In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, sleet, snow and hail. Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates", thus and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called "showers."Moisture, lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is active when freezing rain occurs. A stationary front is present near the area of freezing rain and serves as the foci for forcing and rising air.
Provided necessary and sufficient atmospheric moisture content, the moisture within the rising air will condense into clouds, namely stratus and cumulonimbus. The cloud droplets will grow large enough to form raindrops and descend toward the Earth where they will freeze on contact with exposed objects. Where warm water bodies are present, for example due to water evaporation from lakes, lake-effect snowfall becomes a concern downwind of the warm lakes within the cold cyclonic flow around the backside of extratropical cyclones. Lake-effect snowfall can be locally heavy. Thundersnow is possible within lake effect precipitation bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. Most precipitation is caused by convection; the movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes.
Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 cubic kilometres of water falls as precipitation each year. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres, but over land it is only 715 millimetres. Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes. Precipitation may occur on other celestial bodies, e.g. when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most takes the form of frost, rather than rain or snow. Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year, 398,000 km3 of it over the oceans. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres. Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall.
Convective processes involve strong vertical motions that can cause the overturning of the atmosphere in that location within an hour and cause heavy precipitation, while stratiform processes involve weaker upward motions and less intense precipitation. Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice. Mixtures of different types of precipitation, including types in different categories, can fall simultaneously. Liquid forms of precipitation include drizzle. Rain or drizzle that freezes on contact within a subfreezing air mass is called "freezing rain" or "freezing drizzle". Frozen forms of precipitation include snow, ice needles, ice pellets and graupel; the dew point is the temperature to which a parcel must be cooled in order to become saturated, condenses to water. Water vapor begins to condense on condensation nuclei such as dust and salt in order to form clouds. An elevated portion of a frontal zone forces broad areas of lift, which form clouds decks such as altostratus or cirrostratus.
Stratus is a stable cloud deck which tends to form when a cool, stable air mass is trapped underneath a warm air mass. It can form due to the lifting of advection fog during breezy conditions. There are four main mechanisms for cooling the air to its dew point: adiabatic cooling, conductive cooling, radiational cooling, evaporative cooling. Adiabatic cooling occurs when air expands; the air can rise due to convection, large-scale atmospheric motions, or a physical barrier such as a mountain. Conductive cooling occurs when the air comes into contact with a colder surface by being blown from one surface to another, for example from a liquid water surface to colder land. Radiational cooling occurs due to the emission of infrared radiation, either by the air or by the surface underneath. Evaporative cooling occurs when moisture is added to the air through evaporation, which forces the air temperature to cool to its wet-bulb temperature, or until it reaches saturation; the main ways water vapor is added to the air are: wind convergence into areas of upward motion, precipitation or virga falling from above, daytime heating evaporating water from the surface of oceans, water bodies or wet lan
Flensburg is an independent town in the north of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. Flensburg is the centre of the region of Southern Schleswig. After Kiel and Lübeck, it is the third largest town in Schleswig-Holstein. In May 1945, Flensburg was the seat of the last government of Nazi Germany, the so-called Flensburg government led by Karl Dönitz, in power from 1 May, the announcement of Hitler's death, for one week, until German armies surrendered and the town was occupied by Allied troops; the regime was dissolved on 23 May. The nearest larger towns are Odense in Denmark. Flensburg's city centre lies about 7 km from the Danish border. In Germany, Flensburg is known for the Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt with its Verkehrssünderkartei its beer Flensburger Pilsener called "Flens" the centre of the Danish national minority in Germany the greeting Moin Moin the large erotic mail-order companies Beate Uhse and Orion its handball team SG Flensburg-Handewitt the Naval Academy at Mürwik with its sail training ship Gorch Fock Flensburg is situated in the north of the German state Schleswig-Holstein, on the German-Danish border.
