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School bus

A school bus is a type of bus owned, contracted to, or operated by a school or school district. It is used to transport students to and from school or school-related activities, but not including a charter bus or transit bus. Various configurations of school buses are used worldwide. In North America, school buses are purpose-built vehicles distinguished from other types of buses by design characteristics mandated by federal and state/province regulations. In addition to their distinct paint color, school buses are fitted with exterior warning lights and multiple safety devices. In the second half of the 19th century, many rural areas of the United States and Canada were served by one-room schools. For those students who lived beyond practical walking distance from school, transportation was facilitated in the form of the kid hack. Re-purposed farm wagons, kid hacks were open to the elements, with little to no weather protection. In 1892, Indiana-based Wayne Works produced its first "school car" A purpose-built design, the school car was constructed with perimeter-mounted wooden bench seats and a roof.

As a horse-drawn wagon, the school car was fitted with a rear entrance door. In 1869, Massachusetts became the first state to add transportation to public education. Following the first decade of the 20th century, several developments would affect the design of the school bus and student transport; as vehicles evolved from horse-drawn to "horseless" propulsion on a wider basis, the wagon bodies of kid hacks and school cars were adapted to truck frames. While transitioning into purpose-built designs, a number of features from wagons were retained, including wood construction, perimeter bench seating, rear entry doors. Weather protection remained minimal. In 1915, International Harvester constructed its first school bus. In 1919, the usage of school buses became funded in all 48 U. S. states. In 1927, Ford dealership owner A. L. Luce produced a bus body for a 1927 Ford Model T; the forerunner of the first Blue Bird school buses, steel was frame the bus body. While fitted with a roof, the primary weather protection of the Luce bus design included roll-up canvas side curtains.

During the 1930s, school buses saw advances in their design and production that remain in use to this day. To better adapt automotive chassis design, school bus entry doors were moved from the rear to the front curbside, becoming a door operated by the driver; the rear entry door of the kid hacks were re-purposed. Following the introduction of the steel-paneled 1927 Luce bus, school bus manufacturing began to transition towards all-steel construction. In 1930, both Superior and Wayne introduced all-steel school buses; as school bus design paralleled the design of light to medium-duty commercial trucks of the time, the advent of forward-control trucks would have their own influence on school bus design. In an effort to gain extra seating capacity and visibility, Crown Coach built its own cabover school bus design from the ground up. Introduced in 1932, the Crown Supercoach seated up to 76 passengers, the highest-capacity school bus of the time; as the 1930s progressed, flat-front school buses began to follow motorcoach design in styling as well as engineering adopting the term "transit-style" for their appearance.

In 1940, the first mid-engined transit school bus was produced by Gillig in California. The custom-built nature of school buses created an inherent obstacle to their profitable mass production on a large scale. Although school bus design had moved away from the wagon-style kid hacks of the generation before, there was not yet an recognized set of industry-wide standards for school buses. In 1939, rural education expert Dr. Frank W. Cyr organized a week-long conference at Teachers College, Columbia University that forever changed the design and production of school buses. Funded by a $5,000 grant, Dr. Cyr invited transportation officials, representatives from body and chassis manufacturers, paint companies. To reduce the complexity of school bus production and increase safety, a set of 44 standards were agreed upon and adopted by the attendees. To allow for large-scale production of school buses among body manufacturers, adoption of these standards allowed for greater consistency among body manufacturers.

While many of the standards of the 1939 conference have been modified or updated, one part of its legacy remains a key part of every school bus in North America today: the adoption of a standard paint color for all school buses. While technically named "National School Bus Glossy Yellow", school bus yellow was adopted for use since it was considered easiest to see in dawn and dusk, it contrasted well with black lettering. While not universally used worldwide, yellow has become the shade most associated with school buses both in North America and abroad. During World War II, school bus manufacturers converted to

Buck–boost converter

The buck–boost converter is a type of DC-to-DC converter that has an output voltage magnitude, either greater than or less than the input voltage magnitude. It is equivalent to a flyback converter using a single inductor instead of a transformer. Two different topologies are called buck–boost converter. Both of them can produce a range of output voltages, ranging from much larger than the input voltage, down to zero; the inverting topology The output voltage is of the opposite polarity than the input. This is a switched-mode power supply with a similar circuit topology to the boost converter and the buck converter; the output voltage is adjustable based on the duty cycle of the switching transistor. One possible drawback of this converter is. However, this drawback is of no consequence if the power supply is isolated from the load circuit because the supply and diode polarity can be reversed; when they can be reversed, the switch can be on either the supply side. A buck converter combined with a boost converter The output voltage is of the same polarity of the input, can be lower or higher than the input.

