Amalienborg is the home of the Danish royal family, is located in Copenhagen, Denmark. It consists of four identical classical palace façades with rococo interiors around an octagonal courtyard. Over the years various kings and their families have resided in the four different palaces; the Frederiksstaden district was built on the former grounds of two other palaces. The first palace was called Sophie Amalienborg, it was built by Queen Sophie Amalie, consort to Frederick III, on part of the land which her father-in-law Christian IV had acquired outside of Copenhagen's old walled city, now known as the Indre By district, in the early 17th century when he had been king. Other parts of the land were used for Rosenborg Castle and the new Eastern fortified wall around the old city, it included a garden, a replacement for the "Queen’s Garden", located beyond the city's western gate Vesterport, an area today known as Vesterbro, and, destroyed under siege from Sweden in 1659. Work on the garden began in 1664, the castle was built 1669-1673.
The King died in 1670, the Queen Dowager lived there until her death on February 20, 1685. Four years on April 15, 1689 Sophie Amalie’s son King Christian V celebrated his forty-fourth birthday at the palace with the presentation of a German opera the first opera presentation in Denmark, in a specially-built temporary theatre; the presentation was a great success, it was repeated a few days on April 19. However after the start of the second performance a stage decoration caught fire, causing the theatre and the palace to burn to the ground, about 180 people lost their lives; the King planned to rebuild the palace, whose church, Royal Household and garden buildings were still intact. Ole Rømer headed the preparatory work for the rebuilding of Amalienborg in the early 1690s. In 1694, the King negotiated a deal with the Swedish building master Nicodemus Tessin the Younger, who spent some time in Copenhagen that summer reviewing the property, his drawing and model were completed in 1697. The King, found the plans too ambitious and instead began tearing down the existing buildings that same year, with the reclaimed building materials used to build a new Garrison Church.
The second Amalienborg was built by Frederick IV at the beginning of his reign. The second Amalienborg consisted of a summerhouse, a central pavilion with orangeries, arcades on both side of the pavilion. On one side of the buildings was a French-style garden, on the other side were military drill grounds; the pavilion had a dining room on the groundfloor. On the upper floor was a salon with a view out to the harbour, the garden and the drill grounds. Amalienborg is the centrepiece of Frederiksstaden, a district, built by King Frederick V to commemorate in 1748 the tercentenary of the Oldenburg family's ascent to the throne of Denmark, in 1749 the tercentenary of the coronation of Christian I of Denmark; this development is thought to have been the brainchild of Danish Ambassador Plenipotentiary in Paris, Johann Hartwig Ernst Bernstorff. Heading the project was Lord High Steward Adam Gottlob Moltke, one of the most powerful and influential men in the land, with Nicolai Eigtved as royal architect and supervisor.
The project consisted of four identical mansions, built to house four distinguished families of nobility from the royal circles, placed around an octagonal square. These mansions form the modern palace of Amalienborg, albeit much modified over the years; when the Royal Family found itself homeless after the Christiansborg Palace fire of 1794, the palaces were empty for long periods throughout the year, with the exception of the Brockdorff Palace, which housed the Naval Academy. The noblemen who owned them were willing to part with their mansions for promotion and money, the Moltke and Schack Palaces were acquired in the course of a few days. Since that date successive royal family members have lived at Amalienborg as a royal residence and kings have lent their names to the four palaces. A colonnade, designed by royal architect Caspar Frederik Harsdorff, was added 1794-1795 to connect the occupied King’s palace, Moltke Palace, with that of the Crown Prince, Schack’s Palace. According to Eigtved’s master plans for Frederikstad and the Amalienborg Palaces, the four palaces surrounding the plaza were conceived of as town mansions for the families of chosen nobility.
