The Washington Redskins are a professional American football team based in the Washington metropolitan area. The Redskins compete in the National Football League as a member of the National Football Conference East division; the team plays its home games at FedExField in Maryland. The Redskins have played more than one thousand games since their founding 87 years ago in 1932, are one of only five franchises in the NFL to record over six hundred regular season and postseason wins, reaching that mark in 2015; the Redskins have won five NFL Championships, have captured fourteen divisional titles and six conference championships. It was the first NFL franchise with an official marching band and the first with a fight song, Hail to the Redskins; the team began play in Boston as the Braves in 1932, became the "Redskins" the following year. In 1937, the team relocated to Washington, D. C; the Redskins won the 1937 and 1942 NFL championship games, as well as Super Bowls XVII, XXII, XXVI. They have been league runner-up six times, losing the 1936, 1940, 1943, 1945 title games, Super Bowls VII and XVIII.
With 24 postseason appearances, the Redskins have an overall postseason record of 23–18. Their three Super Bowl wins are tied with the Oakland Raiders and Denver Broncos, behind the Pittsburgh Steelers and New England Patriots, San Francisco 49ers and Dallas Cowboys, the Green Bay Packers and New York Giants. All of the Redskins' league titles were attained during two 10-year spans. From 1936 to 1945, the Redskins went to the NFL Championship six times; the second period lasted between 1982 and 1991 where the Redskins appeared in the postseason seven times, captured four Conference titles, won three Super Bowls out of four appearances. The Redskins have experienced failure in their history; the most notable period of general failure was from 1946 to 1970, during which the Redskins posted only four winning seasons and did not have a single postseason appearance. During this period, the Redskins went without a single winning season during the years 1956–1968. In 1961, the franchise posted their worst regular season record with a 1–12–1 showing.
Since their last Super Bowl victory following the end of the 1991 season, the Redskins have only won the NFC East three times, made five postseason appearances, had nine seasons with a winning record. According to Forbes, the Redskins are the fourth most valuable franchise in the NFL and the tenth most valuable overall in the world as of 2018, valued at US$3.1 billion. They set the NFL record for single-season attendance in 2007, have the top ten single-season attendance totals in the NFL. Over the team's history, the name and logo have drawn controversy, with many criticizing it as offensive to Native Americans; the team originated as the Boston Braves, based in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1932, under the ownership of George Preston Marshall. At the time the team played in Braves Field, home of the Boston Braves baseball team in the National League; the following year, the club moved to Fenway Park, home of the American League's Boston Red Sox, whereupon owners changed the team's name to "Boston Redskins."
To round out the change, Marshall hired William "Lone Star" Dietz, thought to be part Sioux, as the team's head coach. However, Boston wasn't much of a football town at the time and the team had difficulty drawing fans; the Redskins relocated south from New England after five years to the national capital of Washington, D. C. in 1937. Through 1960, the Redskins shared baseball's Griffith Stadium with the first Washington Senators baseball team of the American League. In their first game in Washington on September 16, the Redskins defeated the New York Giants in the season opener, 13–3. On December 5, they earned their first division title in Washington with a 49–14 win over the Giants in New York, for the Eastern Championship; the next week on December 12, the team won their first league championship, over the Chicago Bears. In 1940, the Redskins met the Bears again in the championship game on December 8; the result, 73–0 in favor of the Bears, is still the worst one-sided loss in NFL history. The other big loss for the Redskins that season occurred in September during the coin toss prior to the Giants game.
After calling the coin toss and shaking hands with the opposing team captain, lineman Turk Edwards attempted to pivot around to head back to his sideline. However, his cleats caught in the grass and his knee gave way, injuring him and bringing his season and hall of fame career to an unusual end. In what became an early rivalry in the NFL, the Redskins and Bears met two more times in the NFL Championship Game; the third time in 1942 on December 13, where the Redskins won their second championship, 14–6. The final time the two met was the 1943 on December 26, which the Bears won 41–21; the most notable accomplishment achieved during the Redskins' 1943 season was Sammy Baugh leading the NFL in passing and interceptions. The Redskins played in the NFL Championship one more time before a quarter-century drought that did not end until the 1972 season. With former Olympic gold medalist Dudley DeGroot as their new head coach, the Redskins went 8–2 during the 1945 season. One of the most impressive performances came from Sammy Baugh, who had a completion percentage of.703.
