Gordon Gould was an American physicist, but not universally, credited with the invention of the laser. Gould is best known for his thirty-year fight with the United States Patent and Trademark Office to obtain patents for the laser and related technologies, he fought with laser manufacturers in court battles to enforce the patents he subsequently did obtain. Born in New York City, Gould was the oldest of three sons, his father was the founding editor of Scholastic Magazine Publications in New York City. He grew up in Scarsdale, a small suburb of New York, attended Scarsdale High School, he earned a Bachelor of Science degree in physics at Union College, where he became a member of the Sigma Chi Fraternity, a master's degree at Yale University, specializing in optics and spectroscopy. Between March 1944 and January 1945 he worked on the Manhattan Project but was dismissed due to his activities as a member of the Communist Political Association. In 1949 Gould went to Columbia University to work on a doctorate in optical and microwave spectroscopy.
His doctoral supervisor was Nobel laureate Polykarp Kusch, who guided Gould to develop expertise in the then-new technique of optical pumping. In 1956, Gould proposed using optical pumping to excite a maser, discussed this idea with the maser's inventor Charles Townes, a professor at Columbia and won the 1964 Nobel prize for his work on the maser and the laser. Townes gave Gould advice on how to obtain a patent on his innovation, agreed to act as a witness. By 1957, many scientists including Townes were looking for a way to achieve maser-like amplification of visible light. In November of that year, Gould realized that one could make an appropriate optical resonator by using two mirrors in the form of a Fabry–Pérot interferometer. Unlike considered designs, this approach would produce a narrow, intense beam. Since the sides of the cavity did not need to be reflective, the gain medium could be optically pumped to achieve the necessary population inversion. Gould considered pumping of the medium by atomic-level collisions, anticipated many of the potential uses of such a device.
Gould recorded his analysis and suggested applications in a laboratory notebook under the heading "Some rough calculations on the feasibility of a LASER: Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation"—the first recorded use of this acronym. Gould's notebook was the first written prescription for making a viable laser and, realizing what he had in hand, he took it to a neighborhood store to have his work notarized. Arthur Schawlow and Charles Townes independently discovered the importance of the Fabry–Pérot cavity—about three months later—and called the resulting proposed device an "optical maser". Gould's name for the device was first introduced to the public in a conference presentation in 1959, was adopted despite resistance from Schawlow and his colleagues. Eager to achieve a patent on his invention, believing incorrectly that he needed to build a working laser to do this, Gould left Columbia without completing his doctoral degree and joined a private research company, TRG, he convinced his new employer to support his research, they obtained funding for the project from the Advanced Research Projects Agency with support from Charles Townes.
For Gould, the government declared the project classified, which meant that a security clearance was required to work on it. Because of his former participation in communist activities, Gould was unable to obtain a clearance, he continued to work at TRG, but was unable to contribute directly to the project to realize his ideas. Due to technical difficulties and Gould's inability to participate, TRG was beaten in the race to build the first working laser by Theodore Maiman at Hughes Research Laboratories. During this time, Gould and TRG began applying for patents on the technologies; the first pair of applications, filed together in April 1959, covered lasers based on Fabry–Pérot optical resonators, as well as optical pumping, pumping by collisions in a gas discharge, optical amplifiers, Q-switching, optical heterodyne detection, the use of Brewster's angle windows for polarization control, applications including manufacturing, triggering chemical reactions, measuring distance and lidar. Schawlow and Townes had applied for a patent on the laser, in July 1958.
Their patent was granted on March 22, 1960. Gould and TRG launched a legal challenge based on his 1957 notebook as evidence that Gould had invented the laser prior to Schawlow and Townes's patent application. While this challenge was being fought in the Patent Office and the courts, further applications were filed on specific laser technologies by Bell Labs, Hughes Research Laboratories and others. Gould lost the battle for the U. S. patent on the laser itself on the grounds that his notebook did not explicitly say that the sidewalls of the laser medium were to be transparent though he planned to optically pump the gain medium through them, considered loss of light through the sidewalls by diffraction. Questions were raised about whether Gould's notebook provided sufficient information to allow a laser to be constructed, given that Gould's team at TRG was unable to do so. Gould was able to obtain patents on the laser in several other countries, he continued fighting for U. S. patents on specific laser technologies for many years afterward.