After Westerland on the island of Sylt it is Germany's northernmost town. Flensburg lies at the innermost tip of the Flensburg Firth, an inlet of the Baltic Sea. Flensburg's eastern shore is part of the Angeln peninsula. Clockwise from the northeast, beginning at the German shore of the Flensburg Firth, the following communities in Schleswig-Flensburg district and Denmark's Southern Denmark Region all border on Flensburg: Glücksburg, Maasbüll, Hürup and Freienwill, Jarplund-Weding, Handewitt and Aabenraa Municipality on the Danish shore of the Flensburg Firth; the town of Flensburg is divided into 13 communities, which themselves are further divided into 38 statistical areas. Constituent communities have the statistical areas a three-digit number; the communities with their statistical areas: Flensburg was founded at the latest by 1200 at the innermost end of the Flensburg Firth by Danish settlers, who were soon joined by German merchants. In 1284, its town rights were confirmed and the town rose to become one of the most important in the Duchy of Schleswig.
Unlike Holstein, Schleswig did not belong to the German Holy Roman Empire. Therefore, Flensburg was not a member of the Hanseatic League, but it did maintain contacts with this important trading network. Historians presume that there were several reasons for choosing this spot for settlement: Shelter from heavy winds Trade route between Holstein and North Jutland The Angelnway: Trade route between North Frisia and Angeln A good herring fisheryHerrings kippered, were what brought about the blossoming of the town's trade in the Middle Ages, they were sent inland and to every European country. On 28 October 1412, Queen Margaret I of Denmark died of the Plague aboard a ship in Flensburg Harbour. From time to time plagues such as bubonic plague, caused by rat fleas, "red" dysentery and other scourges killed a great deal of Flensburg's population. Lepers were isolated, namely at the St.-Jürgen-Hospital, which lay far outside the town's gates, where the St. Jürgen Church is nowadays. About 1500, syphilis appeared.
The church hospital "Zum Heiligen Geist" stood in Große Straße, now Flensburg's pedestrian precinct. A Flensburger's everyday life was hard, the old roads and paths were bad; the main streets lit at night. When the streets became bad, the citizens had to make the dung-filled streets passable with wooden pathways. Only the few upper-class houses had windows. In 1485, a great fire struck Flensburg. Storm tides beset the town occasionally; every household in the town kept livestock in the yard. Townsfolk furthermore had a swineherd. After the fall of the Hanseatic League in the 16th century, Flensburg was said to be one of the most important trading towns in the Scandinavian area. Flensburg merchants were active as far away as the Mediterranean and the Caribbean; the most important commodities, after herring, were sugar and whale oil, the latter from whaling off Greenland. However, the Thirty Years' War put an end to this boom time; the town was becoming Protestant and thereby more German culturally and linguistically, while the neighbouring countryside remained decidedly Danish.
In the 18th century, thanks to the rum trade, Flensburg had yet another boom. Cane sugar was refined in Flensburg. Only in the 19th century, as a result of industrialization, was the town at last outstripped by the competition from cities such as Copenhagen and Hamburg; the rum blended in Flensburg became a secondary industry in West Indian trade, as of 1864 no longer with the Danish West Indies, but with Jamaica ruled by the British. It was imported from there and sold all over Europe. There is nowadays only one active rum distillery in Flensburg, "A. H. Johannsen". Between 1460 and 1864, Flensburg was, after Copenhagen, the second biggest port in the Kingdom of Denmark, but it passed to the Kingdom of Prussia after the
Bundesstraße, abbreviated B, is the denotation for German and Austrian national highways. Germany's Bundesstraßen network has a total length of about 40,000 km. German Bundesstraßen are labelled with rectangular yellow signs with black numerals, as opposed to the white-on-blue markers of the Autobahn controlled-access highways. Bundesstraßen, like autobahns, are maintained by the federal agency of the Transport Ministry. In the German highway system they rank below autobahns, but above the Landesstraßen and Kreisstraßen maintained by the federal states and the districts respectively; the numbering was implemented by law in 1932 and has overall been retained up to today, except for those roads located in the former eastern territories of Germany. One distinguishing characteristic between German Bundesstraßen and Autobahnen is that there is a general 100 km/h speed limit on federal highways out of built-up areas, as opposed to the advisory speed limit of 130 km/h in unmarked sections of the autobahns.
