Meinhardt Schomberg, 3rd Duke of Schomberg
Meinhardt Schomberg, 3rd Duke of Schomberg, 1st Duke of Leinster, KG, was a general in the service of Willem, Prince of Orange and Stadtholder of Holland King William III of England. He fought in the Franco-Dutch War played a crucial role at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690 during the Williamite War in Ireland and commanded the British troops deployed to Portugal during the War of the Spanish Succession. Born the son of Frederick Schomberg, 1st Duke of Schomberg, Johanna Elizabeth de Schomberg, Meinhardt Schomberg joined his father in the service of the English Expeditionary brigade to Portugal and served as a lieutenant-colonel and as a colonel, he settled in La Rochelle with his father and became a French subject. He attained the rank of brigadier and, maréchal de camp, during the Franco-Dutch War in 1678, he fought under Marshal François de Créquy at the Battle of Kochersburg in October 1677, the Battle of Freiburg im Breisgau on 14 November 1677, at the Battle of Rheinfelden in July 1678 and at the Battle of Kinzing that month, before serving under Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg as a general of cavalry.
He travelled to England in Spring 1689 and was made colonel of Lord Cavendish's Regiment of Horse on 10 April 1690 and commissioned a general of the horse on 19 April 1690. He served under his father during the Williamite War in Ireland, fighting against the Jacobite Irish Army. Frederick Schomberg was second in command of William's army at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690. Meanwhile, Meinhardt Schomberg commanded the right wing of William's army during the battle and led the crucial crossing of the River Boyne at Roughgrange near Rosnaree on the Jacobites' flank, the turning point in the confrontation, despite a gallant defence by Sir Neil O'Neill, a Jacobite general. Schomberg engaged in a pursuit of the retreating troops towards Duleek: there were no casualties amongst his regiment's soldiers. Schomberg's father died during the latter stages of the Battle which resulted in a decisive Williamite victory. Meinhardt Schomberg was created Duke of Leinster for his part in the Battle on 30 June 1690 and, after taking part in the abortive Siege of Limerick in August 1690, he became a British subject through naturalization by Act of Parliament on 25 April 1691.
From May 1691 he was made Commander-in-Chief of the Forces during the King's travels in Flanders. In Spring 1693 Schomberg was placed in command of the abortive descent on Saint-Malo and in October 1693 he inherited the title of Duke of Schomberg following the death of his younger brother Charles Schomberg at the Battle of Marsaglia. In 1698 he moved into Schomberg House, a new mansion specially commissioned for him on the south side of Pall Mall, London. In 1703, he was created Knight of the Garter and Queen Anne appointed him Commander-in-Chief of the British forces sent to Portugal for the War of the Spanish Succession. Once in Portugal Schomberg was ineffective allowing the Spanish General Tserclaes de Tilly to pass by unchallenged. Moreover, Schomberg had a dreadful temper which attracted universal disgust: neither Peter II, King of Portugal, nor Charles, claimant to the throne of Spain, were prepared to accept his turbulent behaviour and he was sent home in disgrace. Meinhardt Schomberg had an interest in naval matters and registered a patent concerning inspecting the fishing for wrecks.
He commissioned the construction of Hillingdon House in 1717 as his hunting lodge and died there on 16 July 1719. He had no male issue; the town of Schomberg, Ontario was renamed to commemorate the 3rd Duke of Schomberg in 1862. On 3 August 1667, Schomberg married firstly Piedmontese Barbara Luisa Rizzi: the couple did not have any children. On 4 January 1682 Schomberg married secondly Raugräfin Karoline Elisabeth and together they had four children: Charles Louis Schomberg, Marquess of Harwich, died from tuberculosis. Lady Caroline Schomberg Lady Frederica Schomberg Lady Mary Schomberg Cruickshank, Eveline; the House of Commons, 1690-1715, Volume 1. Cambridge. ISBN 0 521 77221 4. Noble, Mark. A biographical history of England, from the Revolution to the end of George I's reign. Shaw, William. Index of persons and Places: S', Calendar of Treasury Books, Volume 14: 1698-1699. Sherwood, Philip. Around Uxbridge Past & Present. Stroud: Sutton Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7509-4794-7
Huguenots are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants. The term has its origin in early 16th century France, it was used in reference to those of the Reformed Church of France from the time of the Protestant Reformation. Huguenots were French Protestants. By contrast, the Protestant populations of eastern France, in Alsace and Montbéliard were ethnic German Lutherans. In his Encyclopedia of Protestantism, Hans Hillerbrand said that, on the eve of the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre in 1572, the Huguenot community included as much as 10% of the French population. By 1600 it had declined to 7–8%, was reduced further after the return of severe persecution in 1685 under Louis XIV's Edict of Fontainebleau; the Huguenots were believed to be concentrated among the population in the southern and western parts of the Kingdom of France. As Huguenots gained influence and more displayed their faith, Catholic hostility grew. A series of religious conflicts followed, known as the French Wars of Religion, fought intermittently from 1562 to 1598.