In 1967, Gould left TRG and joined the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn
Nicole Eisenman is an American artist, known for her paintings. Eisenman was a professor at Bard College in Annandale-on-Hudson from 2003 to 2009, she has been awarded the Guggenheim fellowship, the Carnegie Prize, has twice been included in the Whitney Biennial. On September 29, 2015, she won the MacArthur "Genius Grant" award for "restoring the representation of the human form a cultural significance that had waned during the ascendancy of abstraction in the 20th century". Eisenman lives and works in Brooklyn. Nicole Eisenman was born in 1965 in Verdun, France where her father was stationed as an army psychiatrist, she grew up in Scarsdale, New York and graduated from the Rhode Island School of Design in 1987. Her great-grandmother was Esther Hamerman. Eisenman's figurative oil paintings toy with themes of sexuality and caricature. Though she is known for her paintings, the artist creates installations, drawings and sculptures. With A. L. Steiner, she is the co-founder of the queer/feminist curatorial initiative Ridykeulous.
Eisenman's paintings represent expressionistic portraits of characters that she says are portrayed as her friends and herself. These characters are based on Eisenman's observations of life from a cultural and contemporary perspective. Most of her early work style was an inspiration from Philip Guston and Amy Sillman. Nicole Eisenman, Kunsthalle Zürich Matrix 248, Berkeley Art Museum Dear Nemesis, Nicole Eisenman 1993–2013, Contemporary Art Museum St. Louis. Dear Nemesis: Nicole Eisenman 1993–2013, Institute of Contemporary Art, Philadelphia. Masterpieces & Curiosities: Nicole Eisenman’s Seder, The Jewish Museum Nicole Eisenman: Al-ugh-ories, New Museum Nicole Eisenman: Dark Light, Vienna, Austria Whitney Biennial, Whitney Museum of American Art Provocations, California Art Center Prospect.2 New Orleans Whitney Biennial, Whitney Museum of American Art 2013 Carnegie International, Carnegie Museum of Art. Manifesta10, The Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg NYC 1993: Experimental Jet Set, Trash and No Star, New Museum The Forever Now: Contemporary Painting in an Atemporal World, MoMA Scenes from the Collection, The Jewish Museum, New York Whitney Biennial, Whitney Museum of American Art Eisenman has been awarded numerous grants and prizes including the Guggenheim Fellowship, the Carnegie Prize, the Anonymous Was a Woman Award and the Louis Comfort Tiffany Grant.
She was the recipient of a 2015 MacArthur "genius grant." In 2015, she was named as one of The Forward 50. The artist's work can be found in a number of institutions, including: Art Institute of Chicago Museum of Modern Art, New York San Francisco Museum of Modern Art Walker Art Center, Minneapolis Whitney Museum of American Art, New York Kunsthalle Zürich The Jewish Museum Nicole Eisenman: Behavior Nicole Eisenman: Selected works 1993–2003 Nicole Eisenman: Selected Works 1994–2004 ed. Victor Mathieu Nicole Eisenman: The Way We Weren't Nicole Eisenman ed. Beatrix Ruf Parkett no. 91 Nicole Eisenman: Dear Nemesis, 1993–2013 Nicole Eisenman and David Humphrey Bomb Nicole Eisenman in the collection of The Museum of Modern Art Nicole Eisenman at the Carnegie International
Robert Kauffman was an American professional basketball player and coach. Kaufmann was a three time NBA All-Star. Robert Alan Kauffman was born July 13, 1946 in Brooklyn, N. Y. to LeRoy and Anne Kauffman. He played at Scarsdale High School in New York; the Kauffman family was in the bridle business. Kauffman’s Boots and Saddles was their business on East 24th Street in Manhattan. Bob Kauffman, from Scarsdale, New York, starred at NAIA Guilford College in Greensboro, North Carolina, from 1964–1968, playing for Coach Jerry Steele; the 6-foot-8, 240-pound center is credited with turning the Quakers into an NAIA basketball powerhouse that won 86 games with three straight trips to the NAIA Tournament in his four seasons. Kauffman scored, he averaged 15.9 rebounds in his career. He has Guilford records for single-game rebounds, single-season rebounds, career field goals, single-season field goal percentage, single-season free throws, career free throws and single-season free-throw attempts. Kauffman graduated with a history degree in 1968.
