In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves in the autumn. The term deciduous means "the dropping of a part, no longer needed" and the "falling away after its purpose is finished". In plants, it is the result of natural processes. "Deciduous" has a similar meaning when referring to animal parts, such as deciduous antlers in deer, deciduous teeth in some mammals. Wood from deciduous trees is used in a variety of ways in several industries including lumber for furniture and flooring, bowling pins and baseball bats and furniture, cabinets and paneling. In botany and horticulture, deciduous plants, including trees and herbaceous perennials, are those that lose all of their leaves for part of the year; this process is called abscission. In some cases leaf loss coincides with winter -- namely in polar climates. In other parts of the world, including tropical and arid regions, plants lose their leaves during the dry season or other seasons, depending on variations in rainfall.
The converse of deciduous is evergreen, where foliage is shed on a different schedule from deciduous trees, therefore appearing to remain green year round. Plants that are intermediate may be called semi-deciduous. Other plants are semi-evergreen and lose their leaves before the next growing season, retaining some during winter or dry periods; some trees, including a few species of oak, have desiccated leaves that remain on the tree through winter. Many deciduous plants flower during the period when they are leafless, as this increases the effectiveness of pollination; the absence of leaves improves wind transmission of pollen for wind-pollinated plants and increases the visibility of the flowers to insects in insect-pollinated plants. This strategy is not without risks, as the flowers can be damaged by frost or, in dry season regions, result in water stress on the plant. There is much less branch and trunk breakage from glaze ice storms when leafless, plants can reduce water loss due to the reduction in availability of liquid water during cold winter days.
Leaf drop or abscission involves complex physiological changes within plants. The process of photosynthesis degrades the supply of chlorophylls in foliage; when autumn arrives and the days are shorter or when plants are drought-stressed, deciduous trees decrease chlorophyll pigment production, allowing other pigments present in the leaf to become apparent, resulting in non-green colored foliage. The brightest leaf colors are produced when days grow short and nights are cool, but remain above freezing; these other pigments include carotenoids that are yellow and orange. Anthocyanin pigments produce red and purple colors, though they are not always present in the leaves. Rather, they are produced in the foliage in late summer, when sugars are trapped in the leaves after the process of abscission begins. Parts of the world that have showy displays of bright autumn colors are limited to locations where days become short and nights are cool. In other parts of the world, the leaves of deciduous trees fall off without turning the bright colors produced from the accumulation of anthocyanin pigments.
The beginnings of leaf drop starts when an abscission layer is formed between the leaf petiole and the stem. This layer is formed in the spring during active new growth of the leaf; the cells are sensitive to a plant hormone called auxin, produced by the leaf and other parts of the plant. When auxin coming from the leaf is produced at a rate consistent with that from the body of the plant, the cells of the abscission layer remain connected; the elongation of these cells break the connection between the different cell layers, allowing the leaf to break away from the plant. It forms a layer that seals the break, so the plant does not lose sap. A number of deciduous plants remove nitrogen and carbon from the foliage before they are shed and store them in the form of proteins in the vacuoles of parenchyma cells in the roots and the inner bark. In the spring, these proteins are used as a nitrogen source during the growth of new leaves or flowers. Plants with deciduous foliage have advantages and disadvantages compared to plants with evergreen foliage.
Since deciduous plants lose their leaves to conserve water or to better survive winter weather conditions, they must regrow new foliage during the next suitable growing season. Evergreens suffer greater water loss during the winter and they can experience greater predation pressure when small. Losing leaves in winter may reduce damage from insects. Removing leaves reduces cavitation which can damage xylem vessels in plants; this allows deciduous plants to have xylem vessels with larger diameters and therefore a greater rate of transpiration during the summer growth period
Thermoluminescence dating is the determination, by means of measuring the accumulated radiation dose, of the time elapsed since material containing crystalline minerals was either heated or exposed to sunlight. As a crystalline material is heated during measurements, the process of thermoluminescence starts. Thermoluminescence emits a weak light signal, proportional to the radiation dose absorbed by the material, it is a type of luminescence dating. The technique has wide application, is cheap at some US$300–700 per object. Sediments are more expensive to date; the destruction of a significant amount of sample material is necessary, which can be a limitation in the case of artworks. The heating must have taken the object above 500° C, which covers most ceramics, although high-fired porcelain creates other difficulties, it will work well with stones that have been heated by fire. The clay core of bronze sculptures made by lost wax casting can be tested. Different materials vary in their suitability for the technique, depending on several factors.
