Penn Central Transportation Company
The Penn Central Transportation Company abbreviated to Penn Central, was an American Class I railroad headquartered in Philadelphia, that operated from 1968 until 1976. It was created by the 1968 merger of the New York Central railroads; the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad was added to the merger in 1969. S. history. The Penn Central was created as a response to challenges faced by all three railroads in the late 1960s; the Northeast United States is the most densely populated region of the U. S. While railroads elsewhere in North America drew a sizable percentage of revenues from the long-distance shipment of commodities such as coal, lumber and iron ore, northeastern railroads traditionally depended on a more heterogeneous mix of services, including: commuter rail/passenger rail service Railway Express Agency freight service Break-bulk freight service via boxcars Consumer goods and perishables These labor-intensive, short-haul services were vulnerable to competition from automobiles and trucks where facilitated by four-lane highways.
In 1956, the U. S. Congress passed the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956; this law authorized construction of the Interstate Highway System, which provided an economic boost to the trucking industry. Another problem was the inability to respond to market conditions. At the time, U. S. railroads were regulated by the Interstate Commerce Commission, which did not allow railroads to change rates it charged both shippers and passengers. Reducing costs was the only way to survive and become profitable, but the ICC restricted what cost-cutting could take place. A merger seemed to be a promising way out of a difficult situation; the Pennsylvania Railroad and New York Central Railroad had been significant rivals for most of the 20th century. Both railroads had physical plant not being utilized to capacity. Talks of a merger had been announced as early as 1957; the initial reaction in the industry was utter surprise. Every merger proposal for decades had tried to balance the two giant railroads against each other and create two, three, or four more-or-less equal systems in the east.
Traditionally, the PRR had been allied with the Wabash railroads. Any remaining players were swept up with the Nickel Plate. In addition, tradition favored end-to-end mergers rather than those of parallel railroads. Planning and justifying the merger took nearly a decade, during which time the eastern railroad scene changed in large measure because of the impending merger of the NYC and PRR; the Erie merged with the DL&W to create the Erie Lackawanna Railway in 1960, the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway acquired control of the B&O, the N&W took in several railroads, including the Nickel Plate and Wabash. The merger formally closed on February 1, 1968. On that date, the PRR — the nominal survivor of the merger — changed its name to Pennsylvania New York Central Transportation Company, it shortened its name to Penn Central Company on May 8, 1968. On October 1, 1969, Penn Central reorganized as a holding company, with its railroad interests under a wholly owned subsidiary, Penn Central Transportation Company.
The ICC approved the merger on the following conditions: The new company had to take over the freight and passenger operations of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad. That occurred on December 31, 1968. PC had to absorb Susquehanna & Western Railway. PC and NYS&W could not agree on a price, NYS&W became part of the Delaware Otsego System. PC had to make the Lehigh Valley Railroad available for merger by either N&W or C&O or, if neither of those railroads wanted it, merge it into PC. LV entered bankruptcy only three days after PC did; the merger was not a success. An implementation plan was drawn up, but not carried out. Attempts to integrate operations and equipment were unsuccessful, due to clashing corporate cultures, incompatible computer systems and union contracts. Little thought had been given to unifying the two railroads, which had different styles of operation. In the decade prior to the merger, the NYC had trimmed its physical plant and assembled a young, eager management group under the leadership of Alfred E. Perlman.
The PRR, headed by Stuart T. Saunders, had been a more traditional operation. Many of NYC's management people saw that the PRR was dominant in PC management and soon left for other positions; those who departed had said the different corporate philosophies could never have merged successfully. The network was so poorly integrated. In addition to the problems of unification, the industrial states of the Northeast and Midwest were fast becoming the Rust Belt; as industries shut down and relocated, railroads found themselves with excess capacity. The PRR was burdened with excess trackage. Though this track was no longer needed, it was still on the tax rolls. West of the Allegheny Mountains, the NYC and PRR duplicated each other at every major point.
Troy, New York
Troy is a city in the U. S. state of New York and the seat of Rensselaer County. The city is located on the western edge of Rensselaer County and on the eastern bank of the Hudson River. Troy has close ties to the nearby cities of Albany and Schenectady, forming a region popularly called the Capital District; the city is one of the three major centers for the Albany Metropolitan Statistical Area, which has a population of 1,170,483. At the 2010 census, the population of Troy was 50,129. Troy's motto is Ilium fuit. Troja est, which means "Ilium was, Troy is". Today, Troy is home to Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, the oldest private engineering and technical university in the US, founded in 1824. Due to the confluence of major waterways and a geography that supported water power, the American industrial revolution took hold in this area making Troy reputedly the fourth wealthiest city in America around the turn of the 20th century. Troy, therefore, is noted for a wealth of Victorian architecture downtown and elaborate private homes in various neighborhoods.