Kauffman was selected with the third overall pick of the 1968 NBA Draft by the Seattle SuperSonics behind Elvin Hayes and Wes Unseld. As a rookie for Seattle in 1968-1969, Kauffman averaged 7.8 points and 5.9 rebounds, playing behind Bob Rule. On September 5, 1969 Kauffman was traded by the Seattle SuperSonics with a 1971 3rd round draft pick to the Chicago Bulls for Bob Boozer and Barry Clemens. Kauffman played a reserve role for the Bulls in 1969-1970, averaging 4.3 points and 3.3 rebounds in 12 minutes per game. On May 11, 1970, Kauffman was traded, completing a trade on September 2, 1969, he was traded by the Chicago Bulls with Jim Washington to the Philadelphia 76ers for Shaler Halimon and Chet Walker. Kauffman was sent as the player to be named on May 11, 1970; the expansion Buffalo Braves acquired him and a 1971 2nd round draft pick from the Philadelphia 76ers the day of the NBA Expansion Draft, May 11, 1970, in exchange for veteran forward Bailey Howell. Kauffman never played for Philadelphia.
In 1970-1971, playing for the Buffalo Braves, Kauffman became an All-Star, averaging 20.4 points and 10.7 rebounds for the 22-60 Braves under Coach Dolph Schayes. He was a reserve for the first six games of the season, scoring 26 points total in the first six games, before being inserted into the starting lineup; the Braves struggled again in 1971-1972, again finishing 22-60, but Kauffman was an All-Star for the second time, averaging 18.9 points and 10.2 rebounds. Kauffman had 44 points against Kareem Abdul Jabbar and the Milwaukee Bucks on November 13, 1971. Under new Coach Jack Ramsay, Kauffman was an All-Star again in 1972-1973, averaging 17.5 points and 11.1 rebounds for the 21-61 Braves. In 1973-1974, the Braves improved to 42-40. Kauffman became a reserve, averaging 6.1 points and 4.4 rebounds in 17 minutes, on a roster that included Hall of Famer Bob McAdoo, Randy Smith and Gar Heard. On May 20, 1974 Kauffman was drafted by the New Orleans Jazz from the Buffalo Braves in the NBA expansion draft.
He was traded by the Jazz in a landmark trade. He was traded with Dean Meminger, a 1974 1st round draft pick, a 1975 1st round draft pick, a 1975 2nd round draft pick, a 1976 2nd round draft pick and a 1980 3rd round draft pick to the Atlanta Hawks for Pete Maravich. With Chronic groin and hip problems limiting his play, Kauffman played the final season of his career with the 1974-1975 Hawks, he averaged 3.9 points and 2.5 points in 73 games for the 31-51 Hawks, under Coach Cotton Fitzsimmons. Kauffman played seven seasons in the NBA as a member of the Sonics, Chicago Bulls, Buffalo Braves, Atlanta Hawks. A three-time All-Star, Kauffman averaged 7.0 rebounds for his career. He had his statistically strongest season in 1970–71, when he averaged 20.4 points and 10.7 rebounds for the Braves. He had a short career as an NBA team executive with the Atlanta Hawks and Detroit Pistons, he spent two seasons as assistant general manager for the Hawks before Detroit hired him as the Pistons' general manager in 1977.
He was with the Pistons from May 25, 1977 to July 14, 1978. He served as coach of the Detroit Pistons in 1977-1978 after Herb Brown, was fired, going 29-29 in 58 games. Kauffman left the Pistons a disagreement with team owner Bill Davidson. Kauffman wanted to hire Al Bianchi, for the coaching vacancy. Davidson wanted Dick Vitale from the University of Detroit. Vitale went 34-60 in his tenure as Pistons coach. Bob Kauffman died at the age of 69 peacefully one night. Bob was a basketball player who played collegiately and professionally in the early 1960s to early 1970s. Although his career was not long he was able to accomplish many things throughout his time playing. Kauffman came from a small college in which they competed other small colleges in the NAIA, a subdivision of the NCAA, Guilford College in Greensboro, North Carolina, he was one of the promising players in all of college basketball at his time. When he was drafted he was successful for all of them. Bob was able to make the NBA all star team in 3 of his 7 seasons, from 1971–1973.