Subsequent irradiation, for example if an x-ray is taken, can affect accuracy, as will the "annual dose" of radiation a buried object has received from the surrounding soil. Ideally this is assessed by measurements made at the precise findspot over a long period. For artworks, it may be sufficient to confirm whether a piece is broadly ancient or modern, this may be possible if a precise date cannot be estimated. Natural crystalline materials contain imperfections: impurity ions, stress dislocations, other phenomena that disturb the regularity of the electric field that holds the atoms in the crystalline lattice together; these imperfections lead to local dips in the crystalline material's electric potential. Where there is a dip, a free electron may be trapped; the flux of ionizing radiation—both from cosmic radiation and from natural radioactivity—excites electrons from atoms in the crystal lattice into the conduction band where they can move freely. Most excited electrons will soon recombine with lattice ions, but some will be trapped, storing part of the energy of the radiation in the form of trapped electric charge.
Depending on the depth of the traps the storage time of trapped electrons will vary as some traps are sufficiently deep to store charge for hundreds of thousands of years. Another important technique in testing samples from a historic or archaeological site is a process known as Thermoluminescence testing, which involves a principle that all objects absorb radiation from the environment; this process frees electrons within minerals that remain caught within the item. Thermoluminescence testing involves heating a sample until it releases a type of light, measured to determine the last time the item was heated. In thermoluminescence dating, these long-term traps are used to determine the age of materials: When irradiated crystalline material is again heated or exposed to strong light, the trapped electrons are given sufficient energy to escape. In the process of recombining with a lattice ion, they lose energy and emit photons, detectable in the laboratory; the amount of light produced is proportional to the number of trapped electrons that have been freed, in turn proportional to the radiation dose accumulated.
In order to relate the signal to the radiation dose that caused it, it is necessary to calibrate the material with known doses of radiation since the density of traps is variable. Thermoluminescence dating presupposes a "zeroing" event in the history of the material, either heating or exposure to sunlight, that removes the pre-existing trapped electrons. Therefore, at that point the thermoluminescence signal is zero; as time goes on, the ionizing radiation field around the material causes the trapped electrons to accumulate. In the laboratory, the accumulated radiation dose can be measured, but this by itself is insufficient to determine the time since the zeroing event; the Radiation Dose Rate - the dose accumulated per year-must be determined first. This is done by measurement of the alpha radioactivity and the potassium content of the sample material; the gamma radiation field at the position of the sample material is measured, or it may be calculated from the alpha radioactivity and potassium content of the sample environment, the cosmic ray dose is added in.
Once all components of the radiation field are determined, the accumulated dose from the thermoluminescence measurements is divided by the dose accumulating each year, to obtain the years since the zeroing event. Thermoluminescence dating is used for material where radiocarbon dating is not available, like sediments, its use is now common in the authentication of old ceramic wares, for which it gives the approximate date of the last firing. An example of this can be seen in Rink and Bartoll, 2005. Thermoluminescence dating was modified for use as a passive sand migration analysis tool by Keizars, et al. 2008, demonstrating the direct consequences resulting from the improper replenishment of starving beaches using fine sands, as well as providing a passive method of policing sand replenishment and observing riverine or other sand inputs along shorelines. Optically stimulated luminescence dating is a related measurement method which replaces heating with exposure to inte
A number of varieties of Homo are grouped into the broad category of archaic humans in the period contemporary to and predating the emergence of the earliest anatomically modern humans over 315 ka. The term includes Homo neanderthalensis, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo heidelbergensis, Homo antecessor. There is no universal consensus on this terminology, varieties of "archaic humans" are included under the binomial name of either Homo sapiens or Homo erectus by some authors. Archaic humans had a brain size averaging 1,200 to 1,400 cubic centimeters, which overlaps with the range of modern humans. Archaics are distinguished from anatomically modern humans by having a thick skull, prominent supraorbital ridges and the lack of a prominent chin. Anatomically modern humans appear from over 160,000 years ago in Ethiopia and after 70,000 years ago supplanting the "archaic" human varieties. Non-modern varieties of Homo are certain to have survived until after 30,000 years ago, until as as 12,000 years ago.
