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Schöneberg

Schöneberg is a locality of Berlin, Germany. Until Berlin's 2001 administrative reform it was a separate borough including the locality of Friedenau. Together with the former borough of Tempelhof it is now part of the new borough of Tempelhof-Schöneberg; the village was first documented in a 1264 deed issued by Margrave Otto III of Brandenburg. In 1751, Bohemian weavers founded Neu-Schöneberg known as Böhmisch-Schöneberg along northern Hauptstraße. During the Seven Years' War on 7 October 1760 Schöneberg and its village church were destroyed by a fire due to the joint attack on Berlin by Habsburg and Russian troops. Both Alt-Schöneberg and Neu-Schöneberg were in an area developed in the course of industrialization and incorporated in a street network laid out in the Hobrecht-Plan in an area that came to be known architecturally as the Wilhelmine Ring; the two villages were not combined as one entity until 1874 and received town privileges in 1898. In the following year it was disentangled from the Kreis of Teltow, became a Prussian Stadtkreis.

Many of the former peasants gained wealth by selling their acres to the settlement companies of growing Berlin and built luxurious mansions on Hauptstraße. The large town hall, Rathaus Schöneberg, was completed in 1914. In 1920, Schöneberg became a part of Greater Berlin. Subsequent to World War II the Rathaus served as the city hall of West Berlin until 1991 when the administration of the reunited City of Berlin moved back to the Rotes Rathaus in Mitte; the locality of Schöneberg includes the neighbourhoods of Bayerisches Viertel and the Rote Insel as well as Lindenhof and the large natural park area Südgelände on the outside of the Ringbahn railway circle line. Dorfkirche, the old village church, built in 1766 Rathaus Schöneberg on John-F.-Kennedy-Platz, where on 26 June 1963 U. S. President John F. Kennedy held his "Ich bin ein Berliner" speech Headquarters of the RIAS Berlin from 1948 to 1993 headquarters of DeutschlandRadio Berlin from 1994 until the station was renamed Deutschlandradio Kultur in 2005.

The building was erected in 1941 by the IG Farben conglomerate. Former headquarters of the Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe, the public transport company of Berlin, on Potsdamer Straße Kaufhaus des Westens, the largest department store in continental Europe, at Wittenbergplatz Heinrich-von-Kleist-Park, first laid out in 1656 by Elector Frederick William of Brandenburg as a nursery Berlin's Botanical Garden, which in 1910 moved to Dahlem; the Kammergericht appellate court building was erected within the park in 1913, together with two colonnades by Carl von Gontard from 1780, moved here from the Alexanderplatz. On 8 August 1944 it was the site of the Volksgerichtshof show trial of members of the 20 July plot led by judge-president Roland Freisler. From 1945 onward, the building served as the seat of the Allied Control Council in Berlin; when the Soviet representatives left the Council in 1948, the Berlin Air Safety Center remained there as the only four-power authority, while the rest of the building was empty.

Today it again serves as the seat of the Kammergericht. Pallasstraße Hochbunker, a former air-raid shelter, built in 1943 by forced laborers. A large social housing estate was built in 1977 to bridge over the bunker and to cross the street, the former site of the Berlin Sportpalast; this is. It was demolished in 1973; the present housing estate is known to Berliners as the Sozialpalast. Lutherkirche at Denewitzplatz, which now houses the American Church in Berlin. Blixa Bargeld, born 12 January 1959 Marlene Dietrich, born 27 December 1901, Sedanstraße 65, Rote Insel, died 6 May 1992 in Paris. Nelly Sachs, holder of the 1966 Nobel Prize for Literature, born 10 December 1891, Maaßenstraße 12, died 12 May 1970 in Stockholm Willi Stoph, born 9 July 1914, Rote Insel, died 13 April 1999 in Berlin Hans Baluschek, Ceciliengärten housing estate, 1929–1933 August Bebel Hauptstraße 97 Gottfried Benn Bozener Straße 20 David Bowie Hauptstraße 155, 1976–1978 Iggy Pop Hauptstraße 155, 1976–1978 Paul Burridge Winterfeldtstraße 83, 2006–2008 Ferruccio Busoni Viktoria-Luise-Platz 11, buried Städtischer Friedhof III cemetery, Friedenau Albert Einstein Haberlandstraße 5, 1919-1933 Hans Fallada Luitpoldstraße 11 Sepp Herberger Bülowstraße Hilde Hildebrand Voßbergstraße 2, 1930–1932 Christopher Isherwood Nollendorfstraße 17, 1930–1932 Klaus Kinski, Wartburgstraße 3, 1930–1944 Hildegard Knef, Sedanstraße 68 Else Lasker

Ericka Huggins

Ericka Huggins is an American activist and educator. Huggins is a former leading member of the Black Panther Party. Born Ericka Jenkins in Washington, D. C. Huggins was the middle child of three. After graduating high school in 1966, Huggins attended Cheyney State College. Huggins began her collegiate years at Lincoln University where she met her husband, Vietnam veteran John Huggins. Huggins holds a master's degree in Sociology. In 1972, she moved to California and became an elected member of the Berkeley Community Development Council, she was the Director of the Black Panther Party's Oakland Community School from 1973-1981. Huggins is a Professor of Sociology at Berkeley City College. In addition, she has lectured at Stanford, UCLA. After joining the party in 1968, Ericka Huggins became a leader in the Los Angeles chapter and led the Black Panther Party chapter in New Haven, Connecticut along with two other women, Kathleen Neal Cleaver and Elaine Brown; as a result of a feud between the Black Panther Party and a rival black nationalist group US Organization, fueled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, her husband John Huggins was shot to death on January 17, 1969 in Campbell Hall on the UCLA campus.