The Huguenots were led by Jeanne d'Albret, her son, the future Henry IV, the princes of Condé. The wars ended with the Edict of Nantes, which granted the Huguenots substantial religious and military autonomy. Huguenot rebellions in the 1620s resulted in the abolition of their political and military privileges, they retained the religious provisions of the Edict of Nantes until the rule of Louis XIV, who increased persecution of Protestantism until he issued the Edict of Fontainebleau. This ended legal recognition of Protestantism in France and the Huguenots were forced either to convert to Catholicism or flee as refugees. Louis XIV claimed that the French Huguenot population was reduced from about 800,000-900,000 adherents to just 1,000-1,500, he exaggerated the decline, but the dragonnades were devastating for the French Protestant community. The remaining Huguenots faced continued persecution under Louis XV. By the time of his death in 1774, Calvinism had been nearly eliminated from France. Persecution of Protestants ended with the Edict of Versailles, signed by Louis XVI in 1787.
Two years with the Revolutionary Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of 1789, Protestants gained equal rights as citizens. The bulk of Huguenot émigrés relocated to Protestant states such as the Dutch Republic and Wales, Protestant-controlled Ireland, the Channel Islands, Denmark, Switzerland, the Electorate of Brandenburg and Electorate of the Palatinate in the Holy Roman Empire, the Duchy of Prussia; some fled as refugees to the Dutch Cape Colony in South Africa, the Dutch East Indies, the Caribbean colonies, several of the Dutch and English colonies in North America. A few families went to Catholic Quebec. After centuries, most Huguenots have assimilated into the various societies and cultures where they settled. Remnant communities of Camisards in the Cévennes, most Reformed members of the United Protestant Church of France, French members of the German Protestant Reformed Church of Alsace and Lorraine, the Huguenot diaspora in England and Australia, all still retain their beliefs and Huguenot designation.
A term used in derision, Huguenot has unclear origins. Various hypotheses have been promoted; the term may have been a combined reference to the Swiss politician Besançon Hugues and the religiously conflicted nature of Swiss republicanism in his time. It used a derogatory pun on the name Hugues by way of the Dutch word Huisgenoten, referring to the connotations of a somewhat related word in German Eidgenosse. Geneva was the centre of the Calvinist movement. In Geneva, though Catholic, was a leader of the "Confederate Party", so called because it favoured independence from the Duke of Savoy, it sought an alliance between the city-state of the Swiss Confederation. The label Huguenot was purportedly first applied in France to those conspirators who were involved in the Amboise plot of 1560: a foiled attempt to wrest power in France from the influential and zealously Catholic House of Guise; this action would have fostered relations with the Swiss. O. I. A. Roche promoted this idea among historians, he wrote in his book, The Days of the Upright, A History of the Huguenots, that "Huguenot" is: "a combination of a Dutch and a German word.
In the Dutch-speaking North of France, Bible students who gathered in each other's houses to study secretly were called Huis Genooten while on the Swiss and German borders they were termed Eid Genossen, or'oath fellows,' that is, persons bound to each other by an oath. Gallicised into'Huguenot' used deprecatingly, the word became, during two and a half centuries of terror and triumph, a badge of enduring honour and courage." Some disagree with such triple non-French linguistic origins. Janet Gray argues that for the word to have spread into common use in France, it must have originated there in French; the "Hugues hypothesis" argues that the name was derived by association with Hugues Capet, king of France, who reigned long before the Reformation. He was regarded by the Gallicians as a noble man who lives. Janet Gray and other supporters of the hypothesis suggest that the name huguenote would be equivalent to little Hugos, or those who want Hugo. In t
Richard Cosway was a leading English portrait painter of the Regency era, noted for his miniatures. He was a contemporary of John Smart, George Engleheart, William Wood, Richard Crosse, his wife was a close friend of Thomas Jefferson. Richard Cosway was born in Tiverton, the son of a schoolmaster, he was educated at Blundell's School but at the age of twelve he was allowed to travel to London to take lessons in painting. He by 1760 had established his own business, he was soon in demand. He was one of the first group of associate members of the Royal Academy, elected in August 1770, was elected a full member the following March, on the casting vote of the academy's president, Sir Joshua Reynolds, he is included in Johan Zoffany's group portrait of the members of the academy. He painted the future King George IV in 1780 and was appointed Painter to the Prince of Wales in 1785—the only time this title was awarded, his subjects included the Prince's first wife, Maria Anne Fitzherbert, various English and French aristocrats, including Madame du Barry, mistress of King Louis XV of France.
