Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
The Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel was a subdivision of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, whose history was characterised by numerous divisions and reunifications. Various dynastic lines of the House of Welf ruled Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel until the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806; as a result of the Congress of Vienna, its successor state, the Duchy of Brunswick, was created in 1815. After Otto the Child, grandchild of Henry the Lion, had been given the former allodial seat of his family by Emperor Frederick II on 21 August 1235 as an imperial enfeoffment under the name of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, the dukedom was divided in 1267/1269 by his sons. Albert I was given the regions around Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Einbeck-Grubenhagen and Göttingen-Oberwald, he thus founded the Old House of Brunswick and laid the basis for what became the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. His brother John founded the Old House of Lüneburg; the town of Brunswick remained under joint rule.
The area of Brunswick was further subdivided in the succeeding decades. For example, the lines of Grubenhagen and Göttingen were split for a while. In a similar way, in 1432 the estates between the Deister hills and the Leine river, gained in the meantime from the Middle House of Brunswick, split away to form the Principality of Calenberg. There were further divisions. In the meanwhile the dukes became weary of the constant disputes with the citizens of the town of Brunswick and, in 1432, moved their Residenz to the water castle of Wolfenbüttel, which lay in a marshy depression of the river Oker about 12 kilometres south of Brunswick; the castle built here for the Brunswick-Lüneburg dukes - together with the ducal chancery, the consistory, the courts and the archives - became the nerve centre of a giant region, from which the Wolfenbüttel-Brunswick part of the overall dukedom was ruled. For a long time it governed the principalities of Calenberg-Göttingen and Grubenhagen, the Prince-Bishopric of Halberstadt, large parts of the Prince-Bishopric of Hildesheim, the counties of Hohnstein and Regenstein, the baronies of Klettenberg and Lohra and parts of Hoya on the Lower Weser.
The importance of this court was signified by the number of craftsmen needed. Hundreds of timber-framed buildings were built for the court, for its citizens and for ducal facilities randomly designed to ducal requirements and for fire protection. In the heyday of the town's development its districts were named after various dukes: the Auguststadt in the west, the Juliusstadt in the east and the Heinrichstadt. Following the twelfth division of the duchy in 1495, whereby the Principality of Brunswick-Calenberg-Göttingen was re-divided into its component territories, Duke Henry the Elder was given the land of Brunswick, to which the name of the new Residenz at Wolfenbüttel was added. From on the name of the principality became "Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel"; the reigns of dukes Henry the Younger and Henry Julius followed, under whose lordship the Residenz of Wolfenbüttel was expanded and the principality gained a Germany-wide standing. In 1500 Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel became part of the Lower Saxon Circle within the Holy Roman Empire.
From 1519 to 1523 the principality went to war with the principalities of Hildesheim and Lüneburg in the Hildesheim Diocesan Feud which, despite a resounding defeat in the Battle of Soltau resulted in large territorial gains accruing to Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. In the Thirty Years War Wolfenbüttel was the strongest fortress in North Germany, but survived the war damaged; the Wolfenbüttel line died out during the war. In 1571 the castle and village of Calvörde became part of the principality thanks to Duke Julius of Brunswick. In 1635 Duke Augustus the Younger, from the collateral line of Lüneburg-Dannenberg, took over the reins of power in the principality and founded the New House of Brunswick. Under his rule Wolfenbüttel reached its cultural zenith. One of his greatest achievements was the building of the Wolfenbüttel Library, the largest in Europe in its day. In 1671 an old pipe dream of the House of Welf dukes came true when the joint armies of the different dynastic lines were able to capture the town of Brunswick and add it to their domain.
In 1735 when the dynastic line died out another collateral line emerged: the Brunswick-Bevern line founded in 1666. In 1753/1754 the residence of the dukes of Wolfenbüttel returned to Brunswick, to the newly built Brunswick Palace; the town thus lost the independence. In the process, the duke followed the trend and did not interfere with anything, including work on the new castle, begun in 1718 by Hermann Korb on the Grauer Hof, still not finished; the effect on Wolfenbüttel was catastrophic, as can be seen from the timber-framed houses built on. 4,000 townsfolk followed the ducal family and Wolfenbüttel's population sank from 12,000 to 7,000. Only the archives, the ecclesiastical office and the library remained as a link to earlier times. From Brunswick there were jibes that Wolfenbüttel had deteriorated into a "widows' residence"; the extensive gardens in front of the three town gates were leased to the former gardeners as an emphyteusis. As a consequence jam factories were established which were characteristic of Wolfenbüttel until the 20th century.
