Cranes are a family, Gruidae, of large, long-legged and long-necked birds in the group Gruiformes. There are fifteen species of crane in four genera, unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Cranes live on all continents except Antarctica and South America and they are opportunistic feeders that change their diet according to the season and their own nutrient requirements. They eat a range of items from suitably sized small rodents, fish and insects to grain, Cranes construct platform nests in shallow water, and typically lay two eggs at a time. Both parents help to rear the young, which remain with them until the breeding season. Some species and populations of cranes migrate over long distances, others do not migrate at all, Cranes are solitary during the breeding season, occurring in pairs, but during the non-breeding season they are gregarious, forming large flocks where their numbers are sufficient. Most species of cranes have been affected by human activities and are at the least classified as threatened, the plight of the whooping cranes of North America inspired some of the first US legislation to protect endangered species.
The cranes are large to large birds, including the worlds tallest flying bird. They are long-legged and long-necked birds with streamlined bodies and large rounded wings, the males and females do not vary in external appearance, but on average males tend to be slightly larger than females. The plumage of the cranes varies by habitat, species inhabiting vast open wetlands tend to have more white in the plumage than do species that inhabit smaller wetlands or forested habitats, which tend to be more grey. These white species are generally larger. Most species of crane have some areas of skin on the face. This skin is used in communication with other cranes, and can be expanded by contracting and relaxing muscles, feathers on the head can be moved and erected in the blue and demoiselle cranes for signalling as well. Also important to communication is the position and length of the trachea, in the two crowned-cranes the trachea is shorter and only slightly impressed upon the bone of the sternum, whereas the trachea of the other species is longer and penetrates the sternum.
In some species the entire sternum is fused to the plates of the trachea. The cranes have a distribution, occurring across most of the world continents. They are absent from Antarctica and, South America, east Asia is the centre of crane diversity, with eight species, followed by Africa, which holds five resident species and wintering populations of a sixth. Australia and North America have two species, the remaining genus, contains the most species and is the most widespread genus, although only a single species occurs in Africa as a wintering migrant
May Fourth Movement
Many political and social leaders of the next decades emerged at this time. The term May Fourth Movement in a broader sense often refers to the period during 1915-1921 more often called the New Culture Movement. The atmosphere and political mood that emerged around 1919, in the words of Mitter, are at the centre of a set of ideas that has shaped Chinas momentous twentieth century, following the Xinhai Revolution in 1911, the Qing Dynasty disintegrated. This marked the end of thousands of years of imperial rule. However, the reality was that China was a fragmented nation dominated by warlords, the Chinese Beiyang government was occupied with suppressing internal affairs and did little to counter the influence exerted by foreign powers. Leaders of the New Culture Movement believed that traditional Confucian values were responsible for the weakness of the nation. Chinese nationalists called for a rejection of traditional values and the adoption of Western ideals of Mr. Science. These iconoclastic and anti-traditional views and programs have shaped Chinas politics, China had entered World War I on the side of the Allied Triple Entente in 1917 with the condition that all German spheres of influence, such as Shandong, would be returned to China.
Although in that year 140,000 Chinese labourers were sent to France, the Western Allies dominated the meeting at Versailles, and paid little heed to Chinese demands. Britain and France were primarily interested in punishing Germany. S, american advocacy of self-determination at the League of Nations was attractive to Chinese intellectuals, but their failure to follow through was seen as a betrayal. To recommend a large-scale gathering in Beijing, to promote the creation of a Beijing student union. To hold a demonstration that afternoon in protest to the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, on the afternoon of May 4 over 3,000 students of Peking University and other schools marched from many points to gather in front of Tiananmen. They shouted such slogans as Struggle for the sovereignty externally, get rid of the traitors at home, Do away with the Twenty-One Demands. They voiced their anger at the Allied betrayal of China, denounced the governments inability to protect Chinese interests. Demonstrators insisted on the resignation of three Chinese officials they accused of being collaborators with the Japanese, after burning the residence of one of these officials and beating his servants, student protesters were arrested and severely beaten.