Cosway's pupils included Andrew Plimer. From 1995 to 1996, the National Portrait Gallery in London held an exhibition entitled Richard and Maria Cosway: Regency Artists of Taste and Fashion, with 250 works on display. On 18 January 1781, Cosway married the Anglo-Italian artist Maria Hadfield. Maria was a composer and authority on girls' education and was much admired by Thomas Jefferson, who wrote letters to her decrying her marriage to another man and kept an engraving made from one of Cosway's paintings of Maria at Monticello; the Cosways' marriage is thought to be an arranged marriage and a marriage of convenience due to his being 20 years her senior. Richard was "well known as a libertine and described as resembling a monkey." The film Jefferson in Paris depicts Maria Cosway's romance with Thomas Jefferson and depicts Richard Cosway as effeminate, something, not certain historically. In 1784, the Cosways moved into Schomberg House, Pall Mall, which became a fashionable salon for London society.
In 1791 they moved to a larger house in Stratford Place. However, the marriage did not last being annulled. In life, Cosway suffered from mental disorders and spent some time in various institutions, he was buried at Marylebone New Church. Sir John Soane bought. Gerald Barnett and Maria Cosway: A Biography. Tiverton, Devon, UK: Westcountry Books, 1995. Philippe Bordes, "Richard and Maria Cosway, Edinburgh," Burlington Magazine, vol. 137, no. 1111, pp. 700–702. In JSTOR. Daphne Foskett, Miniatures: Dictionary and Guide. London: Antique Collectors' Club, 1987. Duncan MacMillan, "The Cosways," RSA Journal, vol. 143, no. 5464, pp. 65–66. In JSTOR. "Richard Cosway,'The Macaroni Miniature Painter,'" The Art Amateur, vol. 8, no. 2, pg. 38. In JSTOR. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Cosway, Richard". Encyclopædia Britannica. 7. Cambridge University Press. Fagan, Louis Alexander. "Cosway, Richard". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography. 12. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Lloyd, Stephen. "Cosway, Richard". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.
Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/6383. 24 paintings by or after Richard Cosway at the Art UK site Victoria and Albert Museum miniatures gallery Frits Lugt, Les marques de collections de dessins & d'estampes, 1921 and its Supplement 1956, L.628 and L.629, online edition A catalogue of the curious and valuable library of Richard Cosway, Esq. R. A, digital facsimile from Houghton Library, Harvard University
Oxford and Cambridge Club
The Oxford and Cambridge Club is a traditional London Club. The Club is the result of a number of amalgamations of university clubs, most that of 1972 between the United University Club, founded in 1821, the Oxford and Cambridge University Club, founded in 1830. From 1972 until 2001 the Club was known as the United Oxford and Cambridge University Club, in 2001 it reverted to its original name of the Oxford and Cambridge Club. In June 2017 the Club elected its first female Chair. Membership, by election, is open to those people who have received a degree or honorary degree from either the University of Oxford or the University of Cambridge, have been granted MA status or have been admitted as a full member of a college or hall in either university, or are members of the Congregation of the University of Oxford or the Regent House of the University of Cambridge. New members must be seconded by two current club members. One of the ways in which the Club fosters its relationship with the two Universities is by offering honorary membership for their terms of office to the vice chancellors and heads of house.
The club's separate membership policies for men and women came under attack in the mid-1990s. In February 1995, a statement signed by the heads of more than 70 Oxford and Cambridge colleges, two vice chancellors, Oxford's chancellor, declared that the two universities were disassociating from the Club "because of what they call its'offensive' and'discriminatory' policies to women". Dr Peter North, the vice chancellor of Oxford, stated at the time that the "'university council has asked the law department to consider our legal position in relation to the use of the universities' names and our coats of arms'". Four months the club voted to allow lady associate members "access to the main staircase and the library", provided they pay an extra fee of £100. In February 1996, members of the club voted to admit women as full members. Queen Margrethe II of Denmark became the club's first Honorary Lady Member in 1997; the Club house, a Grade II* listed building, was designed for the Oxford and Cambridge University Club by Sir Robert Smirke.
It opened to members in 1838. The facade is an important example of the Greek revival style with which Smirke was associated. In 1952 the Club extended its premises to incorporate the neighbouring house, 77 Pall Mall the home of Princess Marie Louise, a granddaughter of Queen Victoria. Facilities available to members include bedrooms, an opulent Coffee Room, serving breakfast and dinner seven days a week, two bars, two squash courts, a billiard room, a well-maintained library of over 20,000 books, with its own librarian, a roof terrace and a small business area; the Club arranges social and sporting events. Members may hire the Club’s function rooms for social or business purposes. In November 2017, a backup computer drive containing the personal details of 5000 of the club's members, among them Stephen Fry and Martin Rees, was stolen from a locked room inside the premises; the information stored on it is said to include names, home addresses, phone numbers and some bank details. List of London's gentlemen's clubs Lejeune, with Lewis, Malcolm: The Gentlemen's Clubs of London, 1st edition by MacDonald & Janes, 1979, reprinted 1984 and 1987.