In front of the Herzogtor the number of gardens grew, until they reached the Lechlum Wood. Its southern edge was graced by the little Lustschloss
The Oker is a river in Lower Saxony, that has formed an important political boundary. It is a left tributary of the River Aller, 128 kilometres in length and runs in a northerly direction; the river's name was recorded around 830 as Obacra and as Ovokare und Ovakara. The origin of the name is derived from the roots ov- and -akara meaning “upper” and “onward rushing” as distinct from its tributary, the Ecker, whose name means only “onward rushing”; the Oker rises at about 910 metres in the Harz National Park in a boggy area on the Bruchberg in the Harz mountains of central Germany. This early section is known as the Große Oker and it is impounded below Altenau by the Oker Dam. From the dam wall to the former village of Oker, today part of Goslar, the Oker is on certain occasions suitable for canoeing; this section called the "Oker Valley", includes the Romkerhall Waterfall. Here the Romke stream drops about 64 metres in height over a waterfall laid out in 1863 into the Oker. Downstream in the river's fast-flowing waters, the Verlobungsinsel is to be found.
Left and right of the Oker in this area are many crags. In the Goslar vicinity of Oker the river is polluted with heavy metals from the slag heaps as well as groundwater and surface runoff from the metal smelters there. From the village of Oker the River Oker flows away in a northeasterly direction to Vienenburg, where it is joined from the south by the Radau and from the southeast by the Ecker. After these two confluences the river continues southeast past the Harly Forest, after which it bends north to flow through Schladen and Wolfenbüttel to Braunschweig. In south Braunschweig the Oker is dammed by the Eisenbüttel Weir. In the Bürgerpark shortly before Braunschweig's old town the Oker divides into the western and eastern bypass channels which circumnavigate the historic city centre at a higher level; these channels were laid in the 16th century as the external moats of the town's defences. The actual course of the Oker through the centre of the town was covered and, runs through pipes emerging again north of the old town.
The water level in the city area is controlled by the St. Peter's Gate Weir in the western and the "Wends Weir" in the eastern ditch. Following the merger of the two channels northwest of the city centre the Oker runs north of the district of Watenbüttel in a culvert under the Mittelland Canal before it is joined by the Schunter from the east near Groß Schwülper, it flows down to its mouth into the River Aller, located between Gifhorn and Celle at Müden. Since the early ninth century the middle Oker river has formed the diocesan boundary between the bishoprics of Halberstadt and Hildesheim, established by Emperor Charlemagne and his son Louis the Pious in the Duchy of Saxony. North of Schladen the royal palace of Werla was established on the banks about 20 metres above the river bed. From the High Middle Ages the Oker between the villages of Ohrum and Börßum formed the eastern boundary of the Prince-Bishopric of Hildesheim with the Duchy of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, further south to Wiedelah with the Prince-Bishopric of Halberstadt, which became the Prussian Principality of Halberstadt following its secularization in 1648.