Their exteriors were identical. The site on which the aristocrats could build was given to them free of charge, they were further exempted from taxes and duties; the only conditions were that the palaces should comply to the Frederikstad architectural specifications, that they should be built within a specified time framework. Building of the palaces on the western side of the square started in 1750; when Eigtved died in 1754 the two western palaces had been completed. The work on the other palaces was continued by Eigtved's colleague and rival, Lauritz de Thurah according to Eigtved’s plans; the palaces were completed in 1760. The four palaces are: Christian VII's Palace known as Moltke's Palace Christian VIII's Palace known as Levetzau's Palace Frederick VIII's Palace known as Brockdorff's Palace Christian IX's Palace, originally
Bregentved is a manor house located 3 km east of Haslev on the Danish island of Zealand. It has been owned by the Moltke family since the middle of the 18th century; the first known reference to Bregentved is from 1319 when King Eric VI of Denmark passed the estate to Roskilde Abbey. From the end of the 14th century the property was owned by a succession of aristocratic families, including that of Krognos in the 16th century, until 1718 when it was acquired by King Frederick IV. In the eighteenth century Bregentved was in consecutive Birks, so had separate legal jurisdiction from Haslev Sogn and old Ringsted Herred; the north wing still extant in the early 21st century was built 1731-36 by architect Lauritz de Thurah and has a black-tiled, hipped roof. It contains a chapel on the first floor. In 1746, King Frederick V granted the Bregentved estate to Adam Gottlob Moltke, one of his closest companions, at the same time made lord chamberlain and a count. Over the next few years, Moltke adapted the two remaining wings with the assistance of the architects G.
D. Anthon and Nicolai Eigtved. Moltke commissioned Eigtved to build him a large mansion in Copenhagen, the south-western of the four Amalienborg Palaces, completed in 1754. At Bregentved, Moltke introduced several agricultural reforms to the management of the estate with inspiration from Holstein. A. G. Moltke died at Bregentved on 25 September 1792, passing his estates to his oldest son, Joachim Godske Moltke, who ceded their mansion in Copenhagen to the royal family after the fire of Christiansborg Palace in 1794; as a replacement, Adam Wilhelm Moltke, who had just left office as the first Prime Minister under Denmark's new constitutional monarchy, acquired a new mansion which became known as Moltke's Mansion. After the harvests at Bregentved Manor and other family holdings, he would move his entire household to Copenhagen. In the 1880s, Count Frederik Christian Moltke decided to modernize the house, he demolished the two Eigtved wings and replaced them with two new wings which were completed in 1891 to the design of the architect Axel Berg.
The main east wing and the south wing of the present three-winged building date from Axel Berg's 1891 rebuilding and stand on Eigtved's foundations. They are topped by a Mansard roof in copper and tile; the east wing has a three-bay risalit with pilasters and a triangular pediment, a two-bay corner risilit at each end with segmental pediments. The entrance tower dates from Berg's expansion; the north wing has a black-tiled, hipped roof. It contains a chapel on the first floor. In the 1760s, A. G. Moltke commissioned Nicolas-Henri Jardin to create a garden in the French formal garden style but it was adapted into a landscape garden in 1835; some features have been retained from Jardin's garden, including avenues, traces of a parterre surrounded by canals and a system of fountains, restored in 1994. Some vases and Frederik V's Obelisk by Johannes Wiedewelt date from this garden as does a copy of a statue by Giambologna; the garden features a statue of A. W. Moltke by Herman Wilhelm Bissen in 1858-59.