Which of these, if any, are included under the term "archaic human" is a matter of definition and varies among authors. Nonetheless, according to recent genetic studies, modern humans may have bred with "at least two groups" of ancient humans: Neanderthals and Denisovans. Other studies have cast doubt on admixture being the source of the shared genetic markers between archaic and modern humans, pointing to an ancestral origin of the traits which originated 500,000–800,000 years ago. Another group may have been extant as as 11,500 years ago, the Red Deer Cave people of China. Chris Stringer of the Natural History Museum in London has suggested that these people could be a result of mating between Denisovans and modern humans. Other scientists remain skeptical, suggesting that the unique features are within the variations expected for modern human populations; the category archaic human lacks a single, agreed upon definition. According to one definition, Homo sapiens is a single species comprising several subspecies that include the archaics and modern humans.
Under this definition, modern humans are referred to as Homo sapiens sapiens and archaics are designated with the prefix "Homo sapiens". For example, the Neanderthals are Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, Homo heidelbergensis is Homo sapiens heidelbergensis. Other taxonomists prefer not to consider archaics and modern humans as a single species but as several different species. In this case the standard taxonomy is used, Homo neanderthalensis; the evolutionary dividing lines that separate modern humans from archaic humans and archaic humans from Homo erectus are unclear. The earliest known fossils of anatomically modern humans such as the Omo remains from 195,000 years ago, Homo sapiens idaltu from 160,000 years ago, Qafzeh remains from 90,000 years ago are recognizably modern humans. However, these early modern humans do possess a number of archaic traits, such as moderate, but not prominent, brow ridges; the emergence of archaic humans is sometimes used as an example of punctuated equilibrium.
This occurs when a species undergoes significant biological evolution within a short period. Subsequently, the species undergoes little change for long periods until the next punctuation; the brain size of archaic humans expanded from 900 cm3 in erectus to 1,300 cm3. Since the peak of human brain size during the archaics, it has begun to decline. Robin Dunbar has argued. Based on his analysis of the relationship between brain size and hominin group size, he concluded that because archaic humans had large brains, they must have lived in groups of over 120 individuals. Dunbar argues that it was not possible for hominins to live in such large groups without using language, otherwise there could be no group cohesion and the group would disintegrate. By comparison, chimpanzees live in smaller groups of up to 50 individuals. Atapuerca Mountains, Sima de los Huesos Saldanha Man Altamura Man Kabwe Skull Steinheim Skull Ndutu cranium Early and Late "Archaic" Homo Sapiens and "Anatomically Modern" Homo Sapiens Origins of Modern Humans: Multiregional or Out of Africa?
Homo sapiens, Museum of Natural History Human Timeline – Smithsonian, National Museum of Natural History
A javelin is a light spear designed to be thrown as a ranged weapon, but today predominantly for sport. The javelin is always thrown by hand, unlike the bow and arrow and slingshot, which shoot projectiles from a mechanism. However, devices do exist to assist the javelin thrower in achieving greater distance called spear-throwers. A warrior or soldier armed with one or more javelins is a javelineer; the word javelin comes from Middle English and it derives from Old French javelin, a diminutive of javelot, which meant spear. The word javelot originated from one of the Celtic languages. There is archaeological evidence that javelins and throwing sticks were in use by the last phase of the lower Paleolithic. Seven spear-like objects were found in a coal mine in the city of Germany. Stratigraphic dating indicates; the excavated items were between 1.83 and 2.25 metres long. They were manufactured with the maximum thickness and weight situated at the front end of the wooden shaft; the frontal centre of gravity suggests.
