Blue Ridge Parkway
The Blue Ridge Parkway is a National Parkway and All-American Road in the United States, noted for its scenic beauty. The parkway, America's longest linear park, runs for 469 miles through 29 Virginia and North Carolina counties, linking Shenandoah National Park to Great Smoky Mountains National Park, it runs along the spine of the Blue Ridge, a major mountain chain, part of the Appalachian Mountains. Its southern terminus is at U. S. 441 on the boundary between Great Smoky Mountains National Park and the Cherokee Indian Reservation in North Carolina, from which it travels north to Shenandoah National Park in Virginia. The roadway continues through Shenandoah as Skyline Drive, a similar scenic road, managed by a different National Park Service unit. Both Skyline Drive and the Virginia portion of the Blue Ridge Parkway are part of Virginia State Route 48, though this designation is not signed; the parkway has been the most visited unit of the National Park System every year since 1946 except three.
Land on either side of the road is owned and maintained by the National Park Service, in many places parkway land is bordered by United States Forest Service property. The parkway was on North Carolina's version of the America the Beautiful quarter in 2015. Begun during the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, the project was called the Appalachian Scenic Highway. Most construction was carried out by private contractors under federal contracts under an authorization by Harold L. Ickes in his role as federal public works administrator. Work began on September 1935, near Cumberland Knob in North Carolina. On June 30, 1936, Congress formally authorized the project as the Blue Ridge Parkway and placed it under the jurisdiction of the National Park Service; some work was carried out by various New Deal public works agencies. The Works Progress Administration did some roadway construction. Crews from the Emergency Relief Administration carried out landscape work and development of parkway recreation areas.
Personnel from four Civilian Conservation Corps camps worked on roadside cleanup, roadside plantings, grading slopes, improving adjacent fields and forest lands. During World War II, the CCC crews were replaced by conscientious objectors in the Civilian Public Service program; the parkway's construction created jobs in the region, but displaced many residents and created new rules and regulations for landowners, including requirements related to how farmers could transport crops. Residents could no longer build on their lands without permission, or develop land except for agricultural use, they were not permitted to use the parkway for any commercial travel but were required to transport equipment and materials on side roads. The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians were affected by the parkway, built through their lands. From 1935 to 1940, they resisted giving up the right-of-way through the Qualla Boundary, they were successful in gaining more favorable terms from the U. S. government. The revised bill "specified the parkway route, assured the $40,000 payment for the tribe's land, required the state to build regular highway through the Soco Valley".
Cherokee leaders participated in the dedications. Construction of the parkway was complete by the end of 1966 with one notable exception; the 7.7-mile stretch including the Linn Cove Viaduct around Grandfather Mountain did not open until 1987. The project took over 52 years to complete. Flowering shrubs and wildflowers dominate the parkway in the spring, including rhododendrons and dogwoods, moving from valleys to mountains as the cold weather retreats. Smaller annuals and perennials such as the daisy and aster flower through the summer. Brilliant autumn foliage occurs in September on the mountaintops, descending to the valleys by in October. In early-to-middle October and middle to late April, all three seasons can be seen by looking down from the cold and windy parkway to the green and warm valleys below. October is dramatic, as the colored leaves stand out boldly and occur at the same time, unlike the flowers. Major trees include oak and tulip tree at lower elevations and buckeye and ash in the middle, turning into conifers such as fir and spruce at the highest elevations on the parkway.
Trees near ridges and passes are distorted and contorted by the wind, persistent rime ice is deposited by passing clouds in the winter. The Blue Ridge Parkway tunnels were constructed through the rock—one in Virginia and 25 in North Carolina. Sections of the parkway near the tunnels are closed in winter; because groundwater drips from above with freezing temperatures and a lack of sunlight, ice accumulates inside these locations despite above-freezing temperatures in the surrounding areas. The highest point on the parkway is 6,053 feet above sea level on Richland Balsam at milepost 431 and is closed from November to April because of inclement weather such as snow and freezing fog from low clouds; the parkway is carried across streams, railway ravines and cross roads by 168 bridges and six viaducts. The parkway runs from the southern terminus of Shenandoah National Park's Skyline Drive in Virginia at Rockfish Gap to U. S. Route 441 at Oconaluftee in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park near Cherokee, North Carolina.
