Robert Indiana was an American artist associated with the pop art movement. His "LOVE" print, first created for the Museum of Modern Art's Christmas card in 1965, was the basis for his 1970 Love sculpture and the distributed 1973 United States Postal Service "LOVE" stamp, he created works in media including Cor-ten steel. Robert Indiana was born Robert Clark in New Castle, Indiana, as the only child of Earl Clark and Carmen Watters. After his parents divorced, he relocated to Indianapolis to live with his father so he could attend Arsenal Technical High School, from which he graduated as valedictorian of his class. After serving for three years in the United States Army Air Forces, Indiana studied at the Art Institute of Chicago, the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture in Maine and Edinburgh University and Edinburgh College of Art, he settled in New York City. In New York, Indiana's lover Ellsworth Kelly helped. On Coenties Slip he met neighboring artists like Jack Youngerman, Agnes Martin and Cy Twombly, with whom he shared his studio for a time.
In 1964, Indiana moved from Coenties Slip to a five-story building at the Bowery. In 1969, he began renting the upstairs of the mansarded Victorian-style Odd Fellows Hall named "The Star of Hope" in the island town of Vinalhaven, Maine, as a seasonal studio from the photographer Eliot Elisofon. Half a century earlier, Marsden Hartley had made his escape to the same island; when Elisofon died in 1973, Indiana bought the lodge for $10,000 from his estate. He moved in full-time when he lost his lease on the Bowery in 1978. Indiana grew reclusive in his final years, he died on May 19, 2018, at his home in Vinalhaven, Maine, of respiratory failure at the age of 89. One day before his death, a lawsuit was filed over claims that his caretaker had isolated him from family and friends, was marketing unauthorized reproductions of his works. Indiana's work consists of bold, iconic images numbers and short words like EAT, HUG, his best known example, LOVE. In his EAT series, the word blares in light bulbs against a neutral background.
In a major career milestone, the architect Philip Johnson commissioned an EAT sign for the New York State Pavilion at the 1964 New York World's Fair. The sign was turned off one day after the opening of the fair because visitors believed it to mark a restaurant. Andy Warhol's contribution to the fair was removed that day. Other well-known works by Indiana include: his painting the unique basketball court used by the Milwaukee Bucks in that city's MECCA Arena, with a large M shape taking up each half of the court. Between 1989 and 1994, Indiana painted a series of 18 canvases inspired by the shapes and numbers in the war motifs paintings that Marsden Hartley did in Berlin between 1913 and 1915. Indiana was a theatrical set and costume designer, such as the 1976 production by the Santa Fe Opera of Virgil Thomson's The Mother of Us All, based on the life of suffragist Susan B. Anthony, he was the star of Andy Warhol's film Eat, a 45-minute film of Indiana eating a mushroom. Warhol made the brief silent film Bob Indiana Etc. a portrait of the artist with appearances by Wynn Chamberlain and John Giorno.
Indiana's best known image is the word Love in upper-case letters, arranged in a square with a tilted letter "O". The iconography first appeared in a series of poems written in 1958, in which Indiana stacked LO and VE on top of one another in a painting with the words "Love is God"; the red/green/blue image was created for a Christmas card for the Museum of Modern Art in 1964. It was put on an eight-cent U. S. Postal Service postage stamp in 1973, the first of their regular series of "love stamps"; the first serigraph/silk screen of "Love" was printed as part of an exhibition poster for Stable Gallery in 1966. In 1977, he created a Hebrew version with the four-letter word Ahava using Cor-ten steel, for the Israel Museum Art Garden in Jerusalem. In 2008, Indiana created an image similar to his iconic LOVE, but this time showcasing the word "HOPE", donated all proceeds from the sale of reproductions of his image to Democrat Barack Obama's presidential campaign, raising in excess of $1,000,000. A stainless steel sculpture of HOPE was unveiled outside Denver's Pepsi Center during the 2008 Democratic National Convention.