The next day, students in Beijing as a whole went on strike and in the cities across China, patriotic merchants. The demonstrators skillfully appealed to the newspapers and sent representatives to carry the word across the country, from early June and businessmen in Shanghai went on strike as the center of the movement shifted from Beijing to Shanghai. Chancellors from thirteen universities arranged for the release of student prisoners, and Cai Yuanpei, magazines, citizen societies, and chambers of commerce offered support for the students
The Chinese imperial examinations were a civil service examination system in Imperial China to select candidates for the state bureaucracy. The examination helped to shape Chinas intellectual, political, shopping and crafts, the increased reliance on the exam system was in part responsible for Tang dynasty shifting from a military aristocracy to a gentry class of scholar-bureaucrats. Starting with the Song dynasty, the system was regularized and developed into a roughly three-tiered ladder from local to provincial to court exams, the content was narrowed and fixed on texts of Neo-Confucian orthodoxy. Critics charged that the system stifled creativity and created officials who dared not defy authority, wealthy families, especially merchants, could opt into the system by educating their sons or purchasing degrees. In the 19th century, critics blamed the system, and in the process its examinations, for Chinas lack of technical knowledge. The influence of the Chinese examination system spread to neighboring Asian countries, such as Vietnam, Japan, following the initial success in that company, the British government adopted a similar testing system for screening civil servants in 1855.
Other European nations, such as France and Germany, followed suit, modeled after these previous adaptations, the U. S established its own testing program for certain government jobs after 1883. However, the structure of the system was extensively expanded during the reign of Wu Zetian. Thus the system played a key role in the selection of the scholar-officials, during the Ming and Qing dynasties, the system contributed to the narrowness of intellectual life and the autocratic power of the emperor. The system continued with some modifications until its 1905 abolition under the Qing dynasty, other brief interruptions to the system occurred, such as at the beginning of the Yuan dynasty in the 13th century. The modern examination system for selecting civil servants indirectly evolved from the imperial one and this changed during the Sui, when recruitment into the imperial civil service bureaucracy became to be considered an imperial prerogative, rather than a duty to be performed by the lower levels.
By the Tang dynasty, most of the recruitment into central government bureaucrat offices was being performed by the bureaucracy itself, the regular higher level degree examination cycle was nominally decreed in 1067 to be 3 years. The jinshi tests were not an event and should not be considered so. Oral examination on policy issues were sometimes conducted personally by the emperor himself, beginning in the Three Kingdoms period, imperial officials were responsible for assessing the quality of the talents recommended by the local elites. This system continued until Emperor Yang of Sui established a new category of recommended candidates for the mandarinate in AD605, for the first time, an examination system was explicitly instituted for a category of local talents. However, the Sui dynasty was short-lived, and the system did not reach its mature development until afterwards, a pivotal point in the development of imperial examinations arose with the rise of Wu Zetian. Up until that point, the rulers of the Tang dynasty were all members of the Li family.
Reform of the examinations to include a new class of elite bureaucrats derived from humbler origins became a keystone of Wus gamble to retain power
Confucianism, known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life. In the Han dynasty, Confucian approaches edged out the proto-Taoist Huang-Lao, the disintegration of the Han political order in the second century CE opened the way for the doctrines of Buddhism and Neo-Taoism, which offered spiritual explanations lacking in Confucianism. A Confucian revival began during the Tang dynasty of 618-907, in the late Tang, Confucianism developed in response to Buddhism and Taoism and was reformulated as Neo-Confucianism. This reinvigorated form was adopted as the basis of the imperial exams, the abolition of the examination system in 1905 marked the end of official Confucianism. The New Culture intellectuals of the twentieth century blamed Confucianism for Chinas weaknesses. In the late twentieth century Confucian work ethic has been credited with the rise of the East Asian economy, with particular emphasis on the importance of the family and social harmony, rather than on an otherworldly source of spiritual values, the core of Confucianism is humanistic.