A fossilized horse shoulder blade with a projectile wound, dated to 500,000 years ago, was revealed in a gravel quarry in the village of Boxgrove, England. Studies suggested that the wound was caused by a javelin. In History of Ancient Egypt: Volume 1, George Rawlinson depicts the javelin as an offensive weapon used by the Ancient Egyptian military, it was lighter in weight than that used by other nations. He describes the Ancient Egyptian javelin's features: “It consisted of a long thin shaft, sometimes pointed, but armed with a head, either leaf-shaped, or like the head of a spear, or else four-sided, attached to the shaft by projections at the angles.”A strap or tasseled head was situated at the lower end of the javelin: it allowed the javelin thrower to recover his javelin after throwing it. Egyptian military trained from a young age in special military schools. Focusing on gymnastics to gain strength and endurance in childhood, they learned to throw the javelin – along with practicing archery and the battle-axe – when they grew older, before entering a specific regiment.
Javelins were carried by Egyptian light infantry, as a main weapon, as an alternative to a spear or a bow and arrow along with a shield. They carried a curved sword, a club or a hatchet as a side-arm. An important part in battles is assigned to javelin-men, “whose weapons seem to inflict death at every blow”. One or multiple javelins were sometimes carried by Egyptian war-chariots, in the quiver and/or the bow case. Beyond its military purpose, the javelin was also a hunting instrument, both to seek food and as a sport; the peltasts serving as skirmishers, were armed with several javelins with throwing straps to increase stand-off power. The peltasts hurled their javelins at the enemy's heavier troops, the hoplite phalanx, in order to break their lines so that their own army's hoplites could destroy the weakened enemy formation. In the battle of Lechaeum, the Athenian general Iphicrates took advantage of the fact that a Spartan hoplite phalanx operating near Corinth was moving in the open field without the protection of any missile-throwing troops.
He decided to ambush it with his force of peltasts. By launching repeated hit-and-run attacks against the Spartan formation and his men were able to wear the Spartans down routing them and killing just under half; this marked the first recorded occasion in ancient Greek military history in which a force made up of peltasts had defeated a force of hoplites. The thureophoroi and thorakitai, who replaced the peltasts, carried javelins in addition to a long thrusting spear and a short sword. Javelins were used as an effective hunting weapon, the strap adding enough power to take down large game. Javelins were used in the Ancient Olympics and other Panhellenic games, they were hurled in a certain direction and whoever hurled it the farthest, as long as it hit tip-first, won that game. In the ancient world javelins were thrown with the aid of a throwing string, or Amentum. In 387 BC, the Gauls invaded Italy, inflicted a crushing defeat on the Roman Republican army, sacked Rome. After this defeat, the Romans undertook a comprehensive reform of their army and changed the basic tactical formation from the Greek-style phalanx armed with the hasta spear and the clipeus round shield to a more flexible three-line formation.
The Hastati stood in the first line, the Principes in the second line and the Triarii at the third line. While the Triarii were still armed with the hasta, the Hastati and the Principes were rearmed with short swords and heavy javelins; each soldier from the Hastati and Principes lines carried two javelins. This heavy javelin, known as a Pilum, was about two metres long overall, consisting of an iron shank, about 7 mm in diameter and 60 cm long, with pyramidal head, secured to a wooden shaft; the iron shank was either socketed or, more widened to a flat tang. A pilum weighed between 2 and 5 pounds, with the versions produced during the Empire being somewhat lighter. Pictorial evidence suggests that some versions of the weapon were weighted with a lead ball at the base of the shank in order to increase penetrative power, but no archaeological specimens have been found. Recent experiments have shown pila to have a range of about 30 metres, although the effective range is only about 15 to 20 metres.
Pila were sometimes referred to as javelins. From the third century BC, the Roman le
In archaeology, in particular of the Stone Age, lithic reduction is the process of fashioning stones or rocks from their natural state into tools or weapons by removing some parts. It has been intensely studied and many archaeological industries are identified entirely by the lithic analysis of the precise style of their tools and the chaîne opératoire of the reduction techniques they used; the starting point is the selection of a piece of tool stone, detached by natural geological processes, is an appropriate size and shape. In some cases solid rock or larger boulders may be quarried and broken into suitable smaller pieces, in others the starting point may be a piece of the debitage, a flake removed from a previous operation to make a larger tool; the selected piece is called the lithic core. A basic distinction is that between flaked or chipped stone, the main subject here, ground stone objects made by grinding. Flaked stone reduction involves the use of a hard hammer percussor, such as a hammerstone, a soft hammer fabricator, or a wood or antler punch to detach lithic flakes from the lithic core.
