The Limmat Valley is a river valley and a region in the cantons of Zürich and Aargau in Switzerland. The Limmat is a 35 km long river located in the cantons of Aargau, it is the continuation of the Linth, is known as the Limmat from the point of effluence from Lake Zürich, in the city of Zürich, flowing in northwesterly direction to the Aare. The confluence is located northeast of the small town of Brugg, shortly after the mouth of the Reuss, shortly before the Aare joins the Rhine; the confluence of the three rivers Aare and Limmat is known as Wasserschloss. In 1930 the government of the canton of Zurich set the remains of the original Limmat riverside meadows and floodplains near Dietikon under conservation, as well in 2005 the floodplains near Wettingen accommodating more than 150 plant species and rare species as common kingfisher, little ringed plover and grass snake; the economical Region Limmatal comprises, among other communities in the districts of Dietikon and Baden, the cities and municipalities of Zürich, Unterengstringen, Weiningen, Dietikon, Geroldswil, Spreitenbach, Würenlos, Neuenhof, Baden, Obersiggenthal and Turgi.
The Limmattal is populated thanks to the good location factor, nearby the city of Zürich, among them excellent infrastructure, growing economics and attractive residential area besides the Limmat valley. Standortförderung Limmattal is a society to enhance networking of the region and to realize common projects by the communities in the region Limmatal; the term "Limmattal" is used for many organizations, such as the Regional Hospital Limmattal in Urdorf, the classification yard RBL provided by the SBB CFF FFS, the Limmattal's regional newspaper and the regional gymnasium. The Limmattal has excellent transport links: S-Bahn Zürich is a modern rapid-transit system on the lines S3, S9, S12 and S17, in addition to the services of the Swiss Federal Railways, around the city of Zürich provided by Verkehrsbetriebe Zürich, the public transport operator in the city of Zurich and its suburbs. Near realization is an additional tramway called Limmattalbahn, between Zürich-Farbhof and Killwangen-Spreitenbach, as continuation of the Zürich tram line 2 and of the Bremgarten-Dietikon-Bahn.
Bruno Weber Park Fahr Monastery Limmatauen Limmatspitz and Wasserschloss confluences of Limmat and Aare Media related to Limmattal at Wikimedia Commons Limmat in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
Dietikon is the fifth biggest city of the canton of Zürich in Switzerland, after Zürich, Uster and Dübendorf. It is the capital of part of the Zürich metropolitan area; the industrial city Dietikon is situated at an elevation of 388 m at the confluence of the Reppisch and the Limmat, located in the Limmat Valley, along the railway line from Zürich to Baden. Here and in the neighboring region, Spreitenbach, is the large Limmattal rail freight marshalling yard. Dietikon has an area of 9.3 square kilometers. Of this area, 17.2 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 49.1% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. In 1996 housing and buildings made up 33.8% of the total area, while transportation infrastructure made up the rest. Of the total unproductive area, water made up 4.9% of the area. As of 2007 40.7% of the total municipal area was undergoing some type of construction. The largest and best known forests of the municipality include the Honeret, Guggenbüehl and Röhrenmoos.
The Honeret forest lies on a side moraine of the Linth glacier. There are over 200 prominent stones through the woods, up to erratic boulders as big as 25 m2; the Honeret and the Guggenbüehl-Wald are separated by only one main street. In the forest, there are a few springs from which the brooks Tobelbach and Stoffelbach rise and flow down into the Reppisch. In the forest lies the forest cottage "Lorenzhütte." The Guggenbüehl forest lies wholly within Dietikon. Within the forest lies the "Giigelibode" pond, it has neither outflow. A Vita course is in the forest; the municipality is located on the A3 motorway. Dietikon railway station and Glanzenberg railway station are stops of the S-Bahn Zürich on the lines S3 and S12. Dietikon railway station is the terminus of the line S17 provided by the Bremgarten-Dietikon-Bahn. Between 1900 and 1928, Dietikon was the terminus of the Limmattal tramway from Zürich. The, now under construction, Limmattal light rail line will follow a similar alignment, albeit extended through Dietikon to Killwangen.