While Tiān has some characteristics that overlap the category of deity, it is primarily an impersonal absolute principle, Confucianism focuses on the practical order that is given by a this-worldly awareness of the Tiān. Confucian thought focuses on the cultivation of virtue and maintenance of ethics, Some of the basic Confucian ethical concepts and practices include rén, yì, and lǐ, and zhì. Rén is the essence of the human being which manifests as compassion and it is the virtue-form of Heaven. Yì is the upholding of righteousness and the disposition to do good. Lǐ is a system of norms and propriety that determines how a person should properly act in everyday life according to the law of Heaven. Zhì is the ability to see what is right and fair, or the converse, Confucianism holds one in contempt, either passively or actively, for failure to uphold the cardinal moral values of rén and yì. In the 20th century Confucianisms influence diminished greatly, in the last decades there have been talks of a Confucian Revival in the academic and the scholarly community and there has been a grassroots proliferation of various types of Confucian churches.
In late 2015 many Confucian personalities formally established a national Holy Confucian Church in China to unify the many Confucian congregations, strictly speaking, there is no term in Chinese which directly corresponds to Confucianism. In the Chinese language, the character rú 儒 meaning scholar or learned man is used both in the past and the present to refer to things related to Confucianism. The character rú in ancient China has diverse meanings, Some examples include, soft, to tame, to comfort and to educate or to refine. Rújiā contains the character jiā, which means family. Rújiào and Kǒngjiào contain the Chinese character jiào, the teaching or transmission, used in such terms as education
It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted almost three centuries and formed the base for the modern Chinese state. The dynasty was founded by the Jurchen Aisin Gioro clan in Manchuria, in the late sixteenth century, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing Banners, military-social units that included Jurchen, Han Chinese, and Mongol elements. Nurhaci formed the Jurchen clans into an entity, which he renamed as the Manchus. By 1636, his son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of Liaodong and declared a new dynasty, in 1644, peasant rebels led by Li Zicheng conquered the Ming capital, Beijing. The Ten Great Campaigns of the Qianlong Emperor from the 1750s to the 1790s extended Qing control into Central Asia, the early rulers maintained their Manchu ways, and while their title was Emperor, they used khan to the Mongols and they were patrons of Tibetan Buddhism. They governed using Confucian styles and institutions of government and retained the imperial examinations to recruit Han Chinese to work under or in parallel with Manchus.
They adapted the ideals of the system in dealing with neighboring territories. The Qianlong reign saw the apogee and initial decline in prosperity. The population rose to some 400 million, but taxes and government revenues were fixed at a low rate, corruption set in, rebels tested government legitimacy, and ruling elites did not change their mindsets in the face of changes in the world system. Following the Opium War, European powers imposed unequal treaties, free trade, the Taiping Rebellion and the Dungan Revolt in Central Asia led to the deaths of some 20 million people, most of them due to famines caused by war. In spite of disasters, in the Tongzhi Restoration of the 1860s, Han Chinese elites rallied to the defense of the Confucian order. The initial gains in the Self-Strengthening Movement were destroyed in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1895, in which the Qing lost its influence over Korea, New Armies were organized, but the ambitious Hundred Days Reform of 1898 was turned back by Empress Dowager Cixi, a conservative leader.
Sun Yat-sen and other revolutionaries competed with reformist monarchists such as Kang Youwei, after the deaths of Cixi and the Guangxu Emperor in 1908, the hardline Manchu court alienated reformers and local elites alike. The Wuchang Uprising on October 11,1911, led to the Xinhai Revolution, General Yuan Shikai negotiated the abdication of Puyi, the last emperor, on February 12,1912. Nurhaci declared himself the Bright Khan of the Later Jin state in both of the 12–13th century Jurchen Jin dynasty and of his Aisin Gioro clan. His son Hong Taiji renamed the dynasty Great Qing in 1636, there are competing explanations on the meaning of Qīng. The character Qīng is composed of water and azure, both associated with the water element and this association would justify the Qing conquest as defeat of fire by water
The Beijing Guozijian, located on Guozijian Street in Beijing, was the imperial college during the Yuan and Qing dynasties, and the last Guozijian of China. Most of the Beijing Guozijians buildings were built during the Ming Dynasty, the Guozijian was shut down in 1905. The Guozijian, often translated into English as the Imperial Academy or Imperial College, was the central institute of learning in ancient Chinese dynasties. It was the highest institute of learning in Chinas traditional educational system, emperors in imperial China would frequently visit the Guozijian to read Confucian classics to thousands of students. The administrative officials of Guozijian were called Chief, Dean of Studies, the students who studied at the Guozijian were called Jiansheng, and they mainly studied the Confucian classics. To the east of the Guozijian, lies the Confucius Temple, the second largest Confucius temple in all of China, and the Yonghegong Temple, the largest Lama Temple in Beijing. The whole complex of Guozijian faces south, and it has a building area of more than 10,000 square meters or 107,639 square feet.