Editions of the sculpture have been released and sold internationally and the artist himself has called HOPE "Love's close relative". For Valentine's Day 2011, Indiana created a similar variation on LOVE for Google, displayed in place of the search engine site's normal logo. In 1962, Eleanor Ward's Stable Gallery hosted Robert Indiana's first New York solo exhibition, he was represented by Paul Kasmin Gallery in New York Galerie Gmurzynska in Europe. From July 4 – September 14, 2008, Indiana's work was the subject of the grand multiple-location exhibition "Robert Indiana a Milano" with the main exhibition having been at the Padiglione d’Arte Contemporanea, in the city, with other works displayed in public piazzas. In 2013, the Whitney Museum of American Art mounted a retrospective of his work entitled "Robert Indiana: Beyond LOVE", this exhibition traveled to the
As a physical object, a book is a stack of rectangular pages oriented with one edge tied, sewn, or otherwise fixed together and bound to the flexible spine of a protective cover of heavier inflexible material. The technical term for this physical arrangement is codex. In the history of hand-held physical supports for extended written compositions or records, the codex replaces its immediate predecessor, the scroll. A single sheet in a codex is a leaf, each side of a leaf is a page; as an intellectual object, a book is prototypically a composition of such great length that it takes a considerable investment of time to compose and a still considerable, though not so extensive, investment of time to read. This sense of book has an unrestricted sense. In the restricted sense, a book is a self-sufficient section or part of a longer composition, a usage that reflects the fact that, in antiquity, long works had to be written on several scrolls, each scroll had to be identified by the book it contained.
So, for instance, each part of Aristotle's Physics is called a book, as of course the Bible encompasses many different books. In the unrestricted sense, a book is the compositional whole of which such sections, whether called books or chapters or parts, are parts; the intellectual content in a physical book need not be a composition, nor be called a book. Books can consist only of drawings, engravings, or photographs, or such things as crossword puzzles or cut-out dolls. In a physical book the pages can be left blank or can feature an abstract set of lines as support for on-going entries, i.e. an account book, an appointment book, a log book, an autograph book, a notebook, a diary or day book, or a sketch book. Some physical books are made with pages thick and sturdy enough to support other physical objects, like a scrapbook or photograph album. Books may be distributed in electronic form as other formats. Although in ordinary academic parlance a monograph is understood to be a specialist academic work, rather than a reference work on a single scholarly subject, in library and information science monograph denotes more broadly any non-serial publication complete in one volume or a finite number of volumes, in contrast to serial publications like a magazine, journal, or newspaper.
An avid reader or collector of books or a book lover is a bibliophile or colloquially, "bookworm". A shop where books are bought and sold is a bookstore. Books are sold elsewhere. Books can be borrowed from libraries. Google has estimated that as of 2010 130,000,000 distinct titles had been published. In some wealthier nations, the sale of printed books has decreased because of the use of e-books, though sales of e-books declined in the first half of 2015; the word book comes from Old English "bōc", which in turn comes from the Germanic root "*bōk-", cognate to "beech". In Slavic languages "буква" is cognate with "beech". In Russian and in Serbian and Macedonian, the word "букварь" or "буквар" refers to a primary school textbook that helps young children master the techniques of reading and writing, it is thus conjectured. The Latin word codex, meaning a book in the modern sense meant "block of wood"; when writing systems were created in ancient civilizations, a variety of objects, such as stone, tree bark, metal sheets, bones, were used for writing.
A tablet is a physically robust writing medium, suitable for casual transport and writing. Clay tablets were flattened and dry pieces of clay that could be carried, impressed with a stylus, they were used as a writing medium for writing in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age and well into the Iron Age. Wax tablets were pieces of wood covered in a thick enough coating of wax to record the impressions of a stylus, they were the normal writing material in schools, in accounting, for taking notes. They had the advantage of being reusable: the wax could be melted, reformed into a blank; the custom of binding several wax tablets together is a possible precursor of modern bound books. The etymology of the word codex suggests that it may have developed from wooden wax tablets. Scrolls can be made from papyrus, a thick paper-like material made by weaving the stems of the papyrus plant pounding the woven sheet with a hammer-like tool until it is flattened. Papyrus was used for writing in Ancient Egypt as early as the First Dynasty, although the first evidence is from the account books of King Nefertiti Kakai of the Fifth Dynasty.