Several churches boast a concentrated collection of stained glass windows by Louis Comfort Tiffany. Troy is home to the world renowned "Troy Music Hall" the "Troy Savings Bank Music Hall" dating from the 1870s, said to have superb acoustics in a combination of restored and well preserved performance space; the area had long been occupied by the Mahican Indian tribe, but Dutch settlement began in the mid 17th century. The patroon Kiliaen van Rensselaer called the region Pafraets Dael, after his mother; the Dutch colony was conquered by the English in 1664, in 1707 Derick Van der Heyden purchased a farm near today's downtown area. In 1771, Abraham Lansing had his farm in today's Lansingburgh laid out into lots. Sixteen years Van der Heyden's grandson Jacob had his extensive holdings surveyed and laid out into lots, naming the new village Vanderheyden. In 1789, Troy adopted its present name following a vote of the people. Troy was incorporated as a town two years and extended east across the county to the Vermont line, including Petersburgh.
In 1796, Troy became a village and in 1816, it became a city. Lansingburgh, to the north, became part of Troy in 1900. Prior to the arrival of Europeans, the Mohican Indians had a number of settlements along the Hudson River near the confluence with the Mohawk River; the land comprising the Poesten Kill and Wynants Kill areas were owned by two Mohican groups. The land around the Poesten Kill was called Panhooseck; the area around the Wynants Kill, was known as Paanpack, was owned by Peyhaunet. The land between the creeks, which makes up most of downtown and South Troy, was owned by Annape. South of the Wynants Kill and into present-day North Greenbush, the land was owned by Pachquolapiet; these parcels of land were sold to the Dutch between 1630 and 1657 and each purchase was overseen and signed by Skiwias, the sachem at the time. In total, more than 75 individual Mohicans were involved in deed signings in the 17th century; the site of the city was a part of Rensselaerswyck, a patroonship created by Kiliaen van Rensselaer.
Dirck Van der Heyden was one of the first settlers. In 1707, he purchased a farm of 65 acres. An early local legend that a Dutch girl had been kidnapped by an Indian male who did not want her to marry someone else gained some credence when two skeletons were found in a cave under Poestenkill Falls in the 1950s. One skeleton was Caucasian with an iron ring; the other was male. The name Troy was adopted in 1789 before which it had been known as Ashley's Ferry, the region was formed into the Town of Troy in 1791 from part of the Manor of Rensselaerswyck; the township included Grafton. Troy became a village in 1801 and was chartered as a city in 1816. In 1900, the city of Lansingburgh was merged into Troy. In the post-Revolutionary War years, as central New York was first settled, there was a strong trend to classical names, Troy's naming fits the same pattern as the New York cities of Syracuse, Utica, Ithaca, or the towns of Sempronius, Manlius, or dozens of other classically named towns to the west of Troy.
Northern and Western New York was a theater of the War of 1812, militia and regular army forces were led by Stephen Van Rensselaer of Troy. Quartermaster supplies were shipped through Troy. A local butcher and meat-packer named Samuel Wilson supplied the military, according to an unprovable legend, barrels stamped "U. S." were jokingly taken by the troops to stand for "Uncle Sam" meaning Wilson. Troy has since claimed to be the historical home of Uncle Sam. Through much of the 19th and into the early 20th century, Troy was not only one of the most prosperous cities in New York State, but one of the most prosperous cities in the entire country. Prior to its rise as an industrial center, Troy was the transshipment point for meat and vegetables from Vermont, which were sent by the Hudson River to New York City; the Federal Dam at Troy is the head of the tides in the Hudson River and Hudson River sloops and steamboats plied the river on a regular basis. This trade was vastly increased after the construction of the Erie Canal, with its eastern terminus directly across the Hudson from Troy at Cohoes in 1825.
Troy's one-time great wealth was produced in the steel industry, with the first American Bessemer converter erected on the Wyantskill, a stream with a falls in a small valley at the south end of the city. The industry first used iron ore from the Adirondacks. On, ore and coal from the Midwest was shipped on the Erie Canal to Troy, there processed before being sent on down the Hudson to New York City; the iron an
New York Central Railroad
The New York Central Railroad was a railroad operating in the Great Lakes region of the United States. The railroad connected greater New York and Boston in the east with Chicago and St. Louis in the Midwest along with the intermediate cities of Albany, Cleveland and Detroit. New York Central was headquartered in New York City's New York Central Building, adjacent to its largest station, Grand Central Terminal; the railroad was established in 1853. In 1968 the NYC merged with the Pennsylvania Railroad, to form Penn Central. Penn Central went bankrupt in 1970 and merged into Conrail in 1976. Conrail was broken up in 1998, portions of its system were transferred to CSX and Norfolk Southern Railway, with CSX acquiring most of the old New York Central trackage. Extensive trackage existed in the states of New York, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and West Virginia plus additional trackage in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec. At the end of 1925, the NYC operated 26,395 miles of track; the railroad was formed in 1853 through a consolidation of earlier independent companies running between Albany and Buffalo: The Mohawk and Hudson Railroad was the oldest segment of the NYC merger and was the first permanent railroad in the state of New York and one of the first railroads in the United States.