There is no fee for using the parkway.
An observation tower is a structure used to view events from a long distance and to create a full 360 degree range of vision to conduct the long distance observations. They are at least 20 metres tall and made from stone and wood. Many modern towers are used as TV towers, restaurants, or churches; the towers first appeared in Germany at the end of the 18th century, their numbers increased after the invention of the lift. Observation towers that are used as guard posts or observation posts over an extended period to overlook an area are called watchtowers instead. Observation towers are an visible sight on the countryside, as they must rise over trees and other obstacles to ensure clear vision. Older control rooms have been likened to medieval chambers; the heavy use of stone and wood in their construction helps to create this illusion. Modern towers have observation decks or terraces with restaurants or on the roof of mountain stations of an aerial ropeway. Observation towers are used as location of radio services within the UHF/VHF range.
In some cases this usage of the tower is at least as important as its use as an observation tower. Such towers are called TV towers or telecommunication towers. Many towers are equipped with a tower restaurant and allow visitors access via elevators. Common is the usage of water towers as observation towers; as in the case of TV towers the visitor will reach the observation deck by elevator, at a lower height above ground The typical height of the observation deck of water towers is 20 metres up to 50 metres, while the typical height of the platform of TV towers is from 80 metres up to 200 metres. Some church towers may have observation decks, albeit without an elevator. Many other buildings may have towers. In particular prior to World War I rambler associations, some municipalities, built observation towers on numerous summits; these towers were built of stone, however sometimes wood or iron was used. At nearly all these towers access to the observation deck at a height of between 5 and 40 metres, is only possible by way of stairs.
Most of these towers are used only for tourism, however some of these towers might be used, at times of high forest fire risk, as fire observation posts or in times of war as military observation posts with anti-aircraft positions placed beside it. Further uses were not intended at most of these buildings, although some of these towers today now carry antennas for police/fire engine radios, portable radio or low power FM- and TV-transmitters. Older observation towers have a flag pole at its top; some of these towers are permanently accessible, either free or with the payment of an admission fee. Others are accessible only at certain times, in most cases only with the payment of an admission fee. At these towers the platform is open, with some having a restaurant in the basement. There are towers with a much more extensive use; the observation tower on Rossberg mountains in Reutlingen contains a hotel within its structure. Although most of these towers were built before World War I, such structures are still being built, in particular as attractions at horticultural shows.
Modern observation towers are in most cases no longer built of brick, but concrete and wood are used as the preferred building materials. Permanent observation towers are sometimes found in amusement parks, however in parks where each attraction is not separately paid for, panorama rides are preferred. Watch towers are observation towers. Speaking, control towers fall into this category, although surveillance from these structures is done in a non-optical way using Radar. Watch towers have a closed pulpit to protect the observer against bad weather. Watch towers do not have an elevator as a rule, since these buildings are not higher than 20 metres. Active watch towers are not as a rule accessible to the public, since they serve for the monitoring of sensitive ranges; however watch towers can be quite ordered for forest fire monitoring a platform accessible for the public or be used during times without forest fire risk as observation towers. Shut down watch towers can however be converted to observation towers.
Some radio towers were so built that they can be used apart from their function as transmitting tower as observation tower. A condition for this is a sufficiently stable construction, which permits a permanent safe visitor entrance without interruption of the transmission services; this is the case for towers for radio services in the UHF/VHF-range the case, not however for most types of radio towers for long and medium wave, why a use of these structures as observation tower is impossible in most cases. That the use of a tower as radio tower for medium wave and observation tower not well fits, showed up in Radio Tower Berlin, which carried together with an 80 metres high mast a t-antenna for medium wave and stands on insulators; however one notices at the first experimental transmissions that at the tower voltages would arise, which would have unpleasant consequences for visitors and so the tower was grounded by the elevator shaft. However this shifted direction of main beam of transmitter away from actual supply area, the city of Berlin.