Papyrus sheets were glued together to form a scroll. Tree bark such as lime and other materials were used. According to Herodotus, the Phoenicians brought writing and papyrus to Greece around the 10th or 9th century BC; the Greek word for papyrus as writing material and book come from the Phoenician port town Byblos, through which papyrus was exported to Greece. From Greek we derive the word tome, which meant a slice or piece and from there began to denote "a roll of papyrus". Tomus was used by the Latins with the same meaning as volumen. Whether made from papyrus, parchment, or paper, scrolls were the dominant form of book in the Hellenistic, Chinese and Macedonian culture
Harry Potter is a series of fantasy novels written by British author J. K. Rowling; the novels chronicle the lives of a young wizard, Harry Potter, his friends Hermione Granger and Ron Weasley, all of whom are students at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. The main story arc concerns Harry's struggle against Lord Voldemort, a dark wizard who intends to become immortal, overthrow the wizard governing body known as the Ministry of Magic, subjugate all wizards and Muggles. Since the release of the first novel, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, on 26 June 1997, the books have found immense popularity, critical acclaim and commercial success worldwide, they have attracted a wide adult audience as well as younger readers and are considered cornerstones of modern young adult literature. As of February 2018, the books have sold more than 500 million copies worldwide, making them the best-selling book series in history, have been translated into eighty languages; the last four books consecutively set records as the fastest-selling books in history, with the final instalment selling eleven million copies in the United States within twenty-four hours of its release.
The series was published in English by two major publishers, Bloomsbury in the United Kingdom and Scholastic Press in the United States. A play, Harry Potter and the Cursed Child, based on a story co-written by Rowling, premiered in London on 30 July 2016 at the Palace Theatre, its script was published by Little, Brown; the original seven books were adapted into an eight-part namesake film series by Warner Bros. Pictures, the third highest-grossing film series of all time as of February 2018. In 2016, the total value of the Harry Potter franchise was estimated at $25 billion, making Harry Potter one of the highest-grossing media franchises of all time. A series of many genres, including fantasy, coming of age, the British school story, the world of Harry Potter explores numerous themes and includes many cultural meanings and references. According to Rowling, the main theme is death. Other major themes in the series include prejudice and madness; the success of the books and films has allowed the Harry Potter franchise to expand with numerous derivative works, a travelling exhibition that premiered in Chicago in 2009, a studio tour in London that opened in 2012, a digital platform on which J.
K. Rowling updates the series with new information and insight, a pentalogy of spin-off films premiering in November 2016 with Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them, among many other developments. Most themed attractions, collectively known as The Wizarding World of Harry Potter, have been built at several Universal Parks & Resorts amusement parks around the world; the central character in the series is Harry Potter, a boy who lives in Surrey with his aunt and cousin – the Dursleys – and discovers, at the age of eleven, that he is a wizard, though he lives in the ordinary world of non-magical people known as Muggles. The wizarding world exists parallel to the Muggle world, albeit hidden and in secrecy, his magical ability is inborn, children with such abilities are invited to attend exclusive magic schools that teach the necessary skills to succeed in the wizarding world. Harry becomes a student at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, a wizarding academy in Scotland, it is here where most of the events in the series take place.
As Harry develops through his adolescence, he learns to overcome the problems that face him: magical and emotional, including ordinary teenage challenges such as friendships, romantic relationships and exams, depression and the greater test of preparing himself for the confrontation that lies ahead in wizarding Britain's increasingly-violent second wizarding war. Each novel chronicles one year in Harry's life during the period from 1991 to 1998; the books contain many flashbacks, which are experienced by Harry viewing the memories of other characters in a device called a Pensieve. The environment Rowling created is intimately connected to reality; the British magical community of the Harry Potter books is inspired by 1990s British culture, European folklore, classical mythology and alchemy, incorporating objects and wildlife such as magic wands, magic plants, spells, flying broomsticks and other magical creatures, the Philosopher's Stone, beside others invented by Rowling. While the fantasy land of Narnia is an alternate universe and the Lord of the Rings' Middle-earth a mythic past, the wizarding world of Harry Potter exists parallel to the real world and contains magical versions of the ordinary elements of everyday life, with the action set in Scotland, the West Country, Devon and Surrey in southeast England.
The world only accessible to wizards and magical beings comprises a fragmented collection of overlooked hidden streets, ancient pubs, lonely country manors, secluded castles invisible to the Muggle population. When the first novel of the series, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone opens, it is apparent that some significant event has taken place in the wizarding world – an event so remarkable Muggles notice signs of it; the full background to this event and Harry Potter's past is revealed throughout the series. After the introductory chapter, the book leaps forward to a time shortly before Harry Potter's eleventh birthday, it is at this point that his magical background begins to be revealed. Despite Harry's aunt and uncle's desperate prevention of Harry
James Brendan Patterson is an American author and philanthropist. Among his works are the Alex Cross, Michael Bennett, Women's Murder Club, Maximum Ride, Daniel X, NYPD Red and Wizard, Private series, as well as many stand-alone thrillers, non-fiction and romance novels, his books have sold more than 300 million copies and he was the first person to sell 1 million e-books. In 2016, Patterson topped Forbes's list of highest-paid authors for the third consecutive year, with an income of $95 million, his total income over a decade is estimated at $700 million. In November 2015, Patterson received the Literarian Award from the National Book Foundation, which cited him as a "passionate campaigner to make books and reading a national priority. A generous supporter of universities, teachers colleges, independent bookstores, school libraries, college students, Patterson has donated millions of dollars in grants and scholarships with the purpose of encouraging Americans of all ages to read more books."