Bregentved-Turebyholm covers 6,338 hectares of which just over half consist of agricultural land and the rest of forest. A total of 163 houses belongs to the estate, including Turebylille, Holtegård, Eskilstrup, Rødehus, Sprettingegård, Storelinde Overdrevsgård, Ulsegård and Statafgård; the estate maintains a staff of 40 and has a yearly turnover of DKK 60 million. Apart from agriculture and forestry, the revenues derive from house rental, hiring-out of hunting areas, hiring-out of storage facilities and machine pool services. There is no public access to the house but the park is open to the public on Wednesdays, Saturdays and public holidays. Admission is free of charge; the Crown Ringsted Abbey Hesso Hvittensee Karl Nielsen St. Clare's Priory, Roskilde Oluf Grubbe Margrethe, gift Grubbe Bydelsbak Erik Bydelsbak Laurids Eriksen Bydelsbak Niels Pedersen Gyldenstjerne Mourits Nielsen Gyldenstjerne Oluf Stigsen Krognos Anne Mouritsdatter Gyldenstjerne, gift 1) Krognos, 2) * Podebusk Predbjørn Podebusk Anne Mouritsdatter Gyldenstjerne, gift 1) Krognos, 2) Podebusk Anders Bentsen Bille Bent Andersen Bille da:Mourits Olufsen Krognos Eline Gøye, gift Krognos Oluf Mouritsen Krognos Anna Hardenberg Christoffer Gøye Steen Brahe Erik Steensen Brahe Falk Gøye Frederik Knudsen Urne Karen Hansdatter Arentfeldt, gift Urne Ove Juul Frederik Gabel Christian Carl Gabel Kronen Poul Vendelbo Løvenørn Frederik Poulsen de Løvenørn Kronen Adam Gottlob Moltke Joachim Godske Moltke August Adam Wilhelm Moltke Frederik Georg Julius Moltke Frederik Christian Moltke Christian Frederik Gustav Moltke Hans Hemming Joachim Christian Moltke Christian Peter Moltke Official website Source
Kronborg is a castle and stronghold in the town of Helsingør, Denmark. Immortalized as Elsinore in William Shakespeare's play Hamlet, Kronborg is one of the most important Renaissance castles in Northern Europe and has been added to UNESCO's World Heritage Sites list; the castle is situated on the extreme northeastern tip of the island of Zealand at the narrowest point of the Øresund, the sound between present Denmark and the provinces of present Sweden that were Danish at the time the castle was built. In this part, the sound is only 4 kilometres wide, hence the strategic importance of maintaining a coastal fortification at this location commanding one of the few outlets of the Baltic Sea; the castle's story dates back to a stronghold, built by King Eric VII in the 1420s. Along with the fortress Kärnan, Helsingborg on the opposite coast of Øresund, it controlled the entranceway to the Baltic Sea. From 1574 to 1585 King Frederick II had the medieval fortress radically transformed into a magnificent Renaissance castle.
The main architects were the Flemings Hans Hendrik van Paesschen and Anthonis van Obbergen, whereas the sculptural work was coordinated by Gert van Groningen. In 1629 a fire destroyed much of the castle; the castle has a church within its walls. In 1658 Kronborg was besieged and captured by the Swedes who took many of its valuable art treasures as war booty. In 1785 the castle was converted into barracks for the army; the army left the castle in 1923, after a thorough renovation it was opened to the public. The castle's story dates back to a fortress, built in the 1420s by the Danish king, Eric of Pomerania; the king insisted on the payment of sound dues by all ships wishing to enter or leave the Baltic Sea passing through the Sound. At the time, the Kingdom of Denmark extended across both sides of the Sound, on the eastern shore the Helsingborg Castle had been in existence since the Middle Ages. With the two castles and guard ships it was possible to control all navigation through the Sound; the castle was built on Ørekrog, a sandy tongue of land stretching into the sea from the coast of Zealand towards the coast of Scania.
The castle consisted of a square curtain wall with a number of stone buildings inside. The stone building in the northeastern corner contained the king's residence; the building in the southwestern corner contained a large arched banquet hall. The building in the southeastern corner served as the chapel. Large portions of the walls of Krogen are contained within the present-day Kronborg Castle. King Christian III had the corners of the curtain wall supplemented with bastions in 1558-59. From 1574 to 1585 Frederick II had the medieval fortress rebuilt into a magnificent Renaissance castle, unique in its appearance and size throughout Europe; as a consequence of developments in the military technique of the era and the improved striking power of the artillery, it became clear that it was necessary to modernize the fortifications of Krogen. After the conclusion of the Northern Seven Years' War in 1570, King Frederick II initiated an extension of the advanced bastions to relieve the medieval curtain wall.