They ended the season by losing to the Cleveland Rams in the 1945 NFL Championship Game on December 16, 1945, 15–14. The one-point margin of victory came under scrutiny because of a safety that occurred early in the game. In the f
A bassist or bass player, is a musician who plays a bass instrument such as a double bass, bass guitar, keyboard bass or a low brass instrument such as a tuba or sousaphone. Different musical genres tend to be associated with one or more of these instruments. Since the 1960s, the electric bass has been the standard bass instrument for funk, R&B, soul music and roll, jazz fusion, heavy metal and pop music; the double bass is the standard bass instrument for classical music, bluegrass and most genres of jazz. Low brass instruments such as the tuba or sousaphone are the standard bass instrument in Dixieland and New Orleans-style jazz bands. Despite the associations of different bass instruments with certain genres, there are exceptions; some 1990s and 2000s rock and pop bands use a double bass, such as both Andrew Jackson Jihad, Barenaked Ladies. Some fusion jazz groups use a lightweight, stripped-down electric upright bass rather than a double bass; some composers of modern art music use the electric bass in a chamber music setting.
Some jazz big bands use electric bass. Some funk, R&B and jazz, fusion groups use synth keyboard bass rather than electric bass. Bootsy Collins and Stevie Wonder used synth bass; some Dixieland bands use double bass or electric bass instead of a tuba. In some jazz groups and jam bands, the basslines are played by a Hammond organ player, who uses the bass pedal keyboard or the lower manual for the low notes. Electric bassists play the bass guitar. In most rock, pop and country genres, the bass line outlines the harmony of the music being performed, while indicating the rhythmic pulse. In addition, there are many different standard bass line types for different genres and types of song. Bass lines emphasize the root note, with a secondary role for the third, fifth of each chord being used in a given song. In addition, pedal tones and bass riffs are used as bass lines. While most electric bass players play chords, chords are used in some styles funk, R&B, soul music, jazz and heavy metal music. A short list of notable bassists includes: Mark Adams Jeff Ament Victor Bailey Steve Bailey Ronnie Baker Michael "Flea" Balzary Robert "Kool" Bell Rex Brown Jack Bruce Jean-Jacques Burnel Cliff Burton Geezer Butler Tony Campos Alain Caron Liam Carey Stanley Clarke Adam Clayton Tommy Cogbill Bootsy Collins Melvin Lee Davis John Deacon Steve Di Giorgio Mike Dirnt Donald'Duck' Dunn Jimmy Earl Nathan East Bernard Edwards David Ellefson John Entwistle Andy Fraser (Free Billy Gould Roger Glover Simon Gallup Colin Greenwood Kim Gordon Larry Graham Stuart Hamm Jimmy Haslip Steve Harris Marco Hietala Peter Hook Anthony Jackson James Jamerson Jerry Jemmott Darryl Jones John Paul Jones Mick Karn Carol Kaye Ian "Lemmy" Kilmister Mark King Abraham Laboriel Geddy Lee Ryan Martinie Paul McCartney Marcus Miller Monk Montgomery John Myung Jason Newsted Pino Palladino Jaco Pastorius John Patitucci Wayne Pedzwater Guy Pratt Pino Presti Chuck Rainey Mel Schacher Steven Severin Billy Sheehan Ben Shepherd Paul Simonon Chris Squire Sting Jeroen Paul Thesseling Robert Trujillo Sid Vicious Roger Waters Tina Weymouth Nicky Wire Justin Chancellor Christopher Wolstenholme Victor Wooten Bill Wyman Joseph Karnes For a long list, see the List of contemporary classical double bass players.