Important running waters that flow through Dietikon are its tributary Reppisch. Wide brooks are the 3 km long Schäflibach and the Teischlibach; the Schäflibach is created with the flows together from Allmendbach and Stockacherbach and leads into the Limmat. The Teischlibach originates from Röhrenmoos in the forest above Dietikon and leads into the Limmat; the Marmoriweiher lies in the Grunschen a place used for grilling. The Marmoriweiher is an artificial pond, positioned for the water supply of the fire brigade. For this, a distraction canal was built with the Grunschen; the pond of a marble factory served. This gave it its name. Dietikon is first mentioned in 1100 as Dietinchovin. In Dietikon there are several Roman ruins and the Fahr Benedictine Convent, given by the House of Regensberg around 1130 AD, with a cloister church dating from the years 1743 to 1746; the Second Battle of Zürich was fought in Dietikon and the town name is now inscribed at the pillar of the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, France.
City president is Roger Bachmann. Dietikon has a population of 27,079; as of 2007, 39.8% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. As of 2008 the gender distribution of the population was 50 % female. Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 10.5%. Most of the population speaks German, with Italian being second most common and Albanian being third. In the 2007 election the most popular party was the SVP; the next three most popular parties were the SPS, the CVP and the FDP. The age distribution of the population is children and teenagers make up 21.3% of the population, while adults make up 64.7% and seniors make up 14%. In Dietikon about 60.1% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. There are 9,892 households in Dietikon. Dietikon has an unemployment rate of 4.2%. As of 2005, there were 179 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 13 businesses involved in this sector. 2,613 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 213 businesses in this sector.
10,632 people are employed with 957 businesses in this sector. As of 2007 60.6% of the working population were employed full-time, 39.4% were employed part-time. As of 2008 there were 4,599 Protestants in Dietikon. In the 2000 census, religion was broken down into several smaller categories. From the 2000 census, 26.5% were some type of Protestant, with 24.6% belonging to the Swiss Reformed Church and 1.9% belonging to other Protestant churches. 41.8% of the population were Catholic. Of the rest of the population, 12.2% were Muslim, 16.1% belonged to another religion, 4.6% did not give a religion, 9.4% were atheist or agnostic. The historical population is given in the following table: Among other companies, the Limmattaler Zeitung newspaper and Ex Libris are situated in Dietikon. Dietikon has an average of 132.2 days of rain per year and on average receives 1,078 mm of precipitation. The wettest month is August during which time Dietikon receives an average of 114 mm of precipitation. During the wettest month, there is precipitation for an average of 12.7 days.
There's the Bruno Web
The Limmattal tramway was a metre gauge electric tramway that operated in the Limmat Valley, situated in the Swiss canton of Zürich to the west of the city of Zürich. Because of the prominent display of the initials LSB on the line's distinctive yellow trams, the line was popularly known as the Lisebethli; the line opened in 1900 as an 8.8-kilometre long interurban line from the former Zürich city boundary at Letzigraben, via Altstetten and Schlieren to Dietikon. A 3.2-kilometre long branch from Schlieren to Weiningen followed in 1901. A connection with Zürich's city trams operated by the Städtische Strassenbahn Zürich or StStZ, was made at Letzigraben. In its early life the line was beset by problems with its level crossings over the Swiss Northeastern Railway at Farbhof and Schlieren, which the trams were only permitted to cross empty, leaving their passengers to walk. By the late 1920s the track was in poor condition, although by the level crossings had been replaced by bridges; the line between Schlieren and Dietikon closed in 1928, whilst that Schlieren and Weiningen closed in 1931, at the same time as the rest of the line from Letzigraben to Schlieren were acquired by the StStZ.