It was chartered in 1826 to connect the Mohawk River at Schenectady to the Hudson River at Albany, providing a way for freight and passengers to avoid the extensive and time-consuming locks on the Erie Canal between Schenectady and Albany. The Mohawk and Hudson opened on September 24, 1831, changed its name to the Albany and Schenectady Railroad on April 19, 1847; the Utica and Schenectady Railroad was chartered April 29, 1833. Revenue service began August 2, 1836, extending the line of the Albany and Schenectady Railroad west from Schenectady along the north side of the Mohawk River, opposite the Erie Canal, to Utica. On May 7, 1844 the railroad was authorized to carry freight with some restrictions, on May 12, 1847 the ban was dropped, but the company still had to pay the equivalent in canal tolls to the state; the Syracuse and Utica Railroad was chartered May 1, 1836, had to pay the state for any freight displaced from the canal. The full line opened July 1839, extending the line further to Syracuse via Rome.
This line was not direct, going out of its way to stay near the Erie Canal and serve Rome, so the Syracuse and Utica Direct Railroad was chartered January 26, 1853. Nothing of that line was built, though the West Shore Railroad, acquired by the NYC in 1885, served the same purpose; the Auburn and Syracuse Railroad was chartered May 1, 1834, opened in 1838, the remaining 4 miles opening on June 4, 1839. A month with the opening of the Syracuse and Utica Railroad, this formed a complete line from Albany west via Syracuse to Auburn, about halfway to Geneva; the Auburn and Rochester Railroad was chartered May 13, 1836, as a further extension via Geneva and Canandaigua to Rochester, opening on November 4, 1841. The two lines merged on August 1850, to form the rather indirect Rochester and Syracuse Railroad. To fix this, the Rochester and Syracuse Direct Railway was chartered and merged into the Rochester and Syracuse Railroad on August 6, 1850; that line opened June 1, 1853, running much more directly between those two cities parallel to the Erie Canal.
The Tonawanda Railroad, to the west of Rochester, was chartered April 24, 1832 to build from said city to Attica. The first section, from Rochester southwest to Batavia, opened May 5, 1837, the rest of the line to Attica opened on January 8, 1843; the Attica and Buffalo Railroad chartered in 1836 and opened on November 24, 1842, running from Buffalo east to Attica. When the Auburn and Rochester Railroad opened in 1841, there was no connection at Rochester to the Tonawanda Railroad, but with that exception there was now an all-rail line between Buffalo and Albany. On March 19, 1844, the Tonawanda Railroad was authorized to build the connection, it opened that year; the Albany and Schenectady Railroad bought all the baggage and emigrant cars of the other railroads between Albany and Buffalo on February 17, 1848, began operating through cars. On December 7, 1850, the Tonawanda Railroad and Attica and Buffalo Railroad merged to form the Buffalo and Rochester Railroad. A new direct line opened from Buffalo east to Batavia on April 26, 1852, the old line between Depew and Attica was sold to the Buffalo and New York City Railroad on November 1.
The line was added to the New York and Erie Railroad system and converted to the Erie's 6 ft broad gauge. The Schenectady and Troy Railroad was chartered in 1836 and opened in 1842, providing another route between the Hudson River and Schenectady, with its Hudson River terminal at Troy; the Lockport and Niagara Falls Railroad was incorporated April 24, 1834 to run from Lockport on the Erie Canal west to Niagara Falls. On December 14, 1850, it was reorganized as the Rochester and Niagara Falls Railroad, an extension east to Rochester opened on July 1, 1852; the railroad was consolidated into the New York Central Railroad under the act of 1853. A portion of the line is operate
Capital District Transportation Authority
The Capital District Transportation Authority is a New York State public-benefit corporation overseeing a number of multi-modal parts of public transportation in the Capital District of New York State. CDTA runs local and express buses, including an express bus service called BusPlus between Albany and Schenectady, day-to-day management of three Amtrak stations in the Capital region–the Albany-Rensselaer and Saratoga Springs Amtrak stations. Created as an act of the New York State Legislature in August 1970, CDTA was formed to agencies in Syracuse and Buffalo. In 1970, CDTA purchased and took over management of the United Traction Company and Schenectady Transit. CDTA bus operators and supervisory staff are organized in Local 1321 of the Amalgamated Transit Union. CDTA is overseen by a nine-member board of directors. At the present time, the board representation includes: Three members representing Albany County Two members representing Rensselaer County One member representing Schenectady County Two members representing Saratoga County One member representing the labor unionsThere is an executive director that handles day-to-day business, reporting to the board of directors.