While at Guilford he was an all-American and one of the best
The Aspen Institute is an international nonprofit think tank founded in 1949 as the Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies. The organization is the exchange of ideas; the Institute and its international partners promote the pursuit of common ground and deeper understanding in a nonpartisan and nonideological setting through regular seminars, policy programs and leadership development initiatives. The institute is headquartered in Washington, D. C. United States, has campuses in Aspen and near the shores of the Chesapeake Bay at the Wye River in Maryland, it has partner Aspen Institutes in Berlin, Madrid, Lyon, New Delhi, Bucharest, Mexico City, Kiev, as well as leadership initiatives in the United States and on the African continent and Central America. The Aspen Institute is funded by foundations such as the Carnegie Corporation, the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, the Gates Foundation, the Lumina Foundation, the Ford Foundation, by seminar fees, by individual donations, its board of trustees includes leaders from politics, government and academia who contribute to its support.
The Institute was the creation of Walter Paepcke, a Chicago businessman who had become inspired by the Great Books program of Mortimer Adler at the University of Chicago. In 1945, Paepcke visited Bauhaus artist and architect Herbert Bayer, AIA, who had designed and built a Bauhaus-inspired minimalist home outside the decaying former mining town of Aspen, in the Roaring Fork Valley. Paepcke and Bayer envisioned a place where artists, leaders and musicians could gather. Shortly thereafter, while passing through Aspen on a hunting expedition, oil industry maverick Robert O. Anderson met with Bayer and shared in Paepcke's and Bayer's vision. In 1949, Paepcke organized a 20-day international celebration for the 200th birthday of German poet and philosopher Johann Wolfgang von Goethe; the celebration attracted over 2,000 attendees, including Albert Schweitzer, José Ortega y Gasset, Thornton Wilder, Arthur Rubinstein. In 1949, Paepcke founded the Aspen Institute. Paepcke sought a forum "where the human spirit can flourish" amid the whirlwind and chaos of modernization.
He hoped that the Institute could help business leaders recapture what he called "eternal verities": the values that guided them intellectually and spiritually as they led their companies. Inspired by philosopher Mortimer Adler's Great Books seminar at the University of Chicago, Paepcke worked with Anderson to create the Aspen Institute Executive Seminar. In 1951, the Institute sponsored a national photography conference attended by Ansel Adams, Dorothea Lange, Ben Shahn, Berenice Abbott, other notables. During the 1960s and 1970s, the Institute added organizations and conferences, including the Aspen Center for Physics, the Aspen Strategy Group and Society Program and other programs that concentrated on education, justice, Asian thought, technology, the environment, international affairs. In 1979, through a donation by Corning Glass industrialist and philanthropist Arthur A. Houghton Jr. the Institute acquired a 1,000-acre campus on the eastern shore of the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland, known today as the Wye River Conference Centers.
In 2005, it held the first Aspen Ideas Festival, featuring leading minds from around the world sharing and speaking on global issues. The Institute, along with The Atlantic, hosts the festival annually, it has trained philanthropists such as Carrie Morgridge. Since 2013, the Aspen Institute together with U. S. magazine The Atlantic and Bloomberg Philanthropies has participated in organizing the annual CityLab event, a summit dedicated to develop strategies for the challenges of urbanization in today's cities. Walter Isaacson was the president and CEO of Aspen Institute from 2003 to June 2018. Isaacson announced in March 2017 that he would step down as president and CEO at the end of the year. On November 30, 2017, Daniel Porterfield was announced as his successor. Porterfield succeeded Isaacson on June 1, 2018. Official website
A bandersnatch is a fictional creature in Lewis Carroll's 1872 novel Through the Looking-Glass and his 1874 poem The Hunting of the Snark. Although neither work describes the appearance of a bandersnatch in great detail, in The Hunting of the Snark, it has a long neck and snapping jaws, both works describe it as ferocious and extraordinarily fast. Through the Looking-Glass implies that bandersnatches may be found in the world behind the looking-glass, in The Hunting of the Snark, a bandersnatch is found by a party of adventurers after crossing an ocean. Bandersnatches have appeared in various adaptations of Carroll's works. Carroll's first mention of a Bandersnatch, in the poem "Jabberwocky", is brief: the narrator of the poem admonishes his son to "shun / The frumious Bandersnatch", the name describing the creature's fuming and furious character. In the novel, the White King says of his wife: "She runs so fearfully quick. You might as well try to catch a Bandersnatch!"In "The Hunting of the Snark," while the party searches for the Snark, the Banker runs ahead and encounters a Bandersnatch: Michael Ivan Jacome's fictional character Bandersnatch420's The future of bandersnatch is a Bandersnatch VR Video game production.