However, a number of Bundesstraßen have been extended as expressways. Many of these have speed limits of 100–120 km/h, others have only an advisory speed limit like autobahns. Most sections of the federal highways are only single carriageway with one lane for each direction and no hard shoulder pull-out area; the closest equivalent in the United States would be the U. S. highway system. In contrast to Germany, according to a 2002 amendment of the Austrian federal road act, Bundesstraßen is the official term referring only to autobahns and limited-access roads; the administration of all other former federal highways has passed to the federal states. Therefore classified as Landesstraßen, they are still colloquially called Bundesstraßen and have retained their "B" designation, followed by the number and a name, they are per se priority roads. Before 2002 there has been a further category of Bundesstraßen with circular yellow sign and black number that shows that this road has no fixed priority. A few yellow signs lived longer than 2002.
List of federal highways in Germany Media related to Bundesstraßen at Wikimedia Commons
Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate known as a number plate or a license plate, is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. All countries require registration plates for road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles. Whether they are required for other vehicles, such as bicycles, boats, or tractors, may vary by jurisdiction; the registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the vehicle owner within the issuing region's vehicle register. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. There are electronic license plates. Most governments require a registration plate to be attached to both the front and rear of a vehicle, although certain jurisdictions or vehicle types, such as motorboats, require only one plate, attached to the rear of the vehicle.
National databases relate this number to other information describing the vehicle, such as the make, colour, year of manufacture, engine size, type of fuel used, mileage recorded, vehicle identification number, the name and address of the vehicle's registered owner or keeper. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Either a government agency or a private company with express contractual authorization from the government makes plates as needed, which are mailed to, delivered to, or picked up by the vehicle owners. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates, because such unauthorized private manufacturing is equivalent to forging an official document. Alternatively, the government will assign plate numbers, it is the vehicle owner's responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be permanently assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime.
If the vehicle is either destroyed or exported to a different country, the plate number is retired or reissued. China requires the re-registration of any vehicle that crosses its borders from another country, such as for overland tourist visits, regardless of the length of time it is due to remain there. Other jurisdictions follow a "plate-to-owner" policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyer's name and plate number. A person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the local laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them, or may be permitted to keep them; some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with "personal" plates. In some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, may have to pay a fee to exercise this option. Alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration, periodic safety and/or emissions inspections or vehicle taxation. Other jurisdictions have replaced the decal requirement through the use of computerization: a central database maintains records of which plate numbers are associated with expired registrations, communicating with automated number plate readers to enable law-enforcement to identify expired registrations in the field. Plates are fixed directly to a vehicle or to a plate frame, fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the vehicle service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames. In some jurisdictions registration plate frames have design restrictions.
For example, many states, like Texas, allow plate frames but prohibit plate frames from covering the name of the state, district, Native American tribe or country that issued of license plate. Plates are designed to conform to standards with regard to being read by eye in day or at night, or by electronic equipment; some drivers purchase clear, smoke-colored or tinted covers that go over the registration plate to prevent electronic equipment from scanning the registration plate. Legality of these covers varies; some cameras incorporate filter systems that make such avoidance attempts unworkable with infra-red filters. Vehicles pulling trailers, such as caravans and semi-trailer trucks, are required to display a third registration plate on the rear of the trailer. An engineering study by the University of Illinois published in 1960 recommended that the state of Illinois adopt a numbering system and plate design "composed of combinations of characters which can be perceived and are legible at a distance of 125 feet under daylight conditions, are adapted to filing and administrative procedures".
It recommended that a standard plate size of 6 inches by 14 inches be adopte
Bundesautobahn 7 is the longest German Autobahn and the longest national motorway in Europe at 963 km. It bisects the country evenly between east and west. In the north, it starts at the border with Denmark as an extension of the Danish part of E45. In the south, the autobahn ends at the Austrian border; this final gap was closed in September 2009. The Bundesautobahn 7 starts at Flensburg and travels through the two states at Schleswig and Rendsburg, through the world's busiest artificial waterway crossing the Radar high bridge. At Rendsburg you can change to a feeder to the Schleswig-Holstein capital, Kiel. A few kilometers further south there is another feeder route to Kiel, the A 215, into the A 7 at the interchange Bordesholm. However, this can only be reached from the south from the A 215 you can only reach the A 7 in the south. South of Bordesholm, the highway has been continuously expanded to six lanes since 2014 due to the high traffic volume to Hamburg. Since 2016 and 2017, several sections have six lanes.