A shortlist of notable double bass players includes: Johannes Matthias Sperger bassist, composer Domenico Dragonetti bassist, conductor Giovanni Bottesini bassist, conductor Franz Simandl bassist, pedagogue Edouard Nanny bassist, pedagogue Serge Koussevitzky bassist, composer Gary Karr
National Football League
The National Football League is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided between the National Football Conference and the American Football Conference. The NFL is one of the four major professional sports leagues in North America, the highest professional level of American football in the world; the NFL's 17-week regular season runs from early September to late December, with each team playing 16 games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, six teams from each conference advance to the playoffs, a single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, held in the first Sunday in February, is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC; the NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. The NFL agreed to merge with the American Football League in 1966, the first Super Bowl was held at the end of that season. Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is among the biggest club sporting events in the world and individual Super Bowl games account for many of the most watched television programs in American history, all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U. S. television broadcasts by 2015. The NFL's executive officer is the commissioner; the players in the league belong to the National Football League Players Association. The team with the most NFL championships is the Green Bay Packers with thirteen; the current NFL champions are the New England Patriots, who defeated the Los Angeles Rams in Super Bowl LIII for their sixth Super Bowl championship. On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros, Canton Bulldogs, Cleveland Indians, Dayton Triangles at the Jordan and Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio; this meeting resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference, a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to "raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules".
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states-Akron, Canton and Dayton from Ohio. The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association; the league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, consisted of 14 teams. The Massillon Tigers from Massillon, Ohio was at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys and the Chicago Cardinals, remain. Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their 8–0–3 record; the first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–0 at Douglas Park. On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play occurred; the following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League. In 1932, the season ended with the Chicago Bears and the Portsmouth Spartans tied for first in the league standings. At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning percentage at the end of the season was declared the champion; this method had been used since the league's creation in 1920, but no situation had been encountered where two teams were tied for first. The league determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion; the teams were scheduled to play the playoff game a regular season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–0 and thus won the championship.
Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in 1933, to split into two divisions with a championship game to be played between the division champions. The 1934 season marked the first of 12 seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league; the de facto ban was rescinded in 1946, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban in Major League Baseball. The NFL was always the foremost pro
Me and Earl and the Dying Girl
Me and Earl and the Dying Girl is a 2012 debut novel written by Jesse Andrews. The novel was released in hardcover by Amulet Books on March 1, 2012, in paperback on May 7, 2013. Greg Gaines is a senior at Benson High School. A social loner, he navigates high school life by gaining everyone's acquaintance but staying clear of any particular clique, his only real friend is Earl Jackson. Greg and Earl, a fellow student from a poor and broken family, have been friends since childhood; the two spend most of their time making films together. Greg and Earl keep their filming ventures a secret from their peers, fearing ridicule for their mediocre projects. One day, Greg's mother tells him that his childhood friend, Rachel Kushner, is diagnosed with acute myelogenous leukemia. Greg's mother wants him to make her feel better. Although Greg had only befriended Rachel to try to get closer to her more attractive friend, Leah Katzenberg, he realizes that he cannot argue with his mother and calls her; this leads to an awkward conversation between the two.
Greg is ready to give up. Greg and Rachel start spending more time with each other. One day at school, Greg gets a text from Rachel saying that she would be starting chemotherapy the next day. Although he and Earl are accidentally on drugs at that moment, they make it to Rachel's, where Greg introduces her to Earl; the three go out for ice-cream, Earl invites Rachel to watch some of their films. Greg does not stop him. At school, Greg begins to fall back in his studies and soon comes close to failing all of his subjects, he is pressured by his parents to apply to a college, but Greg is unsure of which one to choose. He discusses it with Rachel. Meanwhile, word gets around Benson High that Rachel have become close. Madison Hartner, Greg's long-time crush, comes to hear of his films from Rachel and persuades him to make a movie for Rachel. Greg and Earl come up with different ideas, the end result, entitled Rachel the Film, is a mashup of everything they try out. To Greg's horror, the film is shown to the entire school during an assembly.
Upset by this, Greg scratches all the DVDs of his films. A few days after the screening, Rachel dies. Greg goes to Earl to talk about it and finds out that he too destroyed his copies of their movies, is done with film-making for good. Greg tells him. Earl is opposed to this. In the epilogue, Greg reveals that he wrote the book as an explanation to his prospective college, the University of Pittsburgh, about why he fell back on schoolwork during his last school year. After his conversation with Earl, he had decided to retire from film-making, but on writing down his experience, decides that he shouldn't, he realizes that he was always unhappy because he was trying to be someone he wasn't, but was content when he was just himself. He makes up his mind to apply to film school within the next six months; the book ends with him wondering. The book has 4/5 rating on the Barnes & Noble website. An adaptation based on the novel was filmed in Pittsburgh beginning June 2014, directed by Alfonso Gomez-Rejon, with an adapted screenplay by the author, starring Thomas Mann, Olivia Cooke, RJ Cyler, Connie Britton, Nick Offerman, Molly Shannon, Jon Bernthal.