The Bishopric of Halberstadt was mediatised in 1803, according to the Final Act of the 1815 Vienna Congress, the Oker was the eastern border of the Kingdom of Hanover with the Duchy of Brunswick and the Prussian Province of Saxony. When the Kingdom of Prussia annexed Hanover in 1866, it became the inner Prussian border between the provinces of Hanover and Saxony as well as the border, north of Börßum to Ohrum between the Province of Hanover in the west and the Duchy of Brunswick in the east. From 1945 to 1990 the Inner German border between East and West Germany ran down the centre of the Oker between Wiedelah and Schladen, today between the German states of Saxony-Anhalt and Lower Saxony. Since the Expo 2000 bridges over the Oker in Braunschweig and its surrounding area were artistically designed. List of rivers of Lower Saxony Heavy metal pollution of the Oker Description of white water canoe section between Kraftwerk and Nachstaubecken with many photos Oste class fleet service ship
Roman Catholic Diocese of Halberstadt
The Bishopric of Halberstadt was a Roman Catholic diocese and a state within the Holy Roman Empire, the Prince-bishopric of Halberstadt. Its capital was Halberstadt in present-day Saxony-Anhalt, north of Germany. In the aftermath of the Saxon Wars, Emperor Charlemagne in 804 established a missionary diocese at Osterwieck in Eastphalia, in the course of the Christianisation of the pagan Saxons and Polabian Slavs. Under its first bishop Hildegrim of Châlons the capital was moved to Halberstadt, confirmed by Charles' son Louis the Pious in an 814 deed; the bishopric's boundaries reached the Elbe and Saale rivers in the east when Emperor Otto I founded the Archbishopric of Magdeburg in 968, Halberstadt lost the eastern half of its district to it. Halberstadt diocese was a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Mainz; the Halberstadt bishops rivalled with Magdeburg to gain political influence in the days of the Ottonian and Salian dynasty. Under the rule of Emperor Henry III they were vested with further territorial rights and in 1062 Bishop Burchard II was sent to Rome as an Imperial mediator in the conflict between Pope Alexander II and Antipope Honorius II.
However the former favourite of Dowager Empress Agnes of Poitou and her son Henry IV in 1073 allied with Pope Gregory VII in the Investiture Controversy and became one of the leading figures of the Great Saxon Revolt. After the deposition of the Saxon duke Henry the Lion the episcopal and capitular temporalities forming the Stift of Halberstadt evolved to an Imperial State, the prince-bishopric; the political entity of the prince-bishopric only comprised parts of the ecclesiastical entity of the diocese, which included neighbouring political entities of other rulers. On the death of Henry VI in 1197, the prince-bishopric supported the unsuccessful claim of Philip of Swabia against Otto of Brunswick to be Holy Roman Emperor; when Pope Innocent III disagreed, Prince-Bishop Conrad of Halberstadt was excommunicated. To evade the penalties of excommunication, Conrad joined the catastrophic Fourth Crusade. Taking full part in the diversion of the Crusade from its mission and the atrocious subsequent sack of Constantinople, Conrad enriched the Prince-Bishopric with many relics and other booty looted from the churches and monasteries of the Roman Imperial capital.
In 1315 the prince-bishop acquired the former Principality of Aschersleben for the prince-bishopric. In 1479 the Saxon prince-elector Ernest of Wettin pushed the election of his 13-year-old son Ernest II, Archbishop of Magdeburg since 1476, as administrator in place of the resigned Prince-Bishop Gebhard von Hoym. In 1513 Albert of Hohenzollern, younger brother of Elector Joachim I Nestor of Brandenburg, succeeded him and the Magdeburg archbishops from the House of Hohenzollern remained administrators, while in 1540 the Halberstadt territories became Lutheran during the Reformation. In 1566 two-year-old Henry Julius of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel became the first Lutheran administrator, after which Halberstadt's see was held by sons of the Princes of Wolfenbüttel, a line of the Welf Brunswick and Lunenburg ducal family, until in 1623 Henry Julius' son Christian, the "Mad Halberstadter", resigned during the Thirty Years' War, he was succeeded by Christian William of Hohenzollern, son of Elector Joachim III Frederick of Brandenburg.
In political respect the prince-bishopric was secularised as the Principality of Halberstadt by the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, given to the Hohenzollern rulers of Brandenburg-Prussia. After the 1815 Congress of Vienna, its territory was incorporated into the Prussian Province of Saxony. In ecclesiastic respect the diocese, sede vacante since 1480, since represented by administrators only, who were Protestants between 1552 and 1628, became defunct in 1648 too. So in 1669 the tiny remaining Catholic diaspora in the diocesan area of Halberstadt was put under the new jurisdiction of the Vicariate Apostolic of the Northern Missions. Between 1709 and 1780 the area of the former diocese of Halberstadt formed part of the Vicariate Apostolic of Upper and Lower Saxony, but afterwards returning to the Northern Missions. In 1821 the area of the former diocese of Halberstadt was merged into the Diocese of Paderborn, forms part of the modern Diocese of Magdeburg since 1994. After the foundation of the ancient Archbishopric of Magdeburg, the Diocese of Halberstadt covered the following Saxon Gau counties: Balsamgau, the western part of the Nordthüringgau, Harzgau and Hassegau.