As flakes are detached in sequence, the original mass of stone is reduced. Lithic reduction may be performed in order to obtain sharp flakes, of which a variety of tools can be made, or to rough out a blank for refinement into a projectile point, knife, or other object. Flakes of regular size that are at least twice as long as they are broad are called blades. Lithic tools produced this way may be unifacial. Cryptocrystalline or amorphous stone such as chert, flint and chalcedony, as well as other fine-grained stone material, such as rhyolite and quartzite, were used as a source material for producing stone tools; as these materials lack natural planes of separation, conchoidal fractures occur when they are struck with sufficient force. The propagation of force through the material takes the form of a Hertzian cone that originates from the point of impact and results in the separation of material from the objective piece in the form of a partial cone known as a lithic flake; this process is predictable, allows the flintknapper to control and direct the application of force so as to shape the material being worked.
Controlled experiments may be performed using glass cores and consistent applied force in order to determine how varying factors affect core reduction. It has been shown that stages in the lithic reduction sequence may be misleading and that a better way to assess the data is by looking at it as a continuum; the assumptions that archaeologists sometimes make regarding the reduction sequence based on the placement of a flake into a stage can be unfounded. For example, a significant amount of cortex can be present on a flake taken off near the end of the reduction sequence. Removed flakes exhibit features characteristic of conchoidal fracturing, including striking platforms, bulbs of force, eraillures. Flakes are quite sharp, with distal edges only a few molecules thick when they have a feather termination; these flakes can be used directly as tools or modified into other utilitarian implements, such as spokeshaves and scrapers. By understanding the complex processes of lithic reduction, archaeologists recognize that the pattern and amount of reduction contribute tremendous effect to lithic assemblage compositions.
One of the measurements is the geometric index of reduction. There are two elements in this index:'t' and'T'. The'T' is the'height' of maximum blank thickness and the't' is the height of retouched scar from the ventral surface; the ratio between t and T is the geometric index of reduction. In theory this ratio shall range between 0 and 1; the bigger the number is the larger amount of lost weight from lithic flake. By using a logarithmic scale, a linear relationship between the geometric index and the percentage of original flake weight lost through retouch is confirmed. In choosing a reduction index, it is important to understand the strengths and weaknesses of each method, how they fit to the intended research question, as different indices provide different levels of information. For example, Kuhn's geometric index of unifacial reduction, which describes the ratio of scar height relative to the flake thickness, is influenced by the morphology of the flake blank which limits the applicability of this reduction index.
Alongside the various percussion and manipulation techniques described below, there is evidence that heat was at least sometimes used. Experimental archaeology has demonstrated that heated stones are sometimes much easier to flake, with larger flakes being produced in flint, for example. In some cases the heating changes the colour of the stone. Percussion reduction, or percussion flaking, refers to removal of flakes by impact. A core or other objective piece, such as a formed tool, is held in one hand, struck with a hammer or percussor. Alternatively, the objective piece can be struck between a stationary anvil-stone, known as bipolar percussion. Percussion can be done by throwing the objective piece at an anvil stone; this is sometimes called projectile percussion. Percussors are traditionally either a stone cobble or pebble referred to as a hammerstone, or a billet made of bone, antler, or wood. Flakes are struck from a core using a punch, in which case the percussor never makes contact with the objective piece.
This technique is referred to
Mollusca is the second largest phylum of invertebrate animals. The members are known as mollusks. Around 85,000 extant species of molluscs are recognized; the number of fossil species is estimated between 100,000 additional species. Molluscs are the largest marine phylum, comprising about 23% of all the named marine organisms. Numerous molluscs live in freshwater and terrestrial habitats, they are diverse, not just in size and in anatomical structure, but in behaviour and in habitat. The phylum is divided into 8 or 9 taxonomic classes, of which two are extinct. Cephalopod molluscs, such as squid and octopus, are among the most neurologically advanced of all invertebrates—and either the giant squid or the colossal squid is the largest known invertebrate species; the gastropods are by far the most numerous molluscs and account for 80% of the total classified species. The three most universal features defining modern molluscs are a mantle with a significant cavity used for breathing and excretion, the presence of a radula, the structure of the nervous system.