Such a non-inverting buck-boost converter may use a single inductor, used for both the buck inductor mode and the boost inductor mode, using switches instead of diodes, sometimes called a "four-switch buck-boost converter", it may use multiple inductors but only a single switch as in the SEPIC and Ćuk topologies. The basic principle of the inverting buck–boost converter is simple: while in the On-state, the input voltage source is directly connected to the inductor; this results in accumulating energy in L. In this stage, the capacitor supplies energy to the output load. While in the Off-state, the inductor is connected to the output load and capacitor, so energy is transferred from L to C and R. Compared to the buck and boost converters, the characteristics of the inverting buck–boost converter are mainly: polarity of the output voltage is opposite to that of the input; the output voltage ranges for a buck and a boost converter are V i to 0 and V i to ∞. Like the buck and boost converters, the operation of the buck-boost is best understood in terms of the inductor's "reluctance" to allow rapid change in current.

From the initial state in which nothing is charged and the switch is open, the current through the inductor is zero. When the switch is first closed, the blocking diode prevents current from flowing into the right hand side of the circuit, so it must all flow through the inductor. However, since the inductor doesn't allow rapid current change, it will keep the current low by dropping most of the voltage provided by the source. Over time, the inductor will allow the current to increase by decreasing its voltage drop. During this time, the inductor will store energy in the form of a magnetic field. If the current through the inductor L never falls to zero during a commutation cycle, the converter is said to operate in continuous mode; the current and voltage waveforms in an ideal converter can be seen in Figure 3. From t = 0 to t = D T, the converter is in On-State; the rate of change in the inductor current is therefore given by d ⁡ I L d ⁡ t = V i L At the end of the On-state, the increase of IL is therefore: Δ I L On = ∫ 0 D T d ⁡ I L = ∫ 0 D T V i L d ⁡ t = V i D T L D is the duty cycle.

It represents the fraction of the commutation period T. Therefore D ranges between 0 and 1. During the Off-state, the switch S is open, so the inductor current flows through the load. If we assume zero voltage drop in the diode, a capacitor large enough for its voltage to remain constant, the evolution of IL is: d ⁡ I L d ⁡ t = V o L Therefore, the variation of IL during the Off-period is: Δ I L Off = ∫ 0 T d ⁡ I L = ∫ 0 ( 1 − D

Thumbelina: A Magical Story

Thumbelina: A Magical Story is a Japanese anime series produced by Enoki Films and adapted from the original Hans Christian Andersen fairy tale Thumbelina by Akiyoshi Sakai. It premiered in Japan on TV Tokyo on September 30, 1992 and ran for twenty-six episodes until its conclusion on March 31, 1993; the series was edited into an eighty-minute film and released in North America on VHS by Starmaker Entertainment in 1993. In 2006, Digiview Entertainment re-released the Starmaker film to DVD. Unable to control her mischievous young daughter Maya, an exhausted mother seeks the guidance of an old witch living on the edge of town; the witch gives this mother a magical copy of the fairy tale Thumbelina and tells her to read this to Maya. When her mother falls asleep, Maya shrinks and is pulled inside the world of the book. A good witch appears and tells her that she is in her mother's dream world and that in order to return to normal, she must find a way to wake up her mother. To do this, she must travel to a faraway southern land to talk to the Crystal Prince, who will help her reach home.

During her journey Maya faces many hardships. Chelsea Terry Ryann Ashley Noel Johnson Pierce Walker Brandon Garrison Tyrone Rodriguez Clinton RodriguezUncreditedBarbara Goodson - Hoppy, The Human Witch and Bridesmaid #2 Mona Marshall - Angela, The Frog Witch, Bridesmaid #1, Bridesmaid #3 and Aunt Ruth Jan Rabson - George and Hobbit #2 Doug Stone - Mouse, Sea Creature, Hobbit #1, Hobbit #3 and Turtle Produced by Enoki Films and adapted from the original Hans Christian Andersen fairy tale Thumbelina by Akiyoshi Sakai, it premiered in Japan on TV Tokyo on September 30, 1992 and ran for twenty-six episodes until its conclusion on March 31, 1993; the series was licensed for release in North America by Starmaker Entertainment, which released the series to VHS format under the name Thumbelina on December 16, 1993. The Starmaker release was edited, with director Jim Terry reducing the series to an eighty-minute film. On May 9, 2006, Digiview Entertainment re-released the Starmaker version to Region 1 DVD as Thumbelina: A Magical Story.