Thus, it stretched from the Oker river near Hornburg in the west, where it bordered on the Bishopric of Hildesheim, to the Saale in the east. The city of Brunswick, located on both sides of the Oker, was split between Halberstadt and Hildesheim until it passed to Duke Henry the Lion in 1142, who made it his residence. Johann Schedemeker, O. S. A. Johannes Sartoris, O. F. M. Hermann Molitoris, O. P. Levinus Brunstorp, O. P. Matthias Kanuti, O. S. B. Heinrich Lenchker, O. P. Michael Vehe, O. P. Johannes Mensing, O. P. Johannes Alberti, O. P
The Schmalkaldic League. Although started for religious motives soon after the start of the Reformation, its members came to have the intention that the League would replace the Holy Roman Empire as their focus of political allegiance. While it was not the first alliance of its kind, unlike previous formations, such as the League of Torgau, the Schmalkaldic League had a substantial military to defend its political and religious interests, it received its name from the town of Schmalkalden, located in modern Thuringia. The League was established on 27 February 1531, by Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse, John Frederick I, Elector of Saxony, the two most powerful Protestant rulers in the Holy Roman Empire at the time, it originated as a defensive religious alliance, with the members pledging to defend each other should their territories be attacked by Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor. At the insistence of the Elector of Saxony, membership was conditional on agreement to the Lutheran Augsburg Confession or the Reformed Tetrapolitan Confession.
The formation of the Smalcald League in 1531 and the threatening attitude of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent who in April 1532 assumed the offensive with an army of 300,000 men caused Ferdinand of Austria to grant this religious peace. Ferdinand had made humiliating overtures to Suleiman and as long as he hoped for a favorable response was not inclined to grant the peace which the Protestants demanded at the Diet of Regensburg which met in April 1532, but as the army of Suleiman drew nearer he yielded and on July 23, 1532 the peace was concluded at Nuremberg where the final deliberations took place. Those who had up to this time joined the Reformation obtained religious liberty until the meeting of a council and in a separate compact all proceedings in matters of religion pending before the imperial chamber court were temporarily paused. In December, 1535, the league admitted anyone who would subscribe to the Augsburg Confession, thus Anhalt, Württemberg, Pomerania, as well as the free imperial cities of Augsburg, Frankfurt am Main, the Free Imperial City of Kempten joined the alliance.
In 1538, the Schmalkaldic League allied with the newly reformed Denmark. In 1539, the League acquired Brandenburg, under the leadership of Joachim II Hector, Elector of Brandenburg. In 1545, the League gained the allegiance of the Electoral Palatinate, under the control of Frederick III, Elector Palatine. In 1544, Denmark and the Holy Roman Empire signed the Treaty of Speyer, which stated that during the reign of Christian III, Denmark would maintain a peaceful foreign policy towards the Holy Roman Empire; the members of the League agreed to provide 10,000 infantry and 2,000 cavalry for their mutual protection. They provoked Charles directly, but confiscated church land, expelled bishops and Catholic princes, helped spread Lutheranism throughout northern Germany. Martin Luther planned to present to the League the Smalcald Articles, a stricter Protestant confession, during a meeting in 1537. Luther attended the critical meeting in 1537, but spent most of his time suffering from kidney stones; the rulers and princes met in the home where Luther was staying.
Though Luther was asked to prepare the articles of faith that came to be known as the Smalcald Articles, they were not formally adopted at the time of the meeting, though in 1580 they were included in the Book of Concord. For fifteen years the League was able to exist without opposition, because Charles was busy fighting wars with France and the Ottoman Empire. Overall, the Ottoman–Habsburg wars lasted from 1526 until 1571. Starting in 1535, Francis I of France, while vigorously persecuting Protestants at home supported the Protestant princes in their struggle against their common foe; this tactical support ended in 1544 with the signing of the Treaty of Crépy, whereby the French king, fighting the Emperor in Italy, pledged to stop backing the Protestant princes and the League in Germany. In 1535 Charles led the Conquest of Tunis. Francis I of France, in an effort to limit the power of the Habsburgs, allied with Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire, forming a Franco-Ottoman alliance.