As before World War II nearly whole radio traffic took place in the long -, medium and shortwave range, first after World War II with introduction of radio services in UHF/VHF-range required towers only acting as antenna carriers, r
Binoculars or field glasses are two telescopes mounted side-by-side and aligned to point in the same direction, allowing the viewer to use both eyes when viewing distant objects. Most are sized to be held using both hands, although sizes vary from opera glasses to large pedestal mounted military models. Unlike a telescope, binoculars give users a three-dimensional image: for nearer objects the two views, presented to each of the viewer's eyes from different viewpoints, produce a merged view with an impression of depth. From the invention of the telescope in the 17th century the advantages of mounting two of them side by side for binocular vision seems to have been explored. Most early binoculars used Galilean optics; the Galilean design has the advantage of presenting an erect image but has a narrow field of view and is not capable of high magnification. This type of construction is still used in cheap models and in opera glasses or theater glasses; the Galilean design is used in low magnification binocular surgical and jewelers' loupes because they can be short and produce an upright image without extra or unusual erecting optics, reducing expense and overall weight.
They have large exit pupils making centering less critical and the narrow field of view works well in those applications. These are mounted on an eyeglass frame or custom-fit onto eyeglasses. An improved image and higher magnification is achieved in binoculars employing Keplerian optics, where the image formed by the objective lens is viewed through a positive eyepiece lens. Since the Keplerian configuration produces an inverted image, different methods are used to turn the image right way up. In aprismatic binoculars with Keplerian optics each tube has one or two additional lenses between the objective and the ocular; these lenses are used to erect the image. The binoculars with erecting lenses had a serious disadvantage: they are too long; such binoculars were popular in the 1800s, but became obsolete shortly after the Karl Zeiss company introduced improved prism binoculars in the 1890s. Optical prisms added to the design are another way to turn the image right way up in a Porro prism or roof-prisms design.
Porro prism binoculars are named after Italian optician Ignazio Porro who patented this image erecting system in 1854, refined by makers like the Carl Zeiss company in the 1890s. Binoculars of this type use a pair of Porro prisms in a Z-shaped configuration to erect the image; this results in binoculars that are wide, with objective lenses that are well separated and offset from the eyepieces, giving a better sensation of depth. Porro prism designs have the added benefit of folding the optical path so that the physical length of the binoculars is less than the focal length of the objective. Binoculars using roof prisms may have appeared as early as the 1870s in a design by Achille Victor Emile Daubresse. In 1897 Moritz Hensoldt began marketing roof prism binoculars. Most roof prism binoculars use either the Abbe-Koenig prism or the Schmidt-Pechan prism designs to erect the image and fold the optical path, they have objective lenses that are in line with the eyepieces. Roof-prisms designs create an instrument, narrower and more compact than Porro prisms.
There is a difference in image brightness. Porro-prism binoculars will inherently produce a brighter image than Schmidt-Pechan roof-prism binoculars of the same magnification, objective size, optical quality, because this roof-prism design employs silvered surfaces that reduce light transmission by 12% to 15%. Roof-prisms designs require tighter tolerances for alignment of their optical elements; this adds to their expense since the design requires them to use fixed elements that need to be set at a high degree of collimation at the factory. Porro prisms binoculars need their prism sets to be re-aligned to bring them into collimation; the fixed alignment in roof-prism designs means the binoculars will not need re-collimation. Binoculars are designed for specific applications; these different designs require certain optical parameters which may be listed on the prism cover plate of the binoculars. Those parameters are: Given as the first number in a binocular description, magnification is the ratio of the focal length of the objective divided by the focal length of the eyepiece.