The full series is licensed for regional language releases in Colombia by Centauro Comunicaciones and in Italy by Italia 1 which broadcast the Italian dub on its channel. The series uses two pieces of theme music, one opening and one ending theme, both performed by Yuki Matsura; the opening theme is "Welcome to the Planetarium. Thumbelina: A Magical Story at Anime News Network's encyclopedia

Sesshō and Kampaku

In Japan, Sesshō was a title given to a regent, named to act on behalf of either a child Emperor before his coming of age, or an empress regnant. The Kanpaku was theoretically a sort of chief advisor for the Emperor, but was the title of both first secretary and regent who assists an adult Emperor. During a certain period in the Heian period, they were the effective rulers of Japan. There was little, if any, effective difference between the two titles, several individuals changed titles as child Emperors grew to adulthood, or adult Emperors retired or died and were replaced by child Emperors; the two titles were collectively known as Sekkan, the families that held the titles were called Sekkan-ke or Sekkan family. After the Heian period, shogunates took over the power. Both sesshō and kanpaku were styled as denka, as were Imperial princesses. A retired kanpaku is called Taikō, which came to refer to Toyotomi Hideyoshi. In earlier times, only members of the Imperial Family could be appointed sesshō.

The Kojiki reported that Emperor Ōjin was assisted by his mother, Empress Jingū, but it is doubtful if it is a historical fact. The first historical sesshō was Prince Shōtoku; the Fujiwara clan was the primary holder of the sesshō titles. More those titles were held by the Fujiwara Hokke and its descendants, to which Fujiwara no Yoshifusa belonged. In 866, Fujiwara no Yoshifusa became sesshō, he was the first not to belong to the Imperial house. In 876, Fujiwara no Mototsune, the nephew and adopted son of Yoshifusa, was appointed to the newly created office of kampaku. After Fujiwara no Michinaga and Fujiwara no Yorimichi, their descendants held those two offices exclusively. In the 12th century, there were five families among the descendants of Yorimichi called Sekke: Konoe family, Kujō family, Ichijō family, Takatsukasa family and Nijō family. Both the Konoe and Kujō family were descendants of Yorimichi, through Fujiwara no Tadamichi; the other three families were derived from either the Kujō families.

Until the Meiji Restoration of 1868, those five families held those title with the two exceptions of Toyotomi Hideyoshi and his nephew Toyotomi Hidetsugu. The offices and titles of sesshō and kampaku were abolished by the declaration of the Imperial Restoration in 1868 during the Meiji Restoration in order to reorganize the government structure; the office and title of sesshō was stipulated under the former Imperial Household Law in 1889 and under the new Imperial Household Law in 1948. Under these laws, the officeholder of sesshō is restricted to a member of the Imperial family. Crown Prince Hirohito, before becoming Emperor Shōwa, was sesshō from 1921 to 1926 for the mentally disabled Emperor Taishō, he was called sesshō-no-miya. The following is a list of kampaku in the order of succession; the list is not exhaustive: Sessei Daijō-kan Brown, Delmer M. Gukanshō, Berkeley: University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-03460-0 Titsingh, Isaac, ed. Nipon o daï itsi ran, Paris: Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland, OCLC 84067437

Ivan Dayman

Ivan Howard Dayman was an Australian music promoter, record producer, label owner and talent manager of the 1960s and 1970s, based first in Adelaide Melbourne and Perth. Although his career was brief – ca. 1964 to 1968 – he is significant in the history of Australian popular music as the first person to establish an integrated entertainment group that included artist management, a booking agency, a chain of venues in major cities, a recording label. He is notable for the many successful artists he managed, including his flagship act, Australia's 1960s TV Week "King of Pop", Normie Rowe, whom he managed from 1965 onwards. Ivan Howard Dayman was born on 20 July 1920 to Howard Herbert Dayman and Gwendoline Vivienne née Starr of Walkerville, he grew up with two younger siblings. In April 1940, during the Second World War, he enlisted in the Royal Australian Air Force and was discharged under the rank of corporal in October 1945 from the Control and Reporting Unit. Dayman was engaged to Marge Mary Byrnes of Benalla, Victoria in December 1945.

By July 1949 he was living in Belair. Ivan Dayman was working as a promoter for his Adelaide Swing Shows by December 1959. In 1963 he hired Pat Aulton as a producer and songwriter in his promotions group; the Clefs were a local "R&B" dance band which performed at "the city's thriving club circuit."By early 1964 Dayman had relocated to Melbourne where he leased the Festival Hall on Saturdays, which he renamed, Mersey City. He was the manager of England-born singer, Tony Worsley, matched him with an existing group, the Blue Jays, to form Tony Worsley and the Fabulous Blue Jays, they were his first act to perform at the Festival Hall. He expanded his business interests into Brisbane where he established Sunshine Records in collaboration with Aulton and Nat Kipner. American-born Kipner was a former real estate agent in the Gold Coast; the label's first single, "Jaywalker", was an instrumental by the Fabulous Blue Jays. It was followed a month by "I Sure Know a Lot About Love" by Tony Worsley and the Fabulous Blue Jays.