Patterson was born on March 22, 1947, in Newburgh, New York, the son of Isabelle, a homemaker and teacher, Charles Patterson, an insurance broker. He graduated summa cum laude with both a B. A. in English from Manhattan College and an M. A. in English from Vanderbilt University. Patterson was a Ph. D. candidate at Vanderbilt but acquired a job in advertising. He was an advertising executive at J. Walter Thompson. After he retired from advertising in 1996, he devoted his time to writing, his greatest influence, he said was Evan S. Connell's 1959 debut novel Mrs. Bridge, he published. The novels featuring his character Alex Cross, a forensic psychologist of the Washington D. C. Metropolitan Police and Federal Bureau of Investigation, who now works as a private psychologist and government consultant, are his most popular and the top-selling U. S. detective series in the past ten years. Patterson has written 147 novels since 1976, he has had 114 New York Times bestselling novels, holds The New York Times record for most #1 New York Times bestsellers by a single author, a total of 67, a Guinness World Record.
His novels account for one in 17 6%, of all hardcover novels sold in the United States. His books have sold 305 million copies worldwide. In 2008, he replaced Jacqueline Wilson as the most borrowed author in Britain's libraries, he retained this position at least until 2013. In 2018, he worked with Stephen David Entertainment on the true crime television series James Patterson's Murder Is Forever. Patterson's awards include the Edgar Award, the BCA Mystery Guild's Thriller of the Year, the International Thriller of the Year award, the Children's Choice Book Award for Author of the Year, he is the first author to have No. 1 new titles on The New York Times adult and children's bestsellers lists, to have two books on NovelTrackr's top-ten list at the same time. He appeared in various episodes of Castle as himself. Patterson works with a variety of co-authors, such as Candice Fox, Maxine Paetro, Andrew Gross, Mark Sullivan, Ashwin Sanghi, Michael Ledwidge, Peter de Jonge. In May 2017, it was announced that Patterson would co-author a crime fiction book with former U.
S. President Bill Clinton. Patterson said the novel, The President Is Missing, will provide a level of detail that only a former U. S. President can offer. Patterson has said that collaborating with others brings new and interesting ideas to his stories. Of his process, he has stated that he is more proficient at dreaming up plots than crafting sentence after sentence. In September 2009, Patterson signed a deal to write or co-write 11 books for adults and 6 for young adults by the end of 2012. Forbes reported the deal was worth at least $150 million, but according to Patterson the estimate was inaccurate. Patterson founded the James Patterson PageTurner Awards in 2005 to donate over $100,000 that year to people, companies and other institutions that find original and effective ways to spread the excitement of books and reading; the PageTurner Awards were put on hold in 2008 to focus on Patterson's new initiative, ReadKiddoRead.com, which helps parents and librarians find the best books for their children.
The social networking site for ReadKiddoRead is hosted by Ning. Patterson states that his own son, wasn't the best reader in the class. So, in Jack's 8th summer, Patterson said that Jack did not need to do chores, just read 1 hour a day; the first summer, he resisted, the second summer, he accepted it, the third, Jack wanted to. Patterson wanted to give that opportunity to every child, so he started the ReadKiddoRead website, for parents who just can't seem to find any good books for their child. Patterson has set up the James Patterson Teacher Education Scholarship in the schools of education at Appalachian State University, Michigan State University, Florida Atlantic University, the University of Florida. Patterson runs the College Book Bucks scholarship program. Patterson has been criticized for co-authoring many of his books and for being more of a brand that focuses on making money than an artist who focuses on his craft. In an interview for USA Weekend, Stephen King referred to Patterson as "a terrible writer but he's successful."