In 1950, the StStZ was renamed the Verkehrsbetriebe Zürich or VBZ. The section of route between Farbhof and Schlieren was closed in 1955, being replaced by a westward extension of Zürich trolleybus route 31; the remaining section, between Letzigraben and Farbhof, is still in use, having been integrated into the Zürich city tram network as part of Zürich tram route 2. One of the line's trams, numbered Ce 2/2 2 and dating from 1900, is preserved at the Zürich tram museum, it is painted in the line's yellow livery. It is seen with a small postal trailer, used to carry mail on the line. A new light rail line is now under construction, linking Zürich Altstetten railway station to Killwangen and using a similar alignment to the Limmattal tramway's former route between Farbhof and Dietikon; as part of this development, Zürich tram route 2 will be re-extended over the new line between Farbhof and Schlieren, replacing the trolleybus route. Media related to Limmattal tramway at Wikimedia Commons
Baden is a historical territory in South Germany, situated along right bank of the Upper Rhine. The margraves of Baden originated from the house of Zähringen. Baden is named after Hohenbaden Castle in Baden-Baden. Hermann II of Baden first claimed the title of Margrave of Baden in 1112. A united Margraviate of Baden existed from this time until 1535, when it was split into the two Margraviates of Baden-Durlach and Baden-Baden. Following a devastating fire in Baden-Baden in 1689, the capital was moved to Karlsruhe; the two parts were reunited in 1771 under Margrave Charles Frederick. The restored Margraviate of Baden was elevated to the status of electorate in 1803. In 1806, the Electorate of Baden, receiving territorial additions, became the Grand Duchy of Baden; the Grand Duchy of Baden was a state within the German Empire until 1918, succeeded by the Republic of Baden within the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany. During 1945–1952, South Baden and Württemberg-Baden were territories under French and American occupation, respectively.
They were united with Württemberg-Hohenzollern to form the modern Federal State of Baden-Württemberg in 1952. History of Baden-Württemberg List of states in the Holy Roman Empire Baden in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
S12 and S11 (ZVV)
The S12 and S11 are regional railway lines of the S-Bahn Zürich on the Zürcher Verkehrsverbund, Zürich transportation network. The S12 is one of the network's lines connecting the cantons of Zürich and Aargau, whilst the S11 connects the cantons of Zurich, Thurgau and St. Gallen. S 12 Brugg – Zürich HB – Winterthur – Seuzach / Winterthur-Seen Operates non stop between Stettbach and Winterthur. S 11 Zürich Hardbrücke – Zürich HB – Winterthur – Schaffhausen / Romanshorn / Wil SG Supplementary express trains. Line S12 commences at Brugg station, in the canton of Aargau, follows the Zürich–Baden railway as far as Zürich Hardbrücke station and the approaches to Zürich Hauptbahnhof station. Passing through the lower level platforms at this station, the line passes through the Hirschengraben and Zürichberg tunnels, Stettbach station, before joining the Zürich to Winterthur line; the S12 follows this line as far as Winterthur Hauptbahnhof station, running non-stop between Stettbach and Winterthur. At Winterthur, alternate trains take different routes, running either over the Tösstalbahn as far as Winterthur Seen station, or over the Winterthur to Etzwilen line as far as Seuzach station.
In the outbound direction, the S11 commences at Zürich Hardbrücke station and follows the same route as the S12 to Winterthur Hauptbahnhof station, from where it continues to either Schaffhausen, Romanshorn or Wil. In the inbound direction, the line commences in Schaffhausen or Winterthur and terminates at Altstetten, one stop after Hardbrücke. Trains on the S12 run every 30 minutes, with a journey time of around 70 to 75 minutes; the alternation of trains to Seuzach and Winterthur Seen provides an hourly service to each terminus. Trains on the S11 provide an additional half-hourly service during peak-periods only, with trains running from Schaffhausen/Winterthur in the morning peak, to Schaffhausen/Romanshorn/Wil in the evening peak; the following stations are served by the S12 and S11. Brugg Turgi Baden Wettingen Neuenhof Killwangen-Spreitenbach Dietikon Glanzenberg Schlieren Zürich Altstetten Zürich Altstetten Zürich Hardbrücke Zürich Hauptbahnhof Zürich Stadelhofen Stettbach Winterthur Hauptbahnhof Oberwinterthur Winterthur Wallrüti Reutlingen Seuzach Winterthur Grüze Winterthur Seen Marthalen Neuhausen Schaffhausen Frauenfeld Weinfelden Sulgen Amriswil Romanshorn Elgg Aadorf Eschlikon Wil S12 services are operated by RABe 511 units, except for weekday services to Seuzach which are run by Re 450 class locomotives pushing or pulling double-deck passenger carriages.