The main architect was the Flemish architect Hans Hendrik van Paesschen and the fortification works were completed in 1577. After this the castle acquired its current name of Kronborg; the castle itself was rebuilt, with the separated buildings of Krogen being extended to three coherent wings. The north wing was equipped with chambers for the king and her ladies-in-waiting as well as for the chancellery. In the south wing, the medieval building in the southeast corner was refitted as a modern chapel with the vaulted windows facing the chapel being retained; the castle was reconstructed only to a height of two storeys. In 1578, the Flemish architect Anthonis van Obbergen was engaged as new master builder and work was undertaken to make Kronborg larger and more magnificent; the sculptural work was coordinated by Gert van Groningen. As a sign of the new ambitions, the south wing was heightened by one storey and a new, gigantic ball room placed over the chapel. Soon after the west and north wings were heightened by one storey.
The east wing was heightened with a passageway, The Queen's Gallery, allowing the Queen comfortable passage from her chambers in the north wing to the ball room in the south wing. The exterior walls were clad with sandstone from Scania, the new castle was given a roof with copper sheeting. Frederick was a keen patron of theatre and players performed at the castle when he held court there in 1579. In 1629, a moment's carelessness by two workmen caused much of the castle to go up in flames in the night between the 24 and 25 September. Only the Chapel was spared by the strength of its arches. King Christian IV put great efforts into restoring the castle. In 1631, the work was underway, led by the architect Hans van Steenwinckel the Younger. By 1639 the exterior — which in keeping with the king's wish was reconstructed without major changes — was once again magnificent, but the interior never regained its former glory. Furthermore, certain modernizations were made, portals, ceiling paintings and other decorations were renewed in Baroque style.
During the Dano-Swedish War of 1658–60, Kronborg was besieged and conquered by a Swedish army, commanded by Carl Gustaf Wrangel. During the Swedish occupation, the queen of Sweden, Hedvig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp and the Swedish king's sister Maria Eufrosyne of Pfalz lived at Kronborg, where they were visited by Charles X o
Borreby Castle is a fortified manor house located near Skælskør, Slagelse Municipality, in the south-west corner of the island of Zealand, in eastern Denmark. First mentioned in 1345, by the end of the century Borreby had come into the possession of the Urne family, an important house of high nobility in Denmark at that time. In 1410 the estate was acquired by Bishop Peder Jensen Lodehat and it was held by the Bishops of Roskilde until its confiscation by the Crown in 1536 in connection with the Reformation in 1534. In 1553 somewhat earlier, King Frederick II ceded the property to Chancellor Johan Friis, one of the most powerful men in the country at the time, who owned Hesselagergård on the island of Funen. In 1456 he built the current castle at a site 300 metres north of the old building. After Johan Friis' death in 1570, Borreby was passed to his nephew, Christian Friis, who followed in his uncle's footsteps as Chancellor from 1594 to 1616. Christian Friis expanded the complex with an extra moat and several new buildings, including two castle yard wings to the east and west, a gatehouse and several large farm buildings west of the castle.
The estate remained in the possession of the Friis family until the brothers Oluf and Valdemar Daa ran it into economic ruin during their ownership from 1652 to 1681. In 1783, Borreby was acquired by Major General Joachim Castenschiold. Together with nearby Holsteinborg and Basnæs, Borreby in the century formed a small cluster of manor houses where Hans Christian Andersen was a frequent guest. In 1859 Andersen published his story "The Wind Tells about Valdemar Daae and His Daughters", a tragic tale of how the last descendant of Johan Friss to own Borreby lost the estate through his own foolish and quite unsuccessful experiments with alchemy; the Castenschiold family still own the property. Built in red brick in the Renaissance style, Borreby consists of two and a half floors resting on stone plinth and topped by a pitched roof. There are three on the north side and a staircase tower on the south side; the masonry is decorated with arched friezes above each storey and the windows are topped by depressed arches.