The Italian War of 1536–38 between France and the Holy Roman Empire ended in 1538 with the Truce of Nice. The final war during this period Charles fought against France, the Italian War of 1542–46, ended with inconclusive results and the Treaty of Crépy.. Following on the peace with France, the Charles signed the Truce of Adrianople in 1547 with the Ottoman Empire; this was to free more Habsburg resources for a final confrontation with the League. After Charles made peace with Francis, he focused on suppressing Protestant resistance within his empire. From 1546 to 1547, in what is known as the Schmalkaldic War and his allies fought the League over the territories of Ernestine Saxony and Albertine Saxony. Although the League's military forces may have been superior, its leaders were incompetent and unable to agree on any definitive battle plans. Despite the fact that Pope Paul III withdrew his troops from the Imperial forces and halved his subsidy, on 24 April 1547, the imperial forces gathered by Charles routed the League's forces at the Battle of Mühlberg, capturing many leaders, most notably, Johann Frederick the Magnanimous.
Philip of Hesse tried to negotiate he surrendered in May. In theory this meant that the residents of thirty different cities were returned to Catholicism but in fact this was not the case; this battle won the war for Charles.
Michael Praetorius was a German composer and music theorist. He was one of the most versatile composers of his age, being significant in the development of musical forms based on Protestant hymns, many of which reflect an effort to improve the relationship between Protestants and Catholics. Praetorius was born Michael Schultze, Schultheis, or Schultz, the youngest son of a Lutheran pastor, in Creuzburg, in present-day Thuringia. After attending school in Torgau and Zerbst, he studied divinity and philosophy at the University of Frankfurt, he was fluent in a number of languages. After receiving his musical education, from 1587 he served as organist at the Marienkirche in Frankfurt. From 1592/3 he served at the court in Wolfenbüttel, under the employ of Henry Julius, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, he served in the duke's State Orchestra, first as organist and as Kapellmeister. His first compositions appeared around 1602/3, their publication reflects the care for music at the court of Gröningen. The motets of this collection were the first in Germany to make use of the new Italian performance practices.
These "modern" pieces mark the end of his middle creative period. The nine parts of his Musae Sioniae and the 1611 published collections of liturgical music follow the German Protestant chorale style. With these, at the behest of a circle of orthodox Lutherans, he followed the Duchess Elizabeth, who ruled the duchy in the duke's absence. In place of popular music, Praetorius was now expected to produce religious music; when the duke died in 1613 and was succeeded by Frederick Ulrich, Praetorius retained his employment. From 1613 he worked at the court of John George I, Elector of Saxony at Dresden, where he was responsible for festive music, he was exposed to the latest Italian music, including the polychoral works of the Venetian School. His subsequent development of the form of the chorale concerto the polychoral variety, resulted directly from his familiarity with the music of such Venetians as Giovanni Gabrieli; the solo-voice and instrumental compositions Praetorius prepared for these events mark the high period of his artistic creativity.
Until his death, Praetorius stayed at the court in Dresden, where he was declared Kapellmeister von Haus aus and worked with Heinrich Schütz. Michael Praetorius is said to have died on his 50th birthday, in Wolfenbüttel, Germany and is entombed in a vault beneath the organ of the Marienkirche there, his family name in German appears in various forms including Schultze, Schultheiss and Schulteis. Praetorius was the conventional Latinized form of this family name, Schultze meaning "mayor" in German, a Praetor was a Roman official. Praetorius was a prolific composer, his works include the nine volume Musae Sioniae, a collection of more than twelve hundred chorale and song arrangements. He wrote many other works for the Lutheran church. Many of Praetorius' choral compositions were scored for several mini-choirs situated in several locations in the church for multi-phonic effect; the familiar harmonization of Es ist ein Ros entsprungen was written by Praetorius in 1609. Christ, unser Herr, zum Jordan kam – Fantasia Ein’ feste Burg ist unser Gott - Fantasia Wir glauben all an einen Gott - Fantasia Nun lob, mein Seel, den Herren – 2 Variationen Alvus tumescit virginis - Advent-Hymnus « Veni redemptor gentium » A solis ortus cardine - Weihnachts-Hymnus Summo Parenti gloria - Vita sanctorum - Oster-Hymnus O lux beata Trinitas - Dreifaltigkeits-Hymnus Te mane laudum carmine - Sinfonia zu « Gelobet und gepreiset sei Gott Vater » Praetorius was the greatest musical academic of his day and the Germanic writer of music best known to other 17th-century musicians.