S11 trains are operated by Re 420 class locomotives pushing or pulling double-deck passenger carriages Rail transport in Switzerland Trams in Zürich Media related to S-Bahn Zürich at Wikimedia Commons ZVV official website: Routes & zones
A hand axe is a prehistoric stone tool with two faces, the longest-used tool in human history. It is made from flint or chert, it is characteristic of middle Palaeolithic periods. Its technical name comes from the fact that the archetypical model is bifacial Lithic flake and almond-shaped. Hand axes tend to be symmetrical along their longitudinal axis and formed by percussion; the most common hand axes have a pointed end and rounded base, which gives them their characteristic shape, both faces have been knapped to remove the natural cortex, at least partially. Hand axes are a type of the somewhat wider biface group of two-faced weapons. Hand axes were the first prehistoric tools to be recognized as such: the first published representation of a hand axe was drawn by John Frere and appeared in a British publication in 1800; until that time, their origins were thought to be supernatural. They were called thunderstones, because popular tradition held that they had fallen from the sky during storms or were formed inside the earth by a lightning strike and appeared at the surface.
They are used in some rural areas as an amulet to protect against storms. Hand axe tools were used to butcher animals. Four classes of hand axe are: 1: Large, thick hand axes reduced from cores or thick flakes, referred to as blanks 2: Thinned blanks. While form remains rough and uncertain, an effort has been made to reduce the thickness of the flake or core 3: Either a preform or crude formalized tool, such as an adze 4: Finer formalized tool types such as projectile points and fine bifacesWhile Class 4 hand axes are referred to as "formalized tools", bifaces from any stage of a lithic reduction sequence may be used as tools.. French antiquarian André Vayson de Pradenne introduced the word biface in 1920; this term co-exists with the more popular hand axe, coined by Louis Laurent Gabriel de Mortillet much earlier, The continued use of the word biface by François Bordes and Lionel Balout supported its use in France and Spain, where it replaced the term hand axe. Use of the expression hand axe has continued in English as the equivalent of the French biface, while biface applies more for any piece, carved on both sides by the removal of shallow or deep flakes.
The expression faustkeil is used in German. It can be translated as hand axe, although in a stricter sense it means "fist wedge", it is the same in Dutch where the expression used is vuistbijl which means "fist axe". The same locution occurs in other languages. However, the general impression of these tools were based on ideal pieces that were of such perfect shape that they caught the attention of non-experts, their typology broadened the term's meaning. Biface hand axe and bifacial lithic items are distinguished. A hand axe need not be a bifacial item and many bifacial items are not hand axes. Nor were hand axes and bifacial items exclusive to the Lower Palaeolithic period in the Old World, they appear throughout the world and in many different pre-historical epochs, without implying an ancient origin. Lithic typology was abandoned as a dating system. Examples of this include the "quasi-bifaces" that sometimes appear in strata from the Gravettian and Magdalenian periods in France and Spain, the crude bifacial pieces of the Lupemban culture or the pyriform tools found near Sagua La Grande in Cuba.
The word biface refers to something different in English than biface in French or bifaz in Spanish, which could lead to many misunderstandings. Bifacially carved cutting tools, similar to hand axes, were used to clear scrub vegetation throughout the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods; these tools were a cheaper alternative to polished axes. The modern day villages along the Sepik river in New Guinea continue to use tools that are identical to hand axes to clear forest. "The term biface should be reserved for items from before the Würm II-III interstadial", although certain objects could exceptionally be called bifaces. Hand axe does not relate to axe, overused in lithic typology to describe a wide variety of stone tools. At the time the use of such items was not understood. In the particular case of Palaeolithic hand axes the term axe is an inadequate description. Lionel Balout stated, "the term should be rejected as an erroneous interpretation of these objects that are not'axes'". Subsequent studies supported this idea those examining the signs of use.
