the larvae. The larvae of some species do not develop further into the adult form; this is a type of neoteny. It is a misunderstanding; this could be the case, but the larval stage has evolved secondarily, as in insects. In these cases the larval form may differ more than the adult form from the group's common origin. Within Insects, only Endopterygotes show different types of larvae. Several classifications have been suggested by many entomologists, following classification is based on Antonio Berlese classification in 1913. There are four main types of endopterygote larvae types: Apodous larvae – no legs at all and are poorly sclerotized. Based on sclerotization, three apodous forms are recognized. Eucephalous – with well sclerotized head capsule. Found in Nematocera and Cerambycidae families. Hemicephalus – with a reduced head capsule, retractable in to the thorax.
Found in Tipulidae and Brachycera families. Acephalus – without head capsule. Found in Cyclorrhapha Protopod larvae – larva have many different forms and unlike a normal insect form, they hatch from eggs which contains little yolk. Ex. first instar larvae of parasitic hymenoptera. Polypod larvae – known as eruciform larvae, these larva have abdominal prolegs, in addition to usual thoracic legs, they poorly sclerotized and inactive. They live in close contact with the food. Best example is caterpillars of lepidopterans. Oligopod larvae – have well developed head capsule and mouthparts are similar to the adult, but without compound eyes, they have six legs. No abdominal prolegs. Two types can be seen: Campodeiform – well sclerotized, dorso-ventrally flattened body. Long legged predators with prognathous mouthparts.. Scarabeiform – poorly sclerotized, flat thorax and abdomen. Short legged and inactive burrowing forms.. Crustacean larvae Ichthyoplankton Spawn Non-larval animal juvenile stages and other life cycle stages: In Porifera: olynthus, gemmule In Cnidaria: ephyra, strobila, hydranth, medusa In Mollusca: paralarva, young cephalopods In Platyhelminthes: hydatid cyst In Bryozoa: avicularium In Acanthocephala: cystacanth In Insecta: Nymphs and naiads, immature forms in hemimetabolous insects Subimago, a juvenile that resembles the adult in Ephemeroptera Instar, intermediate between each ecdysis Pupa and chrysalis, intermediate stages between larva and imago Protozoan life cycle stages Apicomplexan life cycle Algal life cycle stages: Codiolum-phase Conchocelis-phase Marine larval ecology Media related to Larvae at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of larva at Wiktionary Arenas-Mena, C.
Indirect development, transdifferentiation and the macroregulatory evolution of metazoans. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. Feb 27, 2010 Vol.365 no.1540 653-669 Brusca, R. C. & Brusca, G. J.. Invertebrates. Sunderland, Mass.: Sinauer Associates. Hall, B. K. & Wake, M. H. eds.. The Origin and Evolution of Larval Forms. San Diego: Academic Press. Leis, J. M. & Carson-Ewart, B. M. eds.. The Larvae of Indo-Pacific Coastal Fishes. An Identification Guide to Marine Fish Larvae. Fauna Malesiana handbooks, vol. 2. Brill, Leiden. Minelli, A.. The larva. In: Perspectives in Animal Phylogeny and Evolution. Oxford University Press. P. 160-170. Link. Shanks, A. L.. An Identification Guide to the Larval Marine Invertebrates of the Pacific Northwest. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis. 256 pp. Smith, D. & Johnson, K. B.. A Guide to Marine Coastal Plankton and Marine Invertebrate Larvae. Kendall/Hunt Plublishing Company. Stanwell-Smith, D. Hood, A. & Peck, L. S.. A field guide to the pelagic invertebrates larvae of the maritime Antarctic.
British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge. Thyssen, P. J.. Keys for Identification of Immature Insects. In: Amendt, J. et al.. Current Concepts in Forensic Entomology, chapter 2, pp. 25–42. Springer: Dordrecht