The defensive character of the building is witnessed by machicolation holes which are found on all sides. Behind these there used to be a walkway which has now been removed, but machicolation holes can still be seen all round the building; the interior is dominated by Joachim Lorentz Holten Castenschiold's modernizations carried out in the 1750s and restorations from 1883 to 1884 and 1923–24. The east and west wings of the outer courtyard date from Christian Friis' expansion, as does the gatehouse from 1600 and the large farm buildings located west of the castle. A chapel in the west wing was in its current form designed in 1754. Borreby Castle is owned by and managed as a modern agricultural estate with a large production of biomass for power stations on Zealand. There is public access free of charge to the outer courtyard and park with views of the historical buildings; the castle is open for tours on prior notification. It is used as a cultural venue. Borreby Art Gallery is based in the former courthouse as well as some former stables.
Borreby Theatre with a capacity of 450 spectators is under construction in a former barn, other buildings will house a restaurant and café. Official website Borreby Theatre "The Wind Tells about Valdemar Daae and His Daughters" by Hans Christian Andersen
Fredensborg Palace is a palace located on the eastern shore of Lake Esrum in Fredensborg on the island of Zealand in Denmark. It is the Danish Royal Family’s spring and autumn residence, is the site of important state visits and events in the Royal Family, it is the most used of the Royal Family’s residences. At the end of the Great Northern War King Frederick IV asked architect Johan Cornelius Krieger, royal gardener to the court at Rosenborg Castle, to build him a small pleasure palace on the site of a farmyard named Østrup. Krieger built the French-inspired baroque palace 1720–1726, the King himself took an active part in the planning of the building and grounds, followed construction closely; the man responsible for the actual construction was General Building Master Johan Conrad Ernst, responsible for the construction of Frederiksberg Palace. While the building was still under construction Denmark–Norway and Sweden negotiated a peace treaty, signed July 3, 1720 on the site of the unfinished palace The treaty determined the fate of Skåne, which since that time has been a part of Sweden, ended Denmark’s eleven-year participation in the Great Northern War.
To commemorate the signing of the peace accord the palace was named Fredens Borg. The palace complex consisted of a small square, 1 1⁄2-storey-high main palace with dome and lanterns, it is positioned at the centre of what is known as a "hunting star", a number of straight intersecting paths in a game hunting reserve. During a hunt it was permissible to shoot straight down the long paths, which radiated out from the centre; the dome hall measured 15 x 15 m, had a height of 27 m. The sumptuous room featured stucco by C. E. Brenno and a plafond by Hendrick Krock. In front of the main building was placed an octagonal courtyard encircled by the single-storey servants' wings, called Red Wing, it is the only red building at Fredensborg Palace, it has open half-timbers under a red tile roof. East of the octagon were the long stables building; the Orangery, equipped with huge glasshouse windows, was connected to the main building by a small secret passage, so that the Royal Family and the courtiers could walk to the chapel without getting their feet wet.
The palace chapel stood in the middle of the two buildings, has an exaggerated copper spire, a pilaster-decorated façade facing the riding ring, a carved gable featuring a bust of Frederik IV in relief carved by Didrick Gercken. On the other side of the church was the Courtiers Wing, residences for the court's clerks and members of the Royal Household; this section of the palace was built from 1724–1726, introduces elements of the Dutch Baroque style and Rococo. The palace was extended throughout the early 18th century, however the main structure of the palace has remained unchanged since its inauguration on October 11, 1722, the King's 51st birthday. Krieger completed his work on the palace with the erection of the “new Court Chancery building” in 1731; the black-glazed tile, half-hipped roof building is now known as The Chancellery House. It butted up to the riding-ring on the southern edge. A major alteration of Krieger's original building was made in 1741–1744 when Lauritz de Thurah, the King's favorite architect, elevated the roof of the palace's main building.
The slanted roof was replaced by a flat one, a characteristically de Thurah sandstone balustrade was erected. In 1751 he transformed the Orangery into a residential building for the ladies-in-waiting. In 1753 Nicolai Eigtved extended the palace by adding four symmetrically-positioned corner pavilions with copper pyramid-shaped roofs to the main building. In the 19th century, King Christian IX and Queen Louise, who counted England's Queen Alexandra, King George I of Greece and Empress Maria Feodorovna of Russia amongst their children used Fredensborg to host annual family reunions. There, their grandchildren, including the future Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and Kings George V of the United Kingdom, Haakon VII of Norway, Constantine I of Greece, as well as the future Queen Maud of Norway, would play games in the park. Queen Margrethe uses Fredensborg as a spring and autumn residence, it is the usual venue for her birthday celebrations every April; the Queen's younger sister, Princess Benedikte, married HH Prince Richard of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg at the Chapel of Fredensborg Palace on 3 February 1968.