Along the central axis of Guozijian are the Jixian Gate, Taixue Gate, the Glazed Archway, Yiluntang, on its east and west sides are the six halls and palaces in the traditional symmetrical layout. Guozijian Kongmiao, Beijing Peking University History of Beijing Sungkyunkwan, Seoul Media related to Beijing Guozijian at Wikimedia Commons
For conceptual models of social well-being, see Social welfare function. Welfare is the provision of a level of well-being and social support for citizens without current means to support basic needs. The welfare state expands on this concept to include such as universal healthcare. In the Roman Empire, the first emperor Augustus provided the Cura Annonae or grain dole for citizens who could not afford to buy food every month, Social welfare was enlarged by the Emperor Trajan. Trajans program brought acclaim from many, including Pliny the Younger, the Song dynasty government supported multiple programs which could be classified as social welfare, including the establishment of retirement homes, public clinics, and paupers graveyards. According to economist Robert Henry Nelson, The medieval Roman Catholic Church operated a far-reaching, early welfare programs in Europe included the English Poor Law of 1601, which gave parishes the responsibility for providing welfare payments to the poor. This system was modified by the 19th-century Poor Law Amendment Act.
It was predominantly in the late 19th and early 20th centuries that a system of state welfare provision was introduced in many countries. Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor of Germany, introduced one of the first welfare systems for the working classes, in Great Britain the Liberal government of Henry Campbell-Bannerman and David Lloyd George introduced the National Insurance system in 1911, a system expanded by Clement Attlee. The United States inherited Englands poor house laws and has had a form of welfare since before it won its independence. Modern welfare states include Germany, the Netherlands, as well as the Nordic countries, such as Iceland, Norway, esping-Andersen classified the most developed welfare state systems into three categories, Social Democratic and Liberal. In the Islamic world, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, has collected by the government since the time of the Rashidun caliph Umar in the 7th century. The taxes were used to provide income for the needy, including the poor, orphans, according to the Islamic jurist Al-Ghazali, the government was expected to store up food supplies in every region in case a disaster or famine occurred.
Welfare can take a variety of forms, such as payments and vouchers. A persons eligibility for welfare may be constrained by means testing or other conditions, Welfare is provided by governments or their agencies, by private organizations, or a combination of both. Funding for welfare usually comes from government revenue, but when dealing with charities or NGOs. Some countries run conditional cash transfer welfare programs where payment is conditional on behaviour of the recipients, the 1890s economic depression and the rise of the trade unions and the Labor parties during this period led to a movement for welfare reform. In 1900, the states of New South Wales and Victoria enacted legislation introducing non-contributory pensions for those aged 65, a national invalid disability pension was started in 1910, and a national maternity allowance was introduced in 1912
Emperor of China
The emperor was referred to as the Son of Heaven, a title that predates the Qin unification and recognized as the ruler of all under heaven. In practice not every Emperor held supreme power in China, although this was usually the case, Emperors from the same family are classified in historical periods known as dynasties. During the Yuan and Qing dynasties China was ruled by ethnic Mongols, the orthodox historical view sees these as non-native dynasties that became sinicized, though some recent scholars argue that the interaction between politics and ethnicity was far more complex. Nevertheless, in both cases these rulers claimed the Mandate of Heaven to assume the role of traditional Confucian emperors in order to rule over China proper and he called himself Shi Huangdi, the First Emperor. In the 3rd century BC, the two titles had not previously been used together, on that account, some modern scholars translate the title as thearch. On occasion, the father of the emperor was still alive. Such an emperor was titled the Tai Shang Huang, the Grand Imperial Sire, the practice was initiated by the First Emperor, who gave the title as a posthumous name to his own father.