ISBN 0-946495-14-9 Club website
Coade stone or Lithodipyra or Lithodipra was stoneware, described as an artificial stone in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. It was used for moulding neoclassical statues, architectural decorations and garden ornaments that both were of the highest quality and remain weatherproof today. Produced by appointment to George III and the Prince Regent, it features on St George's Chapel, Windsor. Lithodipyra was first created around 1770 by Eleanor Coade who ran Coade's Artificial Stone Manufactory and Sealy, Coade in Lambeth, from 1769 until her death in 1821, after which Lithodipyra continued to be manufactured by her last business partner, William Croggon, until 1833; the recipe and techniques for producing Coade stone have been rediscovered by Coade Ltd. who produce sculpture at their workshops in Wilton, Wiltshire. In 1769 Mrs Coade bought Daniel Pincot’s struggling artificial stone business at Kings Arms Stairs, Narrow Wall, Lambeth, a site now under the Royal Festival Hall; this business developed into Coade's Artificial Stone Manufactory with Eleanor in charge, such that within two years she fired Pincot for'representing himself as the chief proprietor'.
Mrs Coade did not invent'artificial stone' - various inferior quality precursors having been both patented and manufactured over the previous forty years - but she was responsible for perfecting both the clay recipe and the firing process. It is possible that Pincot's business was a continuation of that run nearby by Richard Holt, who had taken out two patents in 1722 for a kind of liquid metal or stone and another for making china without the use of clay, but there were many start-up'artificial stone' businesses in the early 18th century of which only Mrs Coade's succeeded; the company did well, boasted an illustrious list of customers such as George III and members of the English nobility. In 1799 Mrs Coade appointed her cousin John Sealy working as a modeller, as a partner in her business, which traded as'Coade and Sealy' until his death in 1813 when it reverted to just'Coade'. In 1799 she opened a show room Coade's Gallery on Pedlar's Acre at the Surrey end of Westminster Bridge Road to display her products.
In 1813 Mrs Coade took on William Croggan from Grampound in Cornwall, a sculptor and distant relative by marriage. He managed the factory until her death eight years in 1821 whereby he bought the factory from the executors for c. £4000. Croggan supplied a lot of Coade stone for Buckingham Palace. Trade declined, production came to an end in the early 1840s. In 2000 Coade ltd started producing statues and architectural ornament, using the original recipes and methods of the eighteenth century. Coade stone is a type of stoneware. Mrs Coade's own name for her products was Lithodipyra, a name constructed from ancient Greek words meaning "stone-twice-fire", or "twice fired stone", its colours varied from light grey to light yellow and its surface is best described as having a matte finish. The ease with which the product could be moulded into complex shapes made it ideal for large statues and sculptural façades. Moulds were kept for many years, for repeated use. One-offs were much more expensive to produce, as they had to carry the entire cost of creating the mould.
One of the more striking features of Coade stone is its high resistance to weathering, with the material faring better than most types of stone in London's harsh environment. Examples of Coade stonework have survived well. Coade stone was superseded by Portland cement as a form of artificial stone and it appears to have been phased out by the 1840s. Although Coade stone's reputation for both weather resistance and manufacturing quality is untarnished, three sources describe Rossi's statue of George IV erected in the Royal Crescent, Brighton as "unable to withstand the weathering effects of sea-spray and strong wind: such that, by 1807 the fingers on the sculpture's left hand had been destroyed, soon afterwards the whole right arm dropped off." By contrast however Fashionable Brighton, 1820-1860 by Antony Dale describes similar damage as'wore badly' but does not attribute'broken fingers, nose and arm on an unloved statue' to weathering or poor quality Coade stone. In 1819, after considerable complaints, the relic was removed and its present state is undocumented.
A few works produced by Coade dating from the period, have shown poor resistance to weathering due to a bad firing in the kiln where the material was not brought up to a sufficient temperature. The recipe for Coade stone is still used by Coade Ltd. Rather than being based on cement, it is a ceramic material, its manufacture required special skills: careful control and skill in kiln firing, over a period of days. This skill is more remarkable when the potential variability of kiln temperatures at that time is considered. Coade's factory was the only successful manufacturer; the formula used was: 10% of grog 5-10% of crushed flint 5-10% fine quartz 10% crushed soda lime glass 60-70% ball clay from Dorset and DevonThis mixture was referred to as "fortified clay", inserted after kneading into a kiln which would fire the material at a temperature of 1,100 °C for over four