Hand axes are made of flint, but rhyolites, phonolites and other coarse rocks were used as well. Obsidian, natural volcanic glass and was used. Most hand axes have a sharp border all around, No academic consensus describes their use; the pioneers of Palaeolithic tool studies first suggested that bifaces were used as axes or at least for use in demanding physical activities. Other uses showed; the different forms and shapes of known specimens led them to be described as the Acheulean "Swiss Army knife". Each type of tool could have been used for multiple tasks. Wells proposed in 1899 that hand axes were used as missile weapons to hunt prey – an interpretation supported by Calvin, who suggested that some of the rounder specimens of Acheulean hand axes were used as hunting projectiles or as "killer frisbees" meant to be thrown at a herd of animals at a w
Education in Switzerland
The education system in Switzerland is diverse, because the constitution of Switzerland delegates the authority for the school system to the cantons. The Swiss constitution sets the foundations, namely that primary school is obligatory for every child and is free in public schools and that the confederation can run or support universities; the minimum age for primary school is about six years in all cantons but Obwalden, where it is five years and three months. After primary schools, the pupils split up according to their abilities and intentions of career paths. 25% of all students attend lower and upper secondary schools leading after 12 school years in total to the federal recognized matura or an academic Baccalaureate which grants access to all universities. The other students split in two or more school-types, depending on the canton, differing in the balance between theoretical and practical education, it is obligatory for all children to attend school for at least 9 years. The first university in Switzerland was founded in 1460 with a faculty of medicine.
This place has a long tradition of chemical and medical research in Switzerland. In total, there are 12 Universities in Switzerland. In addition, there are seven regional associations of Universities for Applied Sciences which require vocational education and a special Berufsmatura, or a Fachmatura to study. Switzerland has a high rate of foreign students in tertiary education including one of the highest in the world of doctoral level students. Many Nobel prizes have been awarded to Swiss scientists. More Vladimir Prelog, Heinrich Rohrer, Richard Ernst, Edmond Fischer, Rolf Zinkernagel and Kurt Wüthrich have received nobel prizes in the sciences. In total, 113 Nobel Prize winners stand in relation to Switzerland and the Nobel Peace Prize has been awarded nine times to organizations residing in Switzerland. Geneva hosts the world's largest particle physics laboratory, the CERN. Other important research centers are the Empa and Paul Scherrer Institute which belong to the ETH domain; the obligatory school system includes primary education and secondary education I.
Before that, children go to Kindergarten, with one or two years is required in most cantons. In the Canton of Ticino, an optional, third year is available for three-year-old children. In some German speaking cantons kindergarten and the first one or two years may be combined into a Grundstufe or Basisstufe where they are all taught together in a single class. In French speaking cantons kindergarten is combined into a four-year cycle primaire 1 or cycle 1, followed by a four-year cycle primaire 2 or cycle 2 which completes their primary school; the minimum age for primary school is about six years in all cantons but Obwalden, where it is five years and three months. The cantons Nidwalden allow five-year-olds to start primary school in exceptional cases. Primary school continues until grade five or six, depending on the school/canton. Any child can take part in school if they choose to, but pupils are separated depending on whether they speak French, German or Italian. At around age 11–12, depending on which canton in Switzerland the child goes to school in, there could be a screening exam to decide how to separate the students for secondary school.
Some cantons have a system of examination in the second semester of the final year of primary school, some cantons have an exam in second semester and continuous evaluation in both first and second semesters. In some cases, parents or legal guardians of the child are asked for their recommendations along with a self-evaluation done by the child. Parents' recommendation in combination with child's self-evaluation is called the third indicator for evaluating the student, the first being teacher's evaluation, the second the results of tests held in first semester; the fourth criteria is the final exam that takes place in the middle of the second semester of the final year primary school. At the end of primary school, pupils are separated according to their capacities and career-intentions in several sections for a period of 2–3 years in either Pre-higher secondary school section, General section or Basic section. Students who aspire for an academic career enter Mittelschule to be prepared for further studies and the Matura.
Students intending to pursue a trade or vocation complete three to four additional years before entering Vocational Educations which are regulated by federal law and are based on a cooperation of private business offering educational job-positions and public schools offering obligatory school-lessons complementary to the on-the-job education. This so-called "dual system" splitting academic and vocational training has its continuation in the higher education system. While the academic training leads to the matura and free admission to univers