Here, the motorway leads past the cities of Neumünster, Bad Bramstedt and Norderstedt, before the hamlet of Schnelsen reaches Hamburg's urban area, Hamburg Airport. From the intersection Hamburg-Nordwest, where the A23 branches off towards Heide, the A7 is six lanes, but is being expanded to eight lanes; the section through the Hamburg city is characterized by an immense volume of traffic, congestion is the order of the day here. There are several reasons for this: the motorway runs through inner-city areas, there is a lot of holiday traffic on the route during school holidays, there are no opportunities for bypassing, the speed is permanently limited to 80 km / h as an urban area and the section is extended, South of the equipped with four tubes to two lanes Elbe tunnel leads the A 7 on the highway Elbmarsch, the longest road bridge in Germany, right through the harbor area and the Harburg mountains to Lower Saxony. Via the corner junction A 261 you get to the A 1 to Bremen, at the following Maschener Kreuz on the A 39 to Lüneburg.
Going through the Hannover from Hamburg, the highway has six lanes, it was downgraded to the four-lane section between Soltau and Walsrode the hard shoulder can be temporarily released as a third lane. It leads across the Lüneburg Heath with separate directional lanes. At the triangle Walsrode you reach the A 27 to Bremen and a few kilometers to the south, before reaching the capital of Lower Saxony, at the junction Hannover-Nord on the A 352, which connects the airport Hannover and ends at the A 2, which leads to Dortmund; the following motorway junctions of the A 7 provide a connection to the A37 Hanover city center and to Celle or A 2 Ruhrgebiet-Berlin dar. By the Altwarmbüchener Moor the highway leads east to Hanover. South of Hildesheim, the landscape becomes hilly; the Salzgitter triangle connects only the southern part of the A7 with the A 39 to Braunschweig and Salzgitter. Between the triangle Salzgitter and Göttingen the highway is expanded six-lane. Passing the university town, the A 38 branches off at Dreieck Drammetal to Leipzig.
The A 7 leads over steep gradients and slopes into the Werratal near Hann. Münden and you are in Hesse. At Kassel, it is the largest district, from there you can get on the A44 in the direction of the west to the Ruhr area and in some years, when the extension Kassel-Herleshausen will be completed in the direction of Eisenach. Between the interchange Kassel-Ost and the interchange Kassel-Süd, the A7 is being developed eight-lane for a future convergence with the branching off to the east A44. In Kassel, the unfinished A 49 branches off, which will lead from completed completion to the Ohmtal triangle, to be built near Homberg between the junctions Alsfeld-West and Homberg on the A5. Between Kassel and Kirchheim the Knüllgebirge is crossed; the Kirchheim triangle and the Hattenbacher triangle, which are close to each other and quite close to the geographic center of Germany, together form one of the most important motorway junctions of the state. The A 4 leads to the New Länder and Eastern Europe, the A 5 to the Rhine-Main area and on to the border of Switzerland.
South of the Hattenbacher triangle is the A 7 sections four-lane expanded, leads past Fulda, where the A 66 branches off to Hanau and reaches Bavarian territory. Crossing the Rhön, pass Schweinfurt and Würzburg to the Biebelried intersection, where the A 3 Ruhrgebiet-Frankfurt am Main-Nürnberg-Passau is crossed. Here was the southern end of the A 7 for a long time; the completion of the south in the 1980s leads past Rothenburg ob der Tauber on the western edge of the Frankenhöhe to the freeway junction Feuchtwangen / Crailsheim and Baden-Württemberg area over the Ostalb, for the crossing two tunnels had to be built, via Aalen to Ulm. At the motorway junction Ulm / Elchingen, the A8 is crossed. South of Ulm it goes through the Illertal parallel to the river back to Bavaria, via Memmingen and Kempten, over the 2009 completed section through the Reinertshoftunnel to the edge of the foot of the Alps. There, the lane flows into the border tunnel Füssen to Austria; the highway replaced as a trunk connection the imperial or federal roads 76, 77, 205 and 4, 3 and 27 (Götti
Hedeby was an important Danish Viking Age trading settlement near the southern end of the Jutland Peninsula, now in the Schleswig-Flensburg district of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is the most important archaeological site in Schleswig-Holstein; the settlement developed as a trading centre at the head of a narrow, navigable inlet known as the Schlei, which connects to the Baltic Sea. The location was favorable because there is a short portage of less than 15 km to the Treene River, which flows into the Eider with its North Sea estuary, making it a convenient place where goods and ships could be pulled on a corduroy road overland for an uninterrupted seaway between the Baltic and the North Sea and avoid a dangerous and time-consuming circumnavigation of Jutland, providing Hedeby with a role similar to Lübeck. Hedeby was the second largest Nordic town during the Viking Age, after Uppåkra in present-day southern Sweden, The city of Schleswig was founded on the other side of the Schlei. Hedeby was abandoned after its destruction in 1066.