Although his original theoretical contributions were few, with nowhere near the long-range impact of other 17th-century German writers, like Johannes Lippius, Christoph Bernhard or Joachim Burmeister, he compiled an encyclopedic record of contemporary musical practices. While Praetorius made some refinements to figured-bass practice and to tuning practice, his importance to scholars of the 17th century derives from his discussions of the normal use of instruments and voices in ensembles, the standard pitch of the time, the state of modal and fugal theory, his meticulous documentation of 17th-century practice was of inestimable value to the early-music revival of the 20th century. His expansive but unfinshed treatise, Syntagma Musicum, appeared in three volumes between 1614 and 1620; the first volume, titled Musicae Artis Analecta, was written in Latin, regarded the music of the ancients and of the church. The second regarded the musical instruments of the day the organ; the third in German, regarded the
The Elbe is one of the major rivers of Central Europe. It rises in the Krkonoše Mountains of the northern Czech Republic before traversing much of Bohemia Germany and flowing into the North Sea at Cuxhaven, 110 km northwest of Hamburg, its total length is 1,094 kilometres. The Elbe's major tributaries include the rivers Vltava, Havel, Schwarze Elster, Ohře; the Elbe river basin, comprising the Elbe and its tributaries, has a catchment area of 148,268 square kilometres, the fourth largest in Europe. The basin spans four countries, with its largest parts in the Czech Republic. Much smaller parts lie in Poland; the basin is inhabited by 24.4 million people. The Elbe rises at an elevation of about 1,400 metres in the Krkonoše on the northwest borders of the Czech Republic near Labská bouda. Of the numerous small streams whose waters compose the infant river, the most important is the Bílé Labe, or White Elbe. After plunging down the 60 metres of the Labský vodopád, or Elbe Falls, the latter stream unites with the steeply torrential Malé Labe, thereafter the united stream of the Elbe pursues a southerly course, emerging from the mountain glens at Jaroměř, where it receives Úpa and Metuje.
Here the Elbe enters the vast vale named Polabí, continues on southwards through Hradec Králové and to Pardubice, where it turns to the west. At Kolín some 43 kilometres further on, it bends towards the north-west. At the village of Káraný, a little above Brandýs nad Labem, it picks up the Jizera. At Mělník its stream is more than doubled in volume by the Vltava, or Moldau, a major river which winds northwards through Bohemia. Upstream from the confluence the Vltava is in fact much longer, has a greater discharge and a larger drainage basin. Nonetheless, for historical reasons the river retains the name Elbe because at the confluence point it is the Elbe that flows through the main, wider valley while the Vltava flows into the valley to meet the Elbe at a right angle, thus appears to be the tributary river; some distance lower down, at Litoměřice, the waters of the Elbe are tinted by the reddish Ohře. Thus augmented, swollen into a stream 140 metres wide, the Elbe carves a path through the basaltic mass of the České Středohoří, churning its way through a picturesque, deep and curved rocky gorge.
Shortly after crossing the Czech-German frontier, passing through the sandstone defiles of the Elbe Sandstone Mountains, the stream assumes a north-westerly direction, which on the whole it preserves right to the North Sea. The river rolls through Dresden and beyond Meißen, enters on its long journey across the North German Plain passing along the former western border of East Germany, touching Torgau, Dessau, Magdeburg and Hamburg on the way, taking on the waters of the Mulde and Saale from the west, those of the Schwarze Elster and Elde from the east. In its northern section both banks of the Elbe are characterised by flat fertile marshlands, former flood plains of the Elbe now diked. At Magdeburg there is a viaduct, the Magdeburg Water Bridge, that carries a canal and its shipping traffic over the Elbe and its banks, allowing shipping traffic to pass under it unhindered. From the sluice of Geesthacht on downstream the Elbe is subject to the tides, the tidal Elbe section is called the Low Elbe.