The film premiered at the 2015 Sundance Film Festival, where it won both the Audience award and the Grand Jury Prize
State schools are primary or secondary schools mandated for or offered to all children without charge, funded in whole or in part by taxation. While such schools are to be found in every country, there are significant variations in their structure and educational programs. State education encompasses primary and secondary education, as well as post-secondary educational institutions such as universities and technical schools that are funded and overseen by government rather than by private entities; the position before there were government-funded schools varied: in many instances there was an established educational system which served a significant, albeit elite, sector of the population. The introduction of government-organised schools was in some cases able to build upon this established system, both systems have continued to exist, sometimes in a parallel and complementary relationship and other times less harmoniously. State education is inclusive, both in its treatment of students and in that enfranchisement for the government of public education is as broad as for government generally.
It is organised and operated to be a deliberate model of the civil community in which it functions. Although provided to groups of students in classrooms in a central school, it may be provided in-home, employing visiting teachers, and/or supervising teachers, it can be provided in non-school, non-home settings, such as shopping mall space. State education is available to all. In most countries, it is compulsory for children to attend school up to a certain age, but the option of attending private school is open to many. In the case of private schooling, schools operate independently of the state and defray their costs by charging parents tuition fees; the funding for state schools, on the other hand, is provided by tax revenues, so that individuals who do not attend school help to ensure that society is educated. In poverty stricken societies, authorities are lax on compulsory school attendance because child labour is exploited, it is these same children whose income-securing labour cannot be forfeited to allow for school attendance.
The term "public education" when applied to state schools is not synonymous with the term "publicly funded education". Government may make a public policy decision that it wants to have some financial resources distributed in support of, it may want to have some control over, the provision of private education. Grants-in-aid of private schools and vouchers systems provide examples of publicly funded private education. Conversely, a state school may rely on private funding such as high fees or private donations and still be considered state by virtue of governmental ownership and control. State primary and secondary education involves the following: compulsory student attendance. In some countries, private associations or churches can operate schools according to their own principles, as long as they comply with certain state requirements; when these specific requirements are met in the area of the school curriculum, the schools will qualify to receive state funding. They are treated financially and for accreditation purposes as part of the state education system though they make decisions about hiring and school policy, which the state might not make itself.
Government schools are free to attend for Australian citizens and permanent residents, whereas independent schools charge attendance fees. They can be divided into two categories: selective schools; the open schools accept all students from their government-defined catchment areas. Government schools educate 65% of Australian students, with 34% in Catholic and independent schools. Regardless of whether a school is part of the Government or independent systems, they are required to adhere to the same curriculum frameworks of their state or territory; the curriculum framework however provides for some flexibility in the syllabus, so that subjects such as religious education can be taught. Most school students wear uniforms. Public or Government funded; these schools teach students from Year 1 to 10, with examinations for students in years 5, 8, 10. All public schools follow the National Board Curriculum. Many children girls, drop out of school after completing the 5th Year in remote areas. In larger cities such as Dhaka, this is uncommon.
Many good public schools conduct an entrance exam, although most public schools in the villages and small towns do not. Public schools are the only option for parents and children in rural areas, but there are large numbers of private schools in Dhaka and Chittagong. Many Bangladeshi private schools teach their students in English and follow curricula from overseas, but in public schools lessons are taught in Bengali. Per the Canadian constitution, public-school education in Canada is a provincial responsibility and, as such, there are many variations among the provinces. Junior kindergarten exists as an official program in only Ontario and Quebec while kindergarten is available in every province, but provincial funding and the level of ho
In zoology, mammalogy is the study of mammals – a class of vertebrates with characteristics such as homeothermic metabolism, four-chambered hearts, complex nervous systems. Mammalogy has been known as "mastology," "theriology," and "therology." There are about 4,200 different species of mammals. The major branches of mammalogy include natural history and systematics, anatomy and physiology, ethology and management and control; the approximate salary of a mammalogist varies from $20,000 to $60,000 a year, depending on their experience. Mammalogists are involved in activities such as conducting research, managing personnel, writing proposals. Mammalogy branches off into other taxonomically-oriented disciplines such as primatology, cetology. Like other studies, mammalogy is a part of zoology, a part of biology; this is a list of scientific journals broadly serving mammalogists. In addition, many other more general zoology and evolution, or conservation journals deal with mammals, several journals are specific to only certain taxonomic groups of mammals.