King implied, while being asked on The Late Show with Stephen Colbert about how many hours it takes him to write a book, that Patterson needed only twelve hours for two books, noting he and Patterson had "a mutual respect – sort of". Patterson said of King in a Wall
Richard Avedon was an American fashion and portrait photographer. An obituary published in The New York Times said that "his fashion and portrait photographs helped define America's image of style and culture for the last half-century". Avedon was born to a Jewish family, his father, Jacob Israel Avedon, was a Russian-born immigrant who advanced from menial work to starting his own successful retail dress business on Fifth Avenue, called Avedon's Fifth Avenue. His mother, from a family that owned a dress-manufacturing business, encouraged Richard's love of fashion and art. Avedon's interest in photography emerged when, at age 12, he joined a Young Men's Hebrew Association Camera Club, he would use his family's Kodak Box Brownie not only to feed his curiosity about the world, but to retreat from his personal life. His father was a critical and remote disciplinarian who insisted that physical strength and money prepared one for life; the photographer's first muse was Louise. During her teen years she struggled through psychiatric treatment becoming withdrawn from reality and diagnosed with schizophrenia.
These early influences of fashion and family would shape Avedon's life and career expressed in his desire to capture tragic beauty in photos. Avedon attended DeWitt Clinton High School in Bedford Park, where from 1937 until 1940 he worked on the school paper, The Magpie, with James Baldwin; as a teen he won a Scholastic Art and Writing Award. After graduating from DeWitt Clinton that year he enrolled at Columbia University to study philosophy and poetry but dropped out after one year, he started as a photographer for the Merchant Marines, taking ID shots of the crewmen with the Rolleiflex camera his father had given him. From 1944 to 1950 Avedon studied photography with Alexey Brodovitch at his Design Laboratory at The New School for Social Research. In 1944, Avedon began working as an advertising photographer for a department store, but was endorsed by Alexey Brodovitch, art director for the fashion magazine Harper's Bazaar. Lillian Bassman promoted Avedon's career at Harper's. In 1945 his photographs began appearing in Junior Bazaar and, a year in Harper's Bazaar.
In 1946, Avedon had set up his own studio and began providing images for magazines including Vogue and Life. He soon became the chief photographer for Harper's Bazaar. From 1950 he contributed photographs to Life and Graphis and in 1952 became Staff Editor and photographer for Theatre Arts Magazine. Avedon did not conform to the standard technique of taking studio fashion photographs, where models stood emotionless and indifferent to the camera. Instead, Avedon showed models full of emotion, laughing, many times, in action in outdoor settings, revolutionary at the time. However, towards the end of the 1950s he became dissatisfied with daylight photography and open air locations and so turned to studio photography, using strobe lighting; when Diana Vreeland left Harper's Bazaar for Vogue in 1962, Avedon joined her as a staff photographer. He proceeded to become the lead photographer at Vogue and photographed most of the covers from 1973 until Anna Wintour became editor in chief in late 1988. Notable among his fashion advertisement series are the recurring assignments for Gianni Versace, beginning with the spring/summer campaign 1980.
He photographed the Calvin Klein Jeans campaign featuring a fifteen-year-old Brooke Shields, as well as directing her in the accompanying television commercials. Avedon first worked with Shields in 1974 for a Colgate toothpaste ad, he shot her for 12 American Vogue covers and Revlon's Most Unforgettable Women campaign. In the February 9, 1981, issue of Newsweek, Avedon said, she focuses the inarticulate rage people feel about the decline in contemporary morality and destruction of innocence in the world." On working with Avedon, Shields told Interview magazine in May 1992 "When Dick walks into the room, a lot of people are intimidated. But when he works, he's so sensitive, and he doesn't like it. There is a mutual vulnerability, a moment of fusion when he clicks the shutter. You either get it or you don't". In addition to his continuing fashion work, by the 1960s Avedon was making studio portraits of civil rights workers and cultural dissidents of various stripes in an America fissured by discord and violence.
He branched out into photographing patients of mental hospitals, the Civil Rights Movement in 1963, protesters of the Vietnam War, the fall of the Berlin Wall. A personal book called “Nothing Personal,” with a text by his high school classmate James Baldwin appeared in 1964. During this period, Avedon created two well known sets of portraits of The Beatles; the first, taken in mid to late 1967, became one of the first major rock poster series, consisted of five psychedelic portraits of the group — four solarized individual color portraits and a black-and-white group portrait taken with a Rolleiflex camera and a normal Planar lens. The next year he photographed the much more restrained portraits that were included with The Beatles LP in 1968. Among the many other rock bands photographed by Avedon, in 1973 he shot Electric Light Orchestra with all the members exposing their bellybuttons for recording, On the Third Day. Avedon was always interested in how portraiture captures the soul of its subject.