Soon the Elbe reaches Hamburg. Within the city-state the Unterelbe has a number of branch streams, such as Dove Elbe, Gose Elbe, Köhlbrand, Northern Elbe, Southern Elbe; some of which have been disconnected for vessels from the main stream by dikes. In 1390 the Gose Elbe was separated from the main stream by a dike connecting the two then-islands of Kirchwerder and Neuengamme; the Dove Elbe was diked off in 1437/38 at Gammer Ort. These hydraulic engineering works were carried out to protect marshlands from inundation, to improve the water supply of the Port of Hamburg. After the heavy inundation by the North Sea flood of 1962 the western section of the Southern Elbe was separated, becoming the Old Southern Elbe, while the waters of the eastern Southern Elbe now merge into the Köhlbrand, bridged by the Köhlbrandbrücke, the last bridge over the Elbe before the North Sea; the Northern Elbe passes the Elbe Philharmonic Hall and is crossed under by the old Elbe Tunnel, both in Hamburg's city centre.
A bit more downstream the Low Elbe's two main anabranches Northern Elbe and the Köhlbrand reunite south of Altona-Altstadt, a locality of Hamburg. Right after both anabranches reunited the Low Elbe is passed under by the New Elbe Tunnel, the last structural road link crossing the river before the North Sea. At the bay Mühlenberger Loch in Hamburg at kilometre 634, the Northern Elbe and the Southern Elbe used to reunite, why the bay is seen as the starting point of the Lower Elbe. Leaving the city-state the Lower Elbe passes between Holstein and the Elbe-Weser Triangle with Stade until it flows into the North Sea at Cuxhaven. Near its mouth it passes the entrance to the Kiel Canal at Brunsbüttel before it debouches into the North Sea; the Elbe has been navigable by commercial ve
Herzog August Library
The Herzog August Library, in Wolfenbüttel, Lower Saxony, known as Bibliotheca Augusta, is a library of international importance for its collection from the Middle Ages and early modern Europe. The library is overseen by the Lower Saxony Ministry for Culture; the library was founded by Julius, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg in 1572. In the 17th century it was the largest library north of the Alps; the library was named after Duke Augustus, who enlarged the collection, kept at Wolfenbüttel. Armies passed by, back and forth, over the centuries, it was so regarded that generals placed the library under special protection, the library is one of the oldest in the world to have never suffered loss to its collection. In 2006 the library housed around 11,500 manuscripts and 900,000 books, of which 350,000 were printed between the 15th to 18th centuries. Of these, 3,500 are incunabula, 75,000 are from the sixteenth century, 150,000 are from the seventeenth century, 120,000 are from the eighteenth century. Notable librarians have included: 1604–1666: Augustus the Younger, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg 1691–1716: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz 1770–1781: Gotthold Ephraim Lessing 1968–1992: Paul RaabeThe library is famed for its research and for the hundreds of international scholars who collaborate with the library staff on various projects.
Its research programs are described as exploring the "history of international relations, or the history of culture and politics... social history, the history of religion, business and law, constitutional history, the history of society and gender from the Middle Ages to Early Modern Times". The famous palimpsest Codex Guelferbytanus 64 Weissenburgensis, which contains in the lower text Codex Guelferbytanus A, Codex Guelferbytanus B, Codex Carolinus. Gospels of Henry the Lion Liber Floridus ca. 1150 Minuscule 97 Minuscule 126 Minuscule 429 Nine volumes from the library of Matthias Corvinus Schönrainer Liederhandschrift Visio Godeschalci Corpus Agrimensorum Romanorum Magnus liber organi, manuscripts W1 and W2 Luther's Wolfenbuttel Psalter the only extant copy of Luther's glosses of his lectures on the Psalms beginning 1513. Herzog-August-Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel, ed. Andrea Kastens, ISSN 0341-8634 Die Herzog-August-Bibliothek und Wolfenbüttel, ed. Leo G. Linder, ISBN 3-07-509702-0 A treasure house of books: the library of Duke August of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, ed. Helwig Schmidt-Glintzer, ISBN 3-447-04119-6 The German book in Wolfenbüttel and abroad.
Studies presented to Ulrich Kopp in his retirement, ed. William A. Kelly & Jürgen Beyer, ISBN 978-9949-32-494-1 Official website Arbeitsgemeinschaft Sammlung Deutscher Drucke Bücherrad im Museum "Das Alte Zollhaus" in Hitzacker