Liu Bang, who established the Han dynasty, was the first to become emperor while his father yet lived and it was said he granted the title during his fathers life because he would not be bowed to by his own father, a commoner. Owing to political fragmentation, over the centuries, it has not been uncommon to have numerous claimants to the title of Emperor of All China, the Chinese political concept of the Mandate of Heaven essentially legitimized those claimants who emerged victorious. Thus, Kublai Khan was simultaneously Khagan of the Mongols and Emperor of China, on one count, from the Qin dynasty to the Qing dynasty, there were 557 emperors including the rulers of minor states. The Emperors words were considered sacred edicts and his written proclamations directives from above, in theory, the Emperors orders were to be obeyed immediately. He was elevated above all commoners and members of the Imperial family, addresses to the Emperor were always to be formal and self-deprecatory, even by the closest of family members.
In practice, the power of the emperor varied between different emperors and different dynasties and these emperors ruled as absolute monarchs throughout their reign, maintaining a centralized grip on the country. During the Song dynasty, the power was significantly overshadowed by the power of the chancellor. The emperors position, unless deposed in a rebellion, was always hereditary, as a result, many emperors ascended the throne while still children. During these minorities, the Empress Dowager would possess significant power, where Empresses Dowager were too weak to assume power, court officials often seized control. Court eunuchs had a significant role in the structure, as emperors often relied on a few of them as confidants. In a few places, eunuchs wielded vast power, one of the most powerful eunuchs in Chinese history was Wei Zhongxian during the Ming dynasty, other nobles seized power as regents
The yangban were part of the traditional ruling class or gentry of dynastic Korea during the Joseon Dynasty. The yangban were mainly composed of civil servants and military officers—landed or unlanded aristocracts who individually exemplified the Korean Confucian idea of a scholarly official, they were administrators and bureaucrats who oversaw ancient Koreas traditional agrarian bureaucracy until the Joseon Dynasty ended in 1894. In a broader sense, an office holders family and descendants as well as families who claimed such descent were socially accepted as yangban. Upon passing these exams—which tested knowledge of the Confucian classics and history—several times, a yangban family that did not produce a government official for more than three generations could lose its status and become commoners. In theory, a member of any social class except indentured servants, baekjeongs, in reality, only the upper classes—i. e. The children of yangban—possessed the financial resources and the wherewithal to pass the exams and these barriers and financial constraints effectively excluded most non-yangban families and the lower classes from competing for yangban status.
Yangban status on a level was de facto hereditary. It was customary to include all descendants of the holders in the hyangan. The hyangan was maintained on blood basis, and one could be cut off from it if members of the family married social inferiors, although the hyangan was not legally supported by government acts or statutes, the families listed in it were socially respected as yangban. Their householders had the right to participate in the hyangso. These provincial families of gentility were often termed jaejisajok, which means the country families, while legally, yangban meant high-ranking officials, in reality it included almost all descendants of the former and increasingly lost its legal exactitude. e. These practices effectively ended in 1894 during the Korean empire of Gwangmu Reform, in todays Korea, the yangban legacy of patronage based on common educational experiences, family backgrounds, and hometowns continues in some forms and unofficially. In South Korea, the practice exists among the class and power elite, where patronage among the conglomerates tends to predictably follow blood, school.
In North Korea, a de facto yangban class exists that is based mostly on military, yangban literally means two branches of administration, munban which comprises civil administrators and muban which comprises martial office holders. The term yangban first appeared sometime during the late Goryeo dynasty, from the sixteenth century onward yangban increasingly came to denote local wealthy families who were mostly believed to be the descendants of once high-ranking officials. It even gained a diminutive connotation, yangban were the Joseon Dynasty equivalent of the former Goryeo nobles who had been educated in Buddhist and Confucian studies. The individual yangban included members of new class of bureaucrats. The yangban, like the Mandarins before them, dominated the Royal Court and military of pre-Modern Korea, there were at most 100 positions open with thousands of candidates taking the exams