The beast is encrypted in the darkweb as a satire trilogy called #Bandersnatch420. Article found on la weeda loca website. Anna Matlack Richards's A New Alice in the Old Wonderland contains a broader description given of the Bandersnatch within the poem Bandersnatchy. In this poem, another hero sets out to slay the frumious Bandersnatch so as to gain respect from his people against the hero who slew the Jabberwock; the author writes that it is necessary to be armed with a vorpal sword or a winxy pistol, because one never can tell what a Bandersnatch might do. The hero describes the creature as being long-legged with a long tail and the ability to fly, it could be understood that the Bandersnatch camouflages itself as a tree. There is an illustration by the author's daughter, Anna Richards Brewster, of the hero's encounter with the Bandersnatch. In a letter from 1959, C. S. Lewis wrote, "No one influenced Tolkien — you might as well try to influence a bandersnatch." In Larry Niven's "Known Space" mythos, there is a heavy-gravity species somewhat resembling a giant slug which, upon their discovery, were given the genus and species "Frumious bandersnatch."
In the book Sign of Chaos, part of Roger Zelazny's Chronicles of Amber, the protagonist encounters a Bandersnatch. The creature is described as segmented, with a side-to-side gait, leaving a trail of steaming saliva, hissing like a leaky pressure cooker; the Bandersnatch suffered a heart-attack after having a cardiac arrest spell cast on it, implying that its general anatomy is analogous to normal animals. The episode takes place in a reality created by the mind of one of the characters under the influence of a hallucinogenic drug. In the novel Omar by Wilfrid Blunt, the titular character is a hyrax, able to speak English and certain dialects of horses and rhinoceroses. Omar claims that the word bandersnatch refers to his kind, that the warning to shun a bandersnatch only applies when it is frumious; the Frumious Bandersnatch is the title of a 2003 police procedural novel by Ed McBain, one of the last in his 87th Precinct series of detective crime fiction. In the 2006 novel Ghosts of Onyx by Eric Nylund, the codename'Bandersnatch' is used to warn UNSC troops for a radiological or energy-based disaster.
It was used on occasions where Covenant troops had'glassed' former human colonies. In Pandora Hearts, Lily's chain is a large black dog named Bandersnatch. In the Young Justice episode "Earthling," Adam Strange improvises a performance of the second verse of Jabberwocky in order to distract a patrol while on the planet Rann. "Beware the Jabberwock, my son! The jaws that bite, the claws that catch! Beware the Jubjub bird, shun The frumious Bandersnatch!" He soon scurries away saying "No time to say hello, goodbye! I'm late! I'm late! I'm late!" "... and down the rabbit hole I go!" Strange's mission accomplices include a pet from his alien hosts' household with an appearance not unlike some illustrations of a Jubjub bird. In the 2010 film Alice in Wonderland, the Bandersnatch appears as a large white beast somewhat resembling a mix of bulldog, snow leopard and bear with long fur, black spots, a long tail, multiple rows of sharp teeth, it is a creature under the control of the Red Queen. It joins the White Queen's forces.