In 2017, the CDTA had a level of staffing of 821 people. CDTA operates 56 routes, many of which connect neighborhoods to downtowns or downtowns to shopping areas. Two routes, 11-UAlbany Shuttle and 286-RPI Shuttle, are shuttle services for area universities which are open to the public. Service runs from 5:30 a.m.-12:00 a.m. weeknights, 6:00 a.m.-12:00 a.m. Saturdays, 7:00 a.m.-10:00 p.m. Sundays with the college routes running until 2:00 a.m. in Troy. Before CDTA, many of these routes belonged to the Albany-Nassau Bus United Traction. Buses run from Capital Depot next to CDTA's headquarters on 110 Watervliet Avenue in Albany. In early 2011, CDTA announced its plans to restructure the Albany County bus routes in two phases. Phase 1 involved reconstructing routes within the city of Albany, with a public input campaign held until August 2011; the results were three commuter routes. Its goal was to have a more uniformed bus system without any route deviation. Phase 1 of the reconstructing went into effect on November 13, 2011.
In August 2012, CDTA revealed the draft plan for Phase 2 of the reconstructing. Phase 2 involved reconstructing routes within the western and northern portions of Albany County, with a public input campaign held until September 2012. Phase 2 of the reconstructing went into effect on November 11, 2012. Former bus routes that were part of the Albany Division include: #2 - West Albany #3 - Quail Street #4 - Pine Hills #5 - Northern Boulevard #8 - Arbor Hill #9 - Whitehall Road #16 - Downtown Albany Circulator #17 - Four Mall Circuit #19 - Voorheesvile Express #21 - Altamont Express #23 - Menands Bridge #25 - West Sand Lake/Averill Park #26 - Albany-Cohoes via Broadway #27 - Corporate Woods #29 - Albany/Latham/Cohoes #30 - Hackett Blvd #31 - Albany Shaker Road #33 - Albany/Nassau #33x - Albany/Nassau express #34 - Albany/Castleton #232 - former Route 32, Hampton Manor #610 - Shuttle Fly #611 - Shuttle Bug #612 - Shuttle Bug #810 - Berne/Knox rural shuttle #811 - Westerlo rural shuttle #812 - Rensselaerville rural shuttle Before CDTA, many of these routes were run by Schenectady Transit, which became insolvent and was taken over by Schenectady County in the late 1960s.
Buses operate from the Electric Depot, located at 2401 Maxon Road Ext. in Schenectady. On May 24, 2010 CDTA implemented five new cross-town routes for Schenectady as a part of their new service plan, removing routes 51, 52, 53, 54, 59, 61, 62, 66, 77 and combining them
Saratoga Springs station
Saratoga Springs is a train station owned by the Capital District Transportation Authority and operated by Amtrak in Saratoga Springs, New York. It is situated along the Canadian Pacific Railway. Saratoga Springs is served by Amtrak's Adirondack and Ethan Allen Express, in addition to the Saratoga & North Creek Railway's two heritage lines; the current station was built in 1956-1959 by the Delaware & Hudson Railway, as a replacement for an 1880-built structure at another location, which serves as a private residence. The 1950s-era structure was torn down in 2002, a temporary trailer was used as the station until the current station was completed in 2004; the brick exterior from the former structure was retained and covered with wooden facing high across the front and green trim on the doors and windows the rest of the building was rebuilt into a modern, high-ceilinged facility with a skylight in the center of the station. The 6,400-square-foot passenger area contains a coffee shop/newsstand, murals, an automated teller machine, a visitors information kiosk, outside patio area and benches, a children’s play area.