Hedeby was rediscovered in the late 19th century and excavations began in 1900. The Haithabu Museum was opened next to the site in 1985; the Old Norse name Heiða-býr translates to "heath-settlement". The name is recorded in numerous spelling variants. Heiðabýr is the reconstructed name in standard Old Norse anglicized as Heithabyr; the Stone of Eric, a 10th-century Danish runestone with an inscription mentioning ᚼᛅᛁᚦᛅ᛭ᛒᚢ, found in 1796. Old English æt Hæðum, from Ohthere's account of his travels to Alfred the Great in the Old English Orosius. Hedeby, the modern Danish spelling most used in English. Haddeby is the Low German form the name of the administrative district formed in 1949 and named for the site. Haithabu is the modern German spelling used. Sources from the 9th and 10th century AD attest to the names Sliesthorp and Sliaswich, the town of Schleswig still exists 3 km north of Hedeby. However, Æthelweard claimed in his Latin translation of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle that the Saxons used Slesuuic and the Danes Haithaby to refer to the same town.
Hedeby is first mentioned in the Frankish chronicles of Einhard, in the service of Charlemagne, but was founded around 770. In 808 the Danish king Godfred destroyed a competing Slav trade centre named Reric, it is recorded in the Frankish chronicles that he moved the merchants from there to Hedeby; this may have provided the initial impetus for the town to develop. The same sources record that Godfred strengthened the Danevirke, an earthen wall that stretched across the south of the Jutland peninsula; the Danevirke joined the defensive walls of Hedeby to form an east-west barrier across the peninsula, from the marshes in the west to the Schlei inlet leading into the Baltic in the east. The town itself was surrounded on its three landward sides by earthworks. At the end of the 9th century the northern and southern parts of the town were abandoned for the central section. A 9-metre high semi-circular wall was erected to guard the western approaches to the town. On the eastern side, the town was bordered by the innermost part of the Schlei inlet and the bay of Haddebyer Noor.
Hedeby became a principal marketplace because of its geographical location on the major trade routes between the Frankish Empire and Scandinavia, between the Baltic and the North Sea. Between 800 and 1000 the growing economic power of the Vikings led to its dramatic expansion as a major trading centre; the following indicate the importance achieved by the town: The town was described by visitors from England and the Mediterranean. Hedeby belonged to the Archbishopric of Hamburg and Bremen; the town minted its own coins. Adam of Bremen reports that ships were sent from this portus maritimus to Slavic lands, to Sweden and Greece. A Swedish dynasty founded by Olof the Brash is said to have ruled Hedeby during the last decades of the 9th century and the first part of the 10th century; this was told to Adam of Bremen by the Danish king Sweyn Estridsson, it is supported by three runestones found in Denmark. Two of them were raised by the mother of Olof's grandson Sigtrygg Gnupasson; the third runestone, discovered in 1796, is from the Stone of Eric.
It is inscribed with Norwegian-Swedish runes. It is, possible that Danes occasionally wrote with this version of the younger futhark. Life was crowded in Hedeby; the small houses were clustered together in a grid, with the east-west streets leading down to jetties in the harbour. People lived beyond 30 or 40, archaeological research shows that their years were painful due to crippling diseases such as tuberculosis, yet make-up for men and rights for women provide surprises to the modern understanding. Al-Tartushi, a late 10th-century traveller from al-Andalus, provides one of the most colourful and quoted descriptions of life in Hedeby. Al-Tartushi was from Cordoba in Spain, which had a significan