In the video game adaptation of the film, it serves a similar role. The Bandersnatch appears in the Once Upon a Time in Wonderland episode "Forget-Me-Not." This version is a monstrous wild boar. In the past, Alice had faced the Bandersnatch before. In the present and the Red Queen send the female Bandersnatch after Alice and the Knave of Hearts in order to get Alice to use up one of her wishes from Cyrus. Jafar gives the Bandersnatch the magic message response that Alice made for Cyrus so that it can pick up her scent; the Bandersnatch tracks Alice to the Grendel's house and attacks. As Alice restrains the Bandersnatch, the Knave of Hearts stabs it; the Red Queen states to Jafar that the Bandersnatch mates for life and that the male Bandersnatch in their possession is now dead. In the adult animated movie Mardock Scramble: The First Compression, a dockside warehouse owned by the livestock export company "Bander Snatch" is used
Leslie Cannold is an Australian philosopher, educationalist, writer and public intellectual. Born and raised in Armonk and Scarsdale, New York, Leslie Cannold migrated to Melbourne in her early twenties, she began writing for The Age as an opinion and education section columnist while raising young children and completing her graduate degrees. A non-fiction author and novelist, Cannold is a familiar voice and face on radio and TV in Australia, she is on the speaking circuit giving keynotes and hosting panels on ethics, gender politics, inspirational leadership, reproductive rights. In 2005, she was named one of Australia's top twenty public intellectuals by The Age newspaper. In 2011, Cannold was awarded Australian Humanist of the Year by the Council of Australian Humanist Societies. Educated at Wesleyan University, where she studied psychology and theatre, she has a Master of Arts and a Masters in Bioethics from Monash University, where she worked for Peter Singer at the Centre for Human Bioethics.
She earned her PhD in Education at the University of Melbourne before commencing employment at the Centre for Applied Philosophy and Public Ethics when C. A. J. Coady was director; as of 2011 she maintains adjunct positions at both universities though she left academic employment in 2006 to pursue writing and public speaking full-time. Cannold is oft-noted as one of Australia's leading public women. In 2005, she was named alongside Peter Singer, Gustav Nossal, Inga Clendinnen as one of Australia's top 20 public intellectuals. In 2013, she was named in the Power Index's Top Ten List of most influential brains. Cannold's fortnightly Moral Dilemma column has appeared in Sydney's Sunday Sun-Herald since 2007. Prior to that, she was an occasional columnist for The Age, her opinions have appeared in the Sydney Morning Herald, Crikey!, The Herald Sun, ABC The Drum Unleashed, The Courier Mail, the national broadsheet The Australian. In 2011, she was recognised with an EVA for a Sunday Age opinion piece on sexual assault.
Her books include the award-winning The Abortion Myth: Feminism morality and the hard choices women make and What, No Baby?: Why women are losing the freedom to mother and how they can get it back, which made the Australian Financial Review's top 101 books list. Her first work of fiction, The Book of Rachael, a historical novel, was published in 2011 and reprinted in 2012, she publishes on diverse subject areas, including grief, circumcision, HIV/AIDS, genetic manipulation, ex utero gestation, regulating Assisted Reproductive Technologies. She published chapters in Sperm Wars and The Australian Book of Atheism, Destroying the joint. Cannold's radio and TV appearances include ABC Radio National, triple j, Today Tonight, The 7:30 Report, A Current Affair, The Catch-Up, The Einstein Factor, SBS Insight, 9am with David & Kim, The Circle, Today, ABC News Breakfast, News 24, Lateline. For many years, she talked life and ethics with well-known radio and TV broadcaster Virginia Trioli on 774 ABC Melbourne, was heard on Radio 4BC and Deborah Cameron's morning show on 702 ABC Sydney.
As of 2013, she talks ethics with Angela Owen on ABC Central West, is a regular panellist on ABC TV's political talk show Q&A and on ABC TV's Compass. Cannold is past president of Reproductive Choice Australia, a national coalition of pro-choice organisations that played a key role in removing the ban on the abortion drug RU486 in 2006, of Pro Choice Victoria, instrumental in the decriminalisation of abortion in Victoria in 2008. In 2011, she co-founded the not-for-profit speaker referral site No Chicks No Excuses. Leslie Cannold was awarded 2011 Australian Humanist of the Year in recognition of her valuable contribution to public debate on a wide range of ethical issues, of particular relevance to women and family life, her TED talk on abortion has more than 35,000 views, in 2016, she spoke to around 6,000 activists from 169 countries at the International Women Deliver conference in Copenhagen about abortion stigma. Cannold identifies herself as a secular Jew, she has two sons. Leslie Cannold's website Leslie Cannold's Text Publishing page Leslie Cannold's No Chicks No Excuses page Leslie Cannold on IMDb Leslie Cannold's 2016 Women Deliver Speech
Kenneth Ian Juster is an American government official, the United States Ambassador to India. He served as the Deputy Assistant to the President for International Economic Affairs and Deputy Director of the National Economic Council in the United States Government from January 2017 to June 2017. Juster's career has spanned 40 years in government, business and international affairs. In the private sector, he has been a partner at the global investment firm Warburg Pincus, a senior executive at the software company Salesforce.com, a senior partner at the law firm Arnold & Porter. In the U. S. Government, he has served as Under Secretary of Commerce, as the Counselor of the State Department, as the Deputy and Senior Advisor to Deputy Secretary of State Lawrence S. Eagleburger. Juster has served as the Chairman of the Advisory Committee of Harvard's Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, the Chairman of Freedom House, the Vice Chairman of the Asia Foundation, a member of the Trilateral Commission.