She attended the burial of her husband in his birthplace of New Haven. In 1969, members of the New Haven Black Panthers tortured and murdered Alex Rackley, whom they suspected of being an informant. Along with Black Panther Party co-founder Bobby Seale, Huggins was charged with murder and conspiracy. Huggins was heard speaking on a tape recording of Rackley's interrogation, played during the trial; the trial sparked protests across the country about whether the Panthers would receive a fair trial and the jury selection would become the longest in state history. In May 1971 the jury deadlocked 10 to 2 for Huggins' acquittal, she was not retried. Ericka Huggins married John Huggins, a former leader of the Los Angeles, California chapter of the Black Panther Party in 1967. Ericka gave birth to their daughter, Mai Huggins, at the age of 20. Within 3 months of their daughter's birth, Ericka was widowed when John Huggins was killed on the UCLA campus in January 1969. Huggins has two sons including one with lead singer of The Lumpen.

Official website Ericka Huggins on Facebook Young Lords in Lincoln Park

Military Cross

The Military Cross is the third-level military decoration awarded to officers and other ranks of the British Armed Forces, awarded to officers of other Commonwealth countries. The MC is granted in recognition of "an act or acts of exemplary gallantry during active operations against the enemy on land" to all members of the British Armed Forces of any rank. In 1979, the Queen approved a proposal that a number of awards, including the Military Cross, could be recommended posthumously; the award was created on 28 December 1914 for commissioned officers of the substantive rank of Captain or below and for Warrant Officers. The first 98 awards were gazetted on 1 January 1915, to 71 officers, 27 warrant officers. Although posthumous recommendations for the Military Cross would be unavailable until 1979, the first awards included seven posthumous awards, with the word ‘deceased’ after the name of the recipient, from recommendations, raised before the recipients died of wounds or lost their lives from other causes.

Awards are announced in the London Gazette, apart from most honorary awards to allied forces in keeping with the usual practice not to gazette awards to foreigners. From August 1916, recipients of the Cross were entitled to use the post-nominal letters MC, bars could be awarded for further acts of gallantry meriting the award, with a silver rosette worn on the ribbon when worn alone to denote the award of each bar. From September 1916, members of the Royal Naval Division, who served alongside the army on the Western Front, were made eligible for military decorations, including the Military Cross, for the war's duration. Naval officers serving with the division received eight second award bars. In June 1917, eligibility was extended to temporary majors, not above the substantive rank of captain. Substantive majors were made eligible in 1953. In 1931, the award was extended to equivalent ranks in the Royal Air Force for actions on the ground. After the Second World War, most Commonwealth countries created their own honours system and no longer recommended British awards.

The last Military Cross awards for the Canadian Army were for Korea. The last four Australian Army Military Cross awards were promulgated in the London Gazette on 1 September 1972 for Vietnam as was the last New Zealand Army Military Cross award, promulgated on 25 September 1970. Canada and New Zealand have now created their own gallantry awards under their own honours systems. Since the 1993 review of the honours system, as part of the drive to remove distinctions of rank in awards for bravery, the Military Medal the third-level decoration for other ranks, has been discontinued; the MC now serves as the third-level award for all ranks of the British Armed Forces for gallantry on land, not to the standard required to receive the Victoria Cross or the Conspicuous Gallantry Cross. The Military Cross has the following design: 44 mm maximum width. Ornamental silver cross with straight arms terminating in broad finials, suspended from a plain suspension bar. Obverse decorated with the Royal Cypher in centre.

Reverse is plain. From 1938 until 1957 the year of award was engraved on lower limb of cross, since 1984 it has been awarded named to the recipient; the ribbon width is 32 mm and consists of three equal vertical moire stripes of white and white. Ribbon bar denoting a further award is plain silver, with a crown in the centre. Since 1914 over 52,000 Military Crosses and 3,717 bars have been awarded; the dates below reflect the relevant London Gazette entries: In addition 375 MCs have been awarded since 1979, including awards for Northern Ireland, the Falklands and the wars in the Persian Gulf and Afghanistan. The above table includes awards to the Dominions:In all, 3,727 Military Crosses have been awarded to those serving with Canadian forces, including 324 first bars and 18 second bars. A total of 2,930 were awarded to Australians, in addition to four second bars. Of these, 2,403 MCs, 170 first Bars and four second Bars were for World War I. Over 500 MCs were awarded to New Zealanders during World War I and over 250 in World War II.

The most recent awards were for service in Vietnam. The honorary MC awards were made to servicemen from fifteen Allied countries in World War I, nine in World War II. During World War I, Acting Captain Francis Wallington of the Royal Field Artillery was the first person to be awarded the MC and three bars when he was invested with his third bar on 10 July 1918. Three other officers were subsequently awarded a third bar, Percy Bentley, Humphrey Arthur Gilkes and Charles Gordon Timms, all of whose awards appeared in a supplement to the London Gazette on 31 January 1919. For their key roles during World War I, the cities of Verdun and Ypres were awarded the Military Cross, in September 1916 and February 1920 respectively. In May 1920, Field Marshal French presented the decoration to Ypres in a special ceremony in the city. During World War II Captain Sam Manekshaw, Indian Army, was leading a counter-offensive operation against the invading Japanese Army in Burma. During the course of the offensive, he was hit by a burst of machine-gun fire and wounded in the stomach.

Major General D. T. Cowan spotted Manekshaw holding on to life and was aware of his valour in face of stiff resistance from the Japanese. Fearing the worst, Major General Cowan pinned his own Military Cross ribbon on to Manekshaw saying, "A dead person cannot be awarded a Military Cross." The first posthumous Military Cross was that awarded to Captain Herbert Westmacott, Grenadier Guards for ga