Other than these common elements, molluscs express great morphological diversity, so many textbooks base their descriptions on a "hypothetical ancestral mollusc". This has a single, "limpet-like" shell on top, made of proteins and chitin reinforced with calcium carbonate, is secreted by a mantle covering the whole upper surface; the underside of the animal consists of a single muscular "foot". Although molluscs are coelomates, the coelom tends to be small; the main body cavity is a hemocoel. The "generalized" mollusc's feeding system consists of a rasping "tongue", the radula, a complex digestive system in which exuded mucus and microscopic, muscle-powered "hairs" called cilia play various important roles; the generalized mollusc has three in bivalves. The brain, in species that have one, encircles the esophagus. Most molluscs have eyes, all have sensors to detect chemicals and touch; the simplest type of molluscan reproductive system relies on external fertilization, but more complex variations occur.
All produce eggs, from which may emerge trochophore larvae, more complex veliger larvae, or miniature adults. The coelomic cavity is reduced, they have kidney-like organs for excretion. Good evidence exists for the appearance of gastropods and bivalves in the Cambrian period, 541 to 485.4 million years ago. However, the evolutionary history both of molluscs' emergence from the ancestral Lophotrochozoa and of their diversification into the well-known living and fossil forms are still subjects of vigorous debate among scientists. Molluscs still are an important food source for anatomically modern humans. There is a risk of food poisoning from toxins which can accumulate in certain molluscs under specific conditions and because of this, many countries have regulations to reduce this risk. Molluscs have, for centuries been the source of important luxury goods, notably pearls, mother of pearl, Tyrian purple dye, sea silk, their shells have been used as money in some preindustrial societies. Mollusc species can represent hazards or pests for human activities.
The bite of the blue-ringed octopus is fatal, that of Octopus apollyon causes inflammation that can last for over a month. Stings from a few species of large tropical cone shells can kill, but their sophisticated, though produced, venoms have become important tools in neurological research. Schistosomiasis is transmitted to humans via water snail hosts, affects about 200 million people. Snails and slugs can be serious agricultural pests, accidental or deliberate introduction of some snail species into new environments has damaged some ecosystems; the words mollusc and mollusk are both derived from the French mollusque, which originated from the Latin molluscus, from mollis, soft. Molluscus was itself an adaptation of Aristotle's τὰ μαλάκια ta malákia, which he applied inter alia to cuttlefish; the scientific study of molluscs is accordingly called malacology. The name Molluscoida was used to denote a division of the animal kingdom containing the brachiopods and tunicates, the members of the three groups having been supposed to somewhat resemble the molluscs.
As it is now known these groups have no relation to molluscs, little to one another, the name Molluscoida has been abandoned. The most universal features of the body structure of molluscs are a mantle with a significant cavity used for breathing and excretion, the organization of the nervous system. Many have a calcareous shell. Molluscs have developed such a varied range of body structures, it is difficult to find synapomorphies to apply to all modern groups; the most general characteristic of molluscs is they are bilaterally symmetrical. The following are present in all modern molluscs: The dorsal part of the body wall is a mantle which secretes calcareous spicules, plates or shells, it overlaps the body with enough spare room to form a mantle cavity. The anus and genitals open into the mantle cavity. There are two pairs of main nerve cords. Other characteristics that appear in textbooks have significant exceptions: Estimates of accepted described living species of molluscs vary from 50,000 to a maximum of 120,000 species.
In 1969 David Nicol estimated the probable total number of living mollusc species at 107,000 of which were ab
Schöningen is a town of about 11,000 inhabitants in the district of Helmstedt, in Lower Saxony, Germany. The town is located on the southeastern rim of the Elm hill range, near the border with the state of Saxony-Anhalt. In its current form, it was created in 1974 by joining the municipalities of Esbeck and Schöningen. Schöningen station was served by regional trains on the Wolfenbüttel–Helmstedt railway line until it was closed in 2007; the town is a stop on the scenic German Timber-Frame Road. In archaeology, Schöningen is famous for the Schöningen Spears, four ancient wooden spears found in an opencast mine near the town; the spears are about 400,000 years old, making them the world's oldest human-made wooden artifacts, as well as the oldest weapons found. Three of them were manufactured as projectile weapons, because the weight and tapered point is at the front of the spear making it fly straight in flight, similar to the design of a modern javelin; the fourth spear is shorter with points at both ends and is thought to be a thrusting spear or a throwing stick.