As his reputation as a photographer became known, he photographed many noted people in his studio with a large-format 8×10 view camera. His subjects include Buster Keaton, Marian Anderson, Marilyn Monroe, Ezra
Goosebumps is a series of children's horror fiction novels by American author R. L. Stine, published by Scholastic Publishing; the stories follow child characters, who find themselves in scary situations involving monsters and other supernatural elements. From 1992 to 1997, sixty-two books were published under the Goosebumps umbrella title. Various spin-off series were written by Stine: Goosebumps Series 2000, Give Yourself Goosebumps, Tales to Give You Goosebumps, Goosebumps Triple Header, Goosebumps HorrorLand, Goosebumps Most Wanted and Goosebumps SlappyWorld. Another series, Goosebumps Gold, was never released. Goosebumps has spawned a television series and merchandise, as well as a series of feature films, starring Jack Black as Stine. Since the release of its first novel, Welcome to Dead House, in July 1992, the series has sold over 400 million books worldwide in thirty-two languages, becoming the second-best-selling book series in history. Individual books in the series have been listed in several bestseller lists, including the New York Times Best Seller list for children.
The Goosebumps series falls under the children's fiction and thriller genres, although Stine characterizes the series as "scary books that are funny". Each book features different child settings; the primary protagonists can be either male or female. The primary protagonists of a Goosebumps story are situated in a remote location or somehow isolated from typical societal conventions; this can range anywhere from comfortable suburban areas to boarding schools, foreign villages or campsites. Books feature characters who either moved to a new neighborhood or are sent to stay with relatives; the books in the Goosebumps series feature similar plot structures with fictional children being involved in scary situations. At his peak, Stine was known to complete these stories quickly, some of which were written in only six days; the books are written in first person narrative concluding with twist endings. They contain surreal horror, with characters encountering the supernatural; the author has plot devices.
Stine says he does not have any death in his stories, the children in his novels are never put into situations that would be considered too serious. He attributed the success of his books to their absence of drugs and violence. Books and characters in the series were inspired by films. For example, the character Slappy the Dummy was inspired by the literary classic The Adventures of Pinocchio; some of Stine's ideas for the books came from real life. Stine uses his childhood fears to help him write his books; the author said, "Luckily, I have a great memory. As I write a story, I can remember what it feels like to be afraid and panicky". Stine states that he thinks of a title to a novel first lets the title lead him to a story. Two common themes in the series are children triumphing over evil and children facing horrid or frightening situations and using their own wit and imagination to escape them. Stine does not attempt to incorporate moral lessons into his novels, says his books are "strictly reading motivation".
Recurring characters who appear in multiple books and media. Slappy the Dummy is the main villain of the Night of the Living Dummy saga and the most recurring character of the series; the Haunted Mask is the villain of the book saga of the same name. Technically it's a mask that's haunted The Horrors serves as the main villain of the HorrorLand book series, The Monster Blood is the titular monster of the book series of the same name. Carly Beth Caldwell is one of the recurring protagonists of the Haunted Mask series. Billy Deep is the main character of the Deep Trouble series. Evan Ross is the main protagonist of the first four books of Monster Blood. Lizzy Morris is the protagonist of the first two HorrorLand books and a major protagonist of the HorrorLand series; the Menace is the main villain of the first story arc of the HorrorLand series. Jonathan Chiller is the main villain of the second arc of the Goosebumps HorrorLand series. Following the success of Stine's young adult horror novels, the co-founder of Parachute Press, Joan Waricha, persuaded him to write scary books for younger children.
Stine says the name for the book series came to him after he saw a TV station's ad in TV Guide that stated "It’s goosebumps week on Channel 11". He signed a six-book deal with the publisher Scholastic, but went on to write 62 books in the original series, the first book being Welcome to Dead House, released in July 1992; the series was aimed at girls, but both boys and girls enjoyed the series with half of Stine's fan mail being sent from boys. The cover illustrations for this series were first done by Tim Jacobus. Twenty-nine of the books from the original series were re-released with new artwork under the Classic Goosebumps rename; the books in the Tales to Give You Goosebumps and Goosebumps Triple Header series were written as short story anthologies, featuring a collection of stories in each book. From 1994 to 1997, six Tales to Give You Goosebumps books were published. Two Goosebumps Triple Header books were released from 1997 to 1998, beginning with Three Shocking Tales of Terror: Book 1.
Fifty Give Yourself Goosebumps books were published from 1995 to 2000, starting with Escape from the Carnival of Horrors. The books in this series were written as gamebooks; the books in this series were ghostwritten by several authors, including Kathryn Lance and Stine's sister-in-la
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t