List of mammalogists Mammal March Madness Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, South Africa The American Society of Mammalogists
In the law regulating historic districts in the United States, a contributing property or contributing resource is any building, object, or structure which adds to the historical integrity or architectural qualities that make the historic district, listed locally or federally, significant. Government agencies, at the state and local level in the United States, have differing definitions of what constitutes a contributing property but there are common characteristics. Local laws regulate the changes that can be made to contributing structures within designated historic districts; the first local ordinances dealing with the alteration of buildings within historic districts was in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931. Properties within a historic district fall into one of two types of property: contributing and non-contributing. A contributing property, such as a 19th-century mansion, helps make a historic district historic, while a non-contributing property, such as a modern medical clinic, does not.
The contributing properties are key to a historic district's historic associations, historic architectural qualities, or archaeological qualities. A property can change from contributing to non-contributing and vice versa if significant alterations take place. According to the National Park Service, the first instance of law dealing with contributing properties in local historic districts occurred in 1931 when the city of Charleston, South Carolina, enacted an ordinance that designated the "Old and Historic District." The ordinance declared that buildings in the district could not have changes made to their architectural features visible from the street. By the mid-1930s, other U. S. cities followed Charleston's lead. An amendment to the Louisiana Constitution led to the 1937 creation of the Vieux Carre Commission, charged with protecting and preserving the French Quarter in the city of New Orleans; the city passed a local ordinance that set standards regulating changes within the quarter. Other sources, such as the Columbia Law Review in 1963, indicate differing dates for the preservation ordinances in both Charleston and New Orleans.
The Columbia Law Review gave dates of 1925 for 1924 for Charleston. The same publication claimed that these two cities were the only cities with historic district zoning until Alexandria, Virginia adopted an ordinance in 1946; the National Park Service appears to refute this. In 1939, the city of San Antonio, enacted an ordinance that protected the area of La Villita, the city's original Mexican village marketplace. In 1941 the authority of local design controls on buildings within historic districts was being challenged in court. In City of New Orleans vs Pergament Louisiana state appellate courts ruled that the design and demolition controls were valid within defined historic districts. Beginning in the mid-1950s, controls that once applied to only historic districts were extended to individual landmark structures; the United States Congress adopted legislation that declared the Georgetown neighborhood in Washington, D. C. protected in 1950. By 1965, 51 American communities had adopted preservation ordinances.
By 1998, more than 2,300 U. S. towns and villages had enacted historic preservation ordinances. Contributing properties are defined through historic district or historic preservation zoning laws at the local level. Zoning ordinances pertaining to historic districts are designed to maintain a district's historic character by controlling demolition and alteration to existing properties. In historic preservation law, a contributing property is any building, object or site within the boundaries of the district that contributes to its historic associations, historic architectural qualities or archaeological qualities of a historic district, it can be any property, structure or object that adds to the historic integrity or architectural qualities that make the historic district, either local or federal, significant. Definitions vary. Another key aspect of a contributing property is historic integrity. Significant alterations to a property can sever its physical connections with the past, lowering its historic integrity.
Contributing properties are integral parts of the historic context and character of a historic district. A property listed as a contributing member of a historic district meets National Register criteria and qualifies for all benefits afforded a property or site listed individually on the National Register. A building within a historic district that contributes to the historic character of the district. See Building property type of NRHP listing. An object within a historic district that contributes to the historic character of the district. See Object property type of NRHP listing. A structure within a historic district that contributes to the historic character of the district. See Structure property type of NRHP listing. A site within a historic district that contributes to the historic character of the district. See Site property type of NRHP listing; the line between contributing and non-contributing can be fuzzy. In particular, American historic districts nominated to the National Register of Historic Places before 1980 have few records of the non-contributing structures.
State Historic Preservation Offices conduct surveys to determine the historical character of structures in historic districts. Districts nominated to the National Register of Historic Places after 1980 list those structures considered non-contributing; as a general rule, a contributing property helps make a historic district historic. A 19th-century Queen Anne mansion, such as the David Syme House, is a contributing property, while a modern gas station or medical clinic within th