This gives the magnifying power of binoculars. A magnification factor of 7, for example, produces an image 7 times larger than the original seen from that distance; the desirable amount of magnification depends upon the intended application, in most binoculars is a permanent, non-adjustable feature of the device. Hand-held binoculars have magnifications ranging from 7x to 10x, so they will be less susceptible to the effects of shaking hands. A larger magnification leads to a smaller field of view and may require a tripod for image stability; some specialized binoculars for astronomy or military use have magnifications ranging from 15x to 25x. Given as the second number in a binocular description, the diameter of the objective lens determines the resolution and how much light can be gathered to form an image; when two different binoculars have equal magnification, equal quality, produce a sufficiently matched exit pupil, the larger objective diameter produces a "brighter" and sharper
A National Parkway is a designation for a protected area in the United States. The designation is given to a protected corridor of surrounding parkland. National Parkways connect cultural or historic sites; the U. S. National Park Service manages the parkways; the first parkways in the United States were developed in the late 19th century by landscape architects Frederick Law Olmsted and Beatrix Farrand as roads segregated for pedestrians, bicyclists and horse carriages, such as the Eastern Parkway and Ocean Parkway in Brooklyn, New York. The terminology "parkway" to define this type of road was coined by Calvert Vaux and Olmsted in their proposal to link city and suburban parks with "pleasure roads." Newer roads such as the Bidwell and Lincoln Parkways in Buffalo, New York, were designed for automobiles and are broad and divided by large landscaped central medians. Parkways can be the approach to large urban parks, such as the Mystic Valley Parkway to Boston Common in Boston; some separated express lanes from local lanes.
During the early 20th century, the meaning of the word was expanded to include controlled-access highways designed for recreational driving of automobiles with landscaping. These parkways provided scenic routes without at-grade intersections slow vehicles, or pedestrian traffic, their success led to more development however, expanding a city's boundaries limiting their recreational driving use. The Arroyo Seco Parkway between Downtown Los Angeles and Pasadena, California, is an example of lost pastoral aesthetics, it and others have become major commuting routes, while retaining the name parkway. In the 1930s, as part of the New Deal, the U. S. federal government constructed national parkways designed for recreational driving, to commemorate historic trails and routes. As with other roads through national parks, these undivided and two-lane parkways have lower speed limits, are maintained by the National Park Service and the Federal Highway Administration jointly through the Federal Lands Transportation Program.
An example is the Civilian Conservation Corps-built Blue Ridge Parkway in the Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina and Virginia. Others are: Skyline Drive in Virginia; the George Washington Memorial Parkway and the Clara Barton Parkway, running along the Potomac River near Washington, D. C. were constructed during this era. The Great River Road was envisioned as a National Parkway. List of United States federally maintained roads Scenic byways in the United States United States National Parkways travel guide from Wikivoyage
A panorama is any wide-angle view or representation of a physical space, whether in painting, photography, seismic images or a three-dimensional model. The word was coined in the 18th century by the English painter Robert Barker to describe his panoramic paintings of Edinburgh and London; the motion-picture term panning is derived from panorama. A panoramic view is purposed for multi-media, cross-scale applications to an outline overview along and across repositories; this so-called "cognitive panorama" is a panoramic view over, a combination of, cognitive spaces used to capture the larger scale. The device of the panorama existed in painting in murals, as early as 20 A. D. in those found as a means of generating an immersive ` panoptic' experience of a vista. Cartographic experiments during the Enlightenment era preceded European panorama painting and contributed to a formative impulse toward panoramic vision and depiction; this novel perspective was conveyed to America by Benjamin Franklin, present for the first manned balloon flight by the Montgolfier brothers in 1783, by American born physician, John Jeffries who had joined French aeronaut Jean Pierre Blanchard on flights over England and the first aerial crossing of the English Channel in 1785.
In the mid-19th century, panoramic paintings and models became a popular way to represent landscapes, topographic views and historical events. Audiences of Europe in this period were thrilled by the aspect of illusion, immersed in a winding 360 degree panorama and given the impression of standing in a new environment; the panorama was a 360-degree visual medium patented under the title Apparatus for Exhibiting Pictures by the artist Robert Barker in 1787. The earliest that the word "panorama" appeared in print was on June 11, 1791 in the British newspaper The Morning Chronicle, referring to this visual spectacle. Barker created a painting, shown on a cylindrical surface and viewed from the inside, giving viewers a vantage point encompassing the entire circle of the horizon, rendering the original scene with high fidelity; the inaugural exhibition, a "View of Edinburgh", was first shown in that city in 1788 transported to London in 1789. By 1793, Barker had built "The Panorama" rotunda at the center of London's entertainment district in Leicester Square, where it remained until closed in 1863.