Until her death, the late Queen Mother, Queen Ingrid used the Chancellery House at Fredensborg as her private residence. The part of palace Chancellery House is the spring and autumn home of Crown Prince Frederik and Crown Princess Mary; the palace gardens are among Denmark's largest historical gardens, are Denmark's finest example of a baroque garden. These too was designed by Krieger, were extended and altered during the 18th century; the long, straight avenues which extend from the castle in a star-shaped pattern were recreated in the 1970s to 1990s. Between these avenues lies large wooded areas with winding paths. Most of the statues in the gardens were sculptured by Johannes Wiedewelt. Of special interest is the "Valley of the Norsemen with 70 sculptures of Norwegian and Faroese farmers and fishermen carved by J. G. Grund; the garden is open all year round. The area of the gardens closest to the palace is reserved for the Royal Family, but is open to the public in July. Here are the kitchen gardens, which supply fresh vegetables for the househ
Zealand, at 7,031 km2, is the largest and most populous island in Denmark proper. Zealand has a population of 2,302,074, it is the 13th-largest island in the 4th most populous. It is connected to Funen by the Great Belt Fixed Link, to Lolland, Falster by the Storstrøm Bridge and the Farø Bridges. Zealand is linked to Amager by several bridges. Zealand is linked indirectly, through intervening islands by a series of bridges and tunnels, to southern Sweden. Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark, is located on the eastern shore of Zealand and on the island of Amager. Other cities on Zealand include Hillerød, Næstved and Helsingør. Despite their identical names, the island is not connected to the Pacific nation of New Zealand, named after the Dutch province of Zeeland; the exact origin of the Danish name "Sjælland" is controversial. Sjæl in Danish today means "soul". A derivation derived from siô / sæ corresponding to the English name is today rejected– but it may be that the English name predated Danish research on its origin, compared with the current understanding.
The prevailing view today is: The Old Danish form "Siâland" comes from a composition of the word *selha- with the ending *wundia-. The latter means "indicates, resembles"; the word *selha- can have two different meanings: it can mean on the one hand "seal" and on the other hand mean "deep bay, fjord". Since the main settlement on Zealand was Roskilde, only accessible by sea through the narrow Roskilde Fjord, it is assumed that the sailors named the island after this. In Norse mythology as told in the Gylfaginning, the island was created by the goddess Gefjun after she tricked Gylfi, the king of Sweden, she transported it to Denmark, which became Zealand. The vacant area became Mälaren. However, since modern maps show a similarity between Zealand and the Swedish lake Vänern, it is sometimes identified as the hole left by Gefjun. Zealand is the most populous Danish island, it is irregularly shaped, is north of the islands of Lolland, Møn. The small island of Amager lies east. Copenhagen is on Zealand but extends across northern Amager.
A number of bridges and the Copenhagen Metro connect Zealand to Amager, connected to Scania in Sweden by the Øresund Bridge via the artificial island of Peberholm. Zealand is joined in the west to Funen, by the Great Belt Fixed Link, Funen is connected by bridges to the country's mainland, Jutland. On June 5, 2007, the regional subsidiary of national broadcaster DR reported that Kobanke in the southeast near the town Rønnede in Faxe Municipality, with a height of 122.9 metres, was the highest natural point on Zealand. Gyldenløveshøj, south of the city Roskilde, has a height of 126 metres, but, due to a man-made hill from the 17th century and its highest natural point is only 121.3 metres. Zealand gives its name to the Selandian era of the Paleocene. Urban areas with 10,000+ inhabitants: North Zealand New Zealand Media related to Zealand at Wikimedia Commons Zealand travel guide from Wikivoyage