The station has one low-level side platform to the east of the tracks. The station is served by buses operated by the Capital District Transportation Authority. Saratoga National Historical Park Saratoga Performing Arts Center Saratoga Spa State Park Saratoga Springs Visitor Center Skidmore College Media related to Saratoga Springs station at Wikimedia Commons Saratoga Springs, NY – Amtrak Saratoga & North Creek Railway CDTA Saratoga Springs Train Station website Saratoga Springs, NY
Michigan Central Station
Michigan Central Station is a historic former main intercity passenger rail depot in Detroit, Michigan. Built for the Michigan Central Railroad, it replaced the original depot in downtown Detroit, shuttered after a major fire on December 26, 1913, forcing the still unfinished station into early service. Formally dedicated on January 4, 1914, the station remained open for business until the cessation of Amtrak service on January 6, 1988. Comprising a train depot and an office tower with thirteen stories, two mezzanine levels, a roof height of 230 feet, it was the tallest rail station in the world at the time of its construction; the building is located in the Corktown district of Detroit near the Ambassador Bridge 3⁄4 mi southwest of downtown Detroit. It is located behind Roosevelt Park, the Roosevelt Warehouse is adjacent to the east, with a tunnel connection to the MCS; the city's Roosevelt Park serves as a grand entryway to the station. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1975.
Since 2011, demolition works, minor structural repairs, repairs of the roof structure, covering the glass roof openings in the concourse have been performed. The basement, once full of water, has been drained. Barbed wire fencing has been installed in an attempt to keep out vandals and the windows in the tower have been replaced. Restoration projects and plans had gone as far as the negotiation process, but none had come to fruition until May 2018 when Ford Motor Company purchased the building for redevelopment into a mixed use facility and cornerstone of the company's new Corktown campus. Images of the building prior to the Ford purchase remain a premier example of ruins photography; the building began operating as Detroit's main passenger depot in 1913 after the older Michigan Central Station burned on December 26, 1913. It was owned and operated by Michigan Central Railroad and was planned as part of a large project that included the Michigan Central Railway Tunnel below the Detroit River for freight and passengers.
The old station was located on a spur line, inconvenient for the high volume of passengers it served. The new Michigan Central placed passenger service on the main line; the growing trend toward increased automobile use was not a large concern in 1912, as is evident in the design of the building. Most passengers would arrive at and leave from Michigan Central Station by interurban service or streetcar, due to the station's distance from downtown Detroit; the station was placed away from downtown in order to stimulate related development to come in its direction. An ambitious project to connect the station to the Cultural Center via a wide boulevard was never realized. Nonetheless, the station remained active for several decades; the trains of the New York Central Railroad, the company which acquired the Michigan Central Railroad, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and the Canadian Pacific Railroad operated from the station. At the beginning of World War I, the peak of rail travel in the United States, more than 200 trains left the station each day and lines would stretch from the boarding gates to the main entrance.
In the 1940s, more than 4,000 passengers a day used the station and more than 3,000 people worked in its office tower. Among notable passengers arriving at MCS were Presidents Herbert Hoover, Harry S. Truman and Franklin D. Roosevelt, actor Charlie Chaplin, inventor Thomas Edison and artists Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera; the other major station of Detroit was the Fort Street Union Depot. In the 1920s Henry Ford began to buy land near the station and made construction plans, but the Great Depression and other circumstances squelched this and many other development efforts; the original design included no large parking facility. When the interurban service was discontinued less than two decades after MCS opened, the station was isolated from the large majority of the population who drove cars and needed parking to use the facility. Major trains and destinations included: Baltimore & Ohio Ambassador to New York City via Pittsburgh, PA and Washington, D. C. Shenandoah, route as above Cincinnatian, to Cincinnati via Dayton Great Lakes Limited, to Louisville via Dayton and CincinnatiNew York Central Detroiter, to New York City Empire State Express, to New York City Mercury, Chicago to the west, Cleveland to the east Northerner, to Mackinaw City, Michigan via Bay City, Michigan Timberliner, to Mackinaw City, Michigan via Bay City, Michigan Twilight Limited, to Chicago Wolverine, Chicago to New York City via Southwestern Ontario Passenger volume did not decrease immediately.
During World War II, the station was used by military troops. After the war, with a growth in automobile ownership, people used trains less for vacation or other travel. Service was reduced and passenger traffic became so low that the owners of the station attempted to sell the facility in 1956 for US$5 million, one-third of its original 1913 building cost. Another attempted sale in 1963 failed for lack of buyers. In 1967, maintenance costs were seen as too high relative to the decreasing passenger volume; the restaurant, arcade shops, main entrance were closed, along with much of the main waiting room. This left only two ticket windows to serve passengers and visitors, who used the same parking-lot entrance as railroad employees working in the building. Amtrak assumed operation of the nation's passenger rail service in 1971, reopening the main waiting room and entrance in 1975, it started a $1.25 million renovation project in 1978. Six years the building was sold for a transportation center project that never materialized.
On January 6, 1988, the last Amtrak train pulled away from the station after owners decided