Inventor Sir Francis Ronalds developed a machine to remove errors in perspective that were created when a sequence of planar sketches was combined into a cylinder. It projected the cylindrical drawing onto the wall of the rotunda at much larger scale to enable its accurate painting; the apparatus was exhibited at the Royal Polytechnic Institution in the early 1840s. Large scale installations enhance the illusion for an audience of being surrounded with a real landscape; the Bourbaki Panorama in Lucerne, Switzerland was created by Edouard Castres in 1881. The painting measures about 10 metres in height with a circumference of 112 meters. In the same year of 1881, the Dutch marine painter Hendrik Willem Mesdag created and established the Panorama Mesdag of The Hague, Netherlands, a cylindrical painting more than 14 metres high and 40 meters in diameter. In the United States of America is the Atlanta Cyclorama, depicting the Civil War Battle of Atlanta, it was first displayed in 1887, is 42 feet high by 358 feet circumference.
On a gigantic scale, still extant, is the Racławice Panorama located in Wrocław, which measures 15 x 120 metres. In addition to these historical examples, there have been panoramas painted and installed in modern times. Panoramic photography soon came to displace painting as the most common method for creating wide views. Not long after the introduction of the Daguerreotype in 1839, photographers began assembling multiple images of a view into a single wide image. In the late 19th century, flexible film enabled the construction of panoramic cameras using curved film holders and clockwork drives to rotate the lens in an arc and thus scan an image encompassing 180 degrees. Pinhole cameras of a variety of constructions can be used to make panoramic images. A popular design is the "oatmeal box", a vertical cylindrical container in which the pinhole is made in one side and the film or photographic paper is wrapped around the inside wall opposite, extending right to the edge of, the pinhole; this generates an egg-shaped image with more than 180° view.
Stratum Pier is an interactive overlook by American artist Kendall Buster. The functional sculpture is located at the Indianapolis Museum of Art's 100 Acres: Virginia B. Fairbanks Art & Nature Park. Based on a section of a topographical map of 100 Acres the artwork consists of emerald green layered platforms that are shaped in a flowing organic manner along the south side of the sculpture parks lake; the artwork consists of fiberglass grids. The support system sits at varied heights. Visitors are welcome to walk on, fish at and explore the structure, non-accessible due to flooding. Stratum Pier was created to appear as if it is an extension of the shoreline, exhibiting artist Kendall Buster's desire to merge "the natural and the built environment." A visit to the structure allows one to view the cycles of erosion and growth in the 100 Acres environment, cycles that are represented in Stratum Piers layered build. Fiberglass was chosen due to its light weight allowing it to sit in its present location and its durability which allows for heavy use by visitors to the park.
Buster started to design the piece after a visit to the park and inspiration from the topographical maps created to document the parks environment. Buster expects the work to merge with the landscape as the grass and brush that surrounds the area grows into the work. Buster worked with architect Jeremy Olsen of Wheeler Kearns and project engineer Chris Rockey of Rockey Structures to create the piece; the artwork was commissioned by the Indianapolis Museum of Art and funded by a grant from The Indianapolis Foundation. In June 2010 Indianapolis based Motus Dance Theatre performed one day, every 45 minutes, on Stratum Pier in response to the installation and to celebrate the opening of the park. Before pursuing fine art, Kendall Buster obtained her degree in medical technology moved on to earning her BFA at the Corcoran College of Art and Design. After receiving her MFA from Yale University she was involved in the Whitney Museum of American Art's Independent Study Studio Program. Buster's work is described as "biological architecture" and resides in the collections of the Kreeger Museum, the Kemper Museum, Hirshhorn Museum, among others.