He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the American Academy of Diplomacy. Juster was born in New York, his father, Howard H. Juster, was an architect, his mother, Muriel Juster was a high school social studies teacher. He has an older brother, Andrew A. Juster, who retired as the Chief Financial Officer at the Simon Property Group, Inc, his uncle, Norton Juster, is an architect and author, who wrote The Phantom Tollbooth and The Dot and the Line, among other books. Juster grew up in New York, he attended Greenacres Elementary School, where he was named a Distinguished Alumnus in 2010. While at Scarsdale Junior High School and two friends interviewed the Rolling Stones in 1966 for the school newspaper. Juster graduated from Scarsdale High School in 1972, where he was the President of the Honor Society, an AFS exchange student to Thailand, a member of the varsity basketball team. Juster was named a Distinguished Alumnus of Scarsdale High School in 2007. Juster graduated from Harvard College, Phi Beta Kappa, in 1976, with a Bachelor of Arts in Government.
While at Harvard, he was the Research Assistant to Professor Samuel P. Huntington, the General Manager of Harvard Political Review, an Undergraduate Associate of Harvard's Center for International Affairs. Juster received a grant from the CFIA in 1975 to do research in Japan for his senior thesis, “How Process Affects Substance: Japanese Foreign Policy Making During the Oil Crisis of 1972-1973,” under Professors Edwin O. Reischauer and Rob Paarlberg. Juster completed a four-year joint degree program at the Harvard Law School and Harvard's Kennedy School of Government in 1980. Juster was nominated by President Trump on September 5, 2017 to be the United States Ambassador to the Republic of India, he was confirmed by unanimous consent of the U. S. Senate on November 2, 2017, appointed and sworn in on November 3, 2017. Juster presented his credentials to the President of India on November 23, 2017, thereby becoming the 25th U. S. Ambassador to India. During his tenure, Juster has overseen, among other activities, the U.
S. co-sponsorship with India of the Global Entrepreneurship Summit, the continued expansion of trade and investment between the United States and India, the launch of the Strategic Energy Partnership, the U. S.-India Civil Aviation Summit, the Two-Plus-Two Ministerial Dialogue between each country's Foreign and Defense Ministers, which included the signing of the landmark Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement. Juster gave a acclaimed policy address in January 2018, which set out a vision for a durable U. S.-India strategic partnership. Juster was the Deputy Assistant to the President for International Economic Affairs and Deputy Director of the National Economic Council from January 2017-June 2017. In that role, he helped coordinate the administration's international economic policy and integrate it with national security and foreign policy. Juster was a senior member of the National Security Council staff, he helped establish the U. S.-Japan Economic Dialogue and the U. S.-U. K. Economic Dialogue.
He contributed to the U. S. economic relationships with Canada, Germany, Saudi Arabia, South Korea. Juster served as the President's representative and lead U. S. negotiator in the run-up to the 2017 G7 Summit in Italy. Juster was a partner at Warburg Pincus from 2010 to 2017, he focused on a broad range of issues, including geopolitical risk, global public policy, regulatory matters relating to the firm's investment activities and portfolio companies. He founded and led the firm's environmental and governance program and initiatives. From 2005 to 2010, he was Executive Vice President of Law and Corporate Strategy at Salesforce.com, one of the fastest-growing software companies in the world, which pioneered cloud computing for business enterprises. At Salesforce.com, he was a member of the company's executive committee and oversaw corporate development, legal affairs, global public policy and strategy, enterprise risk management, human resources, internal audit, worldwide real estate. Juster served as U.
S. Under Secretary of Commerce from 2001 to 2005, in charge of the Bureau of Industry and Security. In that capacity, Juster oversaw issues at the intersection of business and national security, including strategic trade controls related to the exports of sensitive U. S. goods and technologies and foreign investments that aff