They were found in combination with the remains of about 20 wild horses, whose bones contain numerous butchery marks, including one pelvis that still had a spear sticking out of it. This is considered proof; the spears are on display at the paläon visitor centre, opened in 2013. The first historical mentioning of the Saxon settlement in the Royal Frankish Annals dates back to 747, when the Carolingian Mayor of the Palace Pepin the Short stayed at Scahaningi during the conflict with his half-brother Grifo. Schöningen was the site of a Königspfalz of Pepin's son Charlemagne and of the Ottonian dynasty. Saint Willigis, Archbishop of Mainz from 975, was born at Schöningen about 940, he served as archchancellor of Emperor Otto III. Schöningen was the site of a Benedictine abbey founded in 983. Nearby Elm Castle, erected in the 11th century, was the seat of a commandry of the Teutonic Knights from 1221 onwards. From the 14th century it was held by the Welf dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg, who granted Schöningen town privileges in 1332.
About 1350 Duke Magnus the Pious had Schöningen Castle built as a hunting lodge and to secure the nearby border with the Bishopric of Halberstadt. It was damaged during the Schmalkaldic War in 1542, when Duke Henry V of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel fought against the troops of the Protestant Schmalkaldic League, it served as a widow's seat of his consort Sophia Jagiellon, sister of the Polish king Sigismund II Augustus, of her successors Elizabeth of Denmark and Anna Sophia, daughter of Elector John Sigismund of Brandenburg. Duchess Elizabeth, sister of King Christian IV of Denmark had the palace rebuilt in a lavish Renaissance style from 1613 onwards. In 1640 Anna Sophia established a Latin school in Schöningen, which exists as a Gymnasium up to today. Schöningen Castle was the administrative seat of a Brunswick Amtmann. From 1679 it served as the residence of Anna Sophia, daughter of Duke Anthony Ulrich of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and spouse of Margrave Charles Gustav of Baden-Durlach, her sister Elizabeth Eleonora married Duke Bernhard I of Saxe-Meiningen here.
In 1733 Prince Frederick II of Prussia stayed here en route to his marriage with Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern at Salzdahlum. After the seat of the local administration was moved to Helmstedt in 1815, the castle decayed; the main industry in Schöningen is open-cast mining of lignite, used for electricity generation in the Buschhaus Power Station. Both mining and generation are operated by E. ON subdivisions. Buschhaus power station and open-cast mining will be closed down in 2017; the Buschhaus plant now inhibits three lines of thermal waste treatment. The Sachtleben Chemie company was founded as Lithopone- und Permanentweißfabrik at Schöningen in 1878. Schöningen is the site of a ground station operated by the German Federal Intelligence Service intelligence agency. Seats in the municipal assembly as of 2011 elections: Social Democratic Party of Germany: 17 Christian Democratic Union: 9 Free Voters: 2 Alliance'90/The Greens: 2Elections in 2016: SPD: 11 CDU: 10 Alliance 90/the Greens: 2 UWG: 3 ZIEL: 1 Single candidate Schliphake: 1 Total: 28Mayors:In February 2012 Henry Bäsecke was elected the new mayor.
He is the successor of Matthias Wunderling-Weilbier. Schöningen is twinned with: Beni Hassen, Monastir Governorate, Tunisia Oschersleben, Germany Outokumpu, Finland Zolochiv, Ukraine Willigis, Archbishop of Mainz Reimar Oltmanns and book author BibliographyKlein, R. "Hominin dispersals in the old world". In Scarre, C; the human past: World prehistory and the development of human societies. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-28531-2. Bamford, Marion K.. "A reassessment of the wooden fragment from Florisbad, South Africa". Journal of Archaeological Science. 30: 637–651. Doi:10.1016/S0305-440300245-5. Notes Schöningen travel guide from Wikivoyage "Schöningen". Encyclopædia Britannica. 24. 1911. Official site Schöningen Spears Project