She has been commissioned to create public art for the Walter E. Washington Convention Center, Markel Corporation, the BOK Center, Nevada Museum of Art, many others. In 2005 Buster was awarded an American Academy of Arts and Letters Award in the Arts. Teaching at Virginia Commonwealth University, she works in Richmond, Virginia. List of outdoor artworks at the Indianapolis Museum of Art "100 Acres at the Indianapolis Museum of Art" from The Architect's Newspaper "100 Acres: Stratum Pier by Kendall Buster" from Visualingual "Art and Nature, Hand in Hand" from The Wall Street Journal "One Hundred Acres of Art" from Metropolis Stratum Pier from the Indianapolis Museum of Art
Right of way
Right of way is "the legal right, established by usage or grant, to pass along a specific route through grounds or property belonging to another", or "a path or thoroughfare subject to such a right". This article is about access by foot, by bicycle, horseback, or along a waterway, Right-of-way focusses on highways, pipelines, etc. A footpath is a right of way. A similar right of access exists on some public land in the United States. In Canada and New Zealand, such land may alternatively be called Crown land. In some countries in Northern Europe, where the freedom to roam has taken the form of general public rights, a right of way may not be restricted to specific paths or trails; when one person owns a piece of land, bordered on all sides by lands owned by others, a court will be obliged to grant that person a right of way through the bordering land. A further definition, chiefly in American transport, is that it is a type of easement granted or reserved over the land for transportation purposes, this can be for a highway, public footpath, canal, as well as electrical transmission lines and gas pipelines.
As well this phrase describes priority of traffic flow. The New Oxford Dictionary defines it as "the legal right of a pedestrian, vehicle, or ship to proceed with precedence over others in a particular situation or place", in hiking etiquette, where when two groups of hikers meet on a steep trail, a custom has developed in some areas whereby the group moving uphill has the right of way. There is extensive public access in New Zealand, including waterways and the coast, but it is "often fragmented and difficult to locate". In the Republic of Ireland, pedestrian rights of way to churches, known as mass paths, have existed for centuries. In other cases, the modern law is unclear. Opposing these, those claiming general rights of way hark back to an anti-landed gentry position that has endured since the Land War of the 1880s. Rights of way can be asserted by Adverse possession. A case heard in 2010 concerning claims over the Lissadell House estate was based on the historical laws, since amended by the Land and Conveyancing Law Reform Act, 2009.
The 2009 Act abolished the doctrine of lost modern grant, allows a user to claim a right of way after 12 year of use across private land owned by another, 30 years on state land and 60 years on the foreshore. The claim must be duly registered, an expensive process; the user must prove "enjoyment without force, without secrecy and without the oral or written consent of the owner", a restatement of the centuries-old principle of Nec vi, nec clam, nec precario. In England and Wales, other than in the 12 Inner London Boroughs and the City of London, public rights of way are paths on which the public have a protected right to pass and re-pass; the law in England and Wales differs from that in Scotland in that rights of way only exist where they are so designated whereas in Scotland any route that meets certain conditions is defined as a right of way, in addition there is a general presumption of access to the countryside. Private rights of way or easements exist. Footpaths and other rights of way in most of England and Wales are shown on definitive maps.
A definitive map is a record of public rights of way in Wales. In law it is the definitive record of; the highway authority has a statutory duty to maintain a definitive map, though in national parks the national park authority maintains the map. Definitive maps of public rights of way have been compiled for all of England and Wales as a result of the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000, except the twelve Inner London boroughs which, along with the City of London, were not covered by the Act. To protect the existing rights of way in London, the Ramblers launched their "Putting London on the Map" in 2010 with the aim of getting "the same legal protection for paths in the capital as exists for footpaths elsewhere in England and Wales. Legislation allows the Inner London boroughs to choose to produce definitive maps if they wish, but none do so; the launch event of "Putting London on the Map" took place at the British Library, since "the Inner London Area of the Ramblers has been working with Ramblers Central Office staff to try to persuade each of the Inner London boroughs on the desirability of producing definitive maps of rights of way".
In 2011 Lambeth Council passed a resolution to work towards creating a definitive map for their borough, but this does not yet exist. The City of London has produced a Public Access Map. Definitive maps exist for the Outer London boroughs; some landowners allow access over their land without dedicating a right of way. These are physically indistinguishable from public rights of way, but they are may be subject to restrictions; such paths are closed at least once a year, so that a permanent right of way cannot be established in law. In Scotland, a right of way is a route over which the public has been able to pass unhindered for at least 20 years; the route must link two "public places", such as churches or roads. Unlike in England and Wales there is no obligation on Scottish local authorities to signpost rights of way; however the charity Scotways, formed in 1845 to protect rights of way, recor