Sunshine Records releases were distributed by Festival Records. Other artists signed or managed by Dayman were other than his flagship artist Normie Rowe included Mike Furber, Peter Doyle,and New Zealand acts The La De Das, Mother Goose. Dayman owned or leased multiple venues within his territory, such as Cloudland Ballroom in Brisbane, The Bowl Soundlounge in Sydney, the Op Pop disco, he converted ten-pin bowling alleys into ballrooms by filling in the gutters with the same timbers. In Ipswich and Corrimal, such converted venues were Wonderland Ballrooms; the Corrimal Bowl was managed by Merriel Hume, a Brisbane vocalist who had performed at Cloudland. By having a stake in both the bands and the venues, Dayman was able to monopolise the profits. Dayman was respected by the musicians he hired because he treated them well and respected their abilities. An example of this is the fact that he paid for musical arrangements both vocal. Further, he paid for rehearsals of the new arrangements and for vocal arrangements in keys that suited his stable of artists.

He picked his vocalists from the cream of TV scene. All the bands and vocalists were therefore able to perform using the library of pop hits and standard arrangements; the Cloudland Big Band was replaced with smaller groups. These included the Rick Farbach Sextet, the Sounds of Seven led by Vance Lendich, Darcy Kelly's the Highmarks, his actions resulted in a revival of dance hall attendances and the Cloudland Ballroom was packed for the midnight to dawn dances that he held at long weekends. Dayman was successful for several years, but the cost of his attempts to launch Rowe's career in the United Kingdom caused a drain on his organisation's funds; the Sunshine group and its related labels collapsed some time during early 1967. Kipner moved to Sydney to manage the Bowl. Aulton remained as Sunshine's house producer, but unbeknownst to him, Dayman had made him a director of Sunshine, when the company collapsed Aulton became liable for its debts; as a result, his car and furniture were repossessed by Sunshine's creditors, but he was rescued by a job offer from Festival managing director Fred Marks, who appointed him as a staff A&R manager and record producer, with responsibility for pop productions in 1967.

Following the collapse of the Sunshine group, Dayman continued to work in entertainment and artist management into the 1980s. Ivan Dayman's death was not noted publicly at the time, but official records indicate that he died in Perth on 1 October 1989. Ivan and Marge Dayman's daughter, Marlene Dayman, is a former Olympic swimmer, she competed as a 14-year-old at the Tokyo games in 1964 and finished 6th in heat 3 of the Women's 100-m backstroke. Earlier she had defied an instruction from the Australian Swimming Union not to march in the opening ceremony; the union banned Marlene and three fellow swimmers, Nan Duncan, Dawn Fraser and Linda McGill, from swimming for defying their instruction. His son, Mark Dayman, joined his business in the 1970s and r

Arthur Bergh

Arthur Oscar Bergh was an American composer and accompanist. He performed on the piano and organ. Bergh was born in Saint Paul, Minnesota on March 24, 1882. From 1903 to 1908 he was a violinist with the Metropolitan Opera. In 1914, he was the conductor of the orchestra in New York City's Central Park. Bergh became the recording manager at Emerson Records in 1916. Other sources state. In his life, Bergh worked as a librarian with Hollywood film companies, he died in Los Angeles on February 11, 1962. Bergh's wife, Geraldyne Brewer, was an heiress in social and charitable circles in 1950s Los Angeles. In 1956, they lived at 9823 Kincardine Avenue in Los Angeles. After Bergh's death, Geraldyne married Los Angeles Superior Court judge McIntyre Faries on December 3, 1965. Geraldyne was buried in Forest Lawn Memorial Park, Glendale, he composed a number of operas and operettas, including adaptations of Robert Browning's The Pied Piper of Hamelin and Edgar Allan Poe's The Raven. His Lieder include music to Walt Whitman's The Imprisoned Soul, Percy Bysshe Shelley's Music, When Soft Voices Die, Emily Dickinson's The Grass, John Greenleaf Whittier's Dear Lord and Father of Mankind.

Bergh's other works include a symphonic chorale entitled The Unnamed City. 1908 – The Raven, Op. 20 1910 – December, Op. 9 No. 1 1913 – Evening, a Reverie, Op. 15, No. 1 1913 – Meditation in A♭, Op. 15, No. 2 1913 – Serenade Coquette, Op. 15, No. 3 1913 – Here They Come 1914 – The Pied Piper of Hamelin, Op. 23 1915 – Four Tone Pastels, Op. 17 1919 – Vesper Song 1919 – The Goblin Fair 1924 – In Arcady 1926 – Concert Suite for the Pianoforte 1941 – Love Is the Light of the World 1938 – Honor and Glory, Op. 30 1938 – Destiny 1938 – O Captain! My Captain! 1939 – The Imprisoned Soul 1941 – Kissing Her Hair I Sat Against Her Feet 1941 – Come With Arms Outstretched 1947 – Music, When Soft Voices Die, Op. 37 1950 – A Tragic Story 1950 – I Heard the Bells on Christmas Day 1954 – The Grass 1955 – Dear Lord and Father of Mankind