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School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences

The School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences is one of the most selective and prestigious graduate schools of social sciences in Paris, France. It is one of the French grands établissements. A department of the École Pratique des Hautes Études, an institution created in 1868 with the purpose of training academic researchers, the EHESS became an independent institution in 1975. Today its research covers the fields of Economics and Finance, Cognitive Sciences, Political Sciences, Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Development studies, Anthropology, History and Philosophy of social science; the institution is concentrated on scholarly research and some of its faculty have achieved international recognition in different areas: in economics, Thomas Piketty and Nobel laureates Jean Tirole. As a higher education institution under the jurisdiction of the French Ministry of Education, the EHESS trains academic researchers and professors specialised in the social sciences, it awards graduate degrees, such as the master of research and the doctorate, as well as a school diploma.

Some of them are awarded conjointly with institutions such as the École Normale Supérieure, the École Polytechnique, the École pratique des hautes études, some of the universities of Paris. The EHESS is a grande école and, is not part of the mainstream university system, it evaluates students through a selection process based on the research project of the applicants. The scholars in training are free to choose their own curriculum among the large quantity of seminars offered by the school; the école has a small student-faculty ratio. Most faculty belong to other institutions within the CNRS but other schools of Université PSL such as the ENS, the EPHE and the ENC, schools of Université Paris-Saclay such as Télécom ParisTech and the ENSAE, some of the universities of Paris. Part of the École pratique des hautes études as its VI Section: Sciences économiques et sociales, the EHESS gained autonomy as an independent higher education institution on 23 January 1975; the creation of a dedicated branch for social science research within the EPHE was catalyzed by the Annales historical school and was supported by several academic initiatives of the Rockefeller Foundation, dating to the 1920s.

After WWII, the Rockefeller Foundation invested more funds in French institutions, seeking to encourage non-Marxist sociological studies. The VIth section was created in 1947, Lucien Febvre took its head. Soon after its creation, the VI Section EHESS, became one of the most influential shapers of contemporary historiography, area studies and social sciences methodology, thanks to the contribution of eminent scholars such as Fernand Braudel, Jacques Le Goff and François Furet. F. Braudel succeeded L. Febvre in 1956, he concentrated the various study groups at the well-known building on boulevard Raspail, in part by financing from the Ford Foundation. Today, the EHESS is one of France's Grands établissements, it functions as a research and degree-granting institution. It offers advanced students high-level programs intended to lead to research careers. Students are admitted on the relevance of their research project and undertake at the EHESS master programs and doctoral studies; the main areas of specialization include: history, literary theory, philosophy, sociology, economics, cognitive science, geography, psychology and mathematics.

The institution's focus is on interdisciplinary research within these fields. The EHESS has more than 40 research centers and 22 doctoral programs, 13 of which are in partnership with other French Universities and Grandes écoles; the school is a constituent college of the federal PSL Research University. Other institutions include the College de France, the École Normale Supérieure, the École pratique des hautes études, Chimie ParisTech, ESPCI ParisTech, the École des mines, Paris Dauphine University. Lucien Febvre and Fernand Braudel were members of the École des Annales, the dominant school of historical analysis in France during the interwar period. However, this school of thought was contested by the growing importance of the social sciences and the beginning of structuralism. Under pressure from Claude Lévi-Strauss, in particular, they integrated new contributions from the fields of sociology and ethnography to event-based historical analysis, a concept put forward by the Annales school, to advocate for the concept of "a nearly imperceptible passage of history".

They were reproached, along with the structuralists, for ignoring politics and the individual's influence over his fate during a period in which the colonial wars of liberation were taking place. The work of Braudel, Le Roy Ladurie and other historians working under their influence affected the research and official teaching of history in France beginning in the 1960s; the work of Jean-Marie Pesez renewed interest in the issue of methodology in medieval archeology and created the idea of "material culture". During the 1970s, EHESS became the center of New History under the influence of Jacques Le Goff and Pierre Nora. During this period, a generation of ethnologists working under

Wish Tree (Yoko Ono art series)

Wish Tree is an ongoing art installation series by Japanese artist Yoko Ono, started sometime after 1981, in which a tree native to a site is planted under her direction. Viewers are invited to tie a written wish to the tree except during the winter months when a tree can be more vulnerable. Locations of the piece have included New York City, St. Louis, Wish Tree for Washington, DC, San Francisco and Palo Alto, Tokyo, Paris, London, England and Buenos Aires, Argentina, her 1996 Wish Piece had the following instructions: Make a wish. Write it down on a piece of paper. Fold it and tie it around a branch of a Wish Tree. Ask your friends to do the same. Keep wishing; until the branches are covered with wishes. Installations have involved from one to 21 trees, varieties include lemon trees and crepe myrtles. To honor wish writers' privacy, Ono claims she does not read the wishes, collects them all to be buried at the base of the Imagine Peace Tower on Viðey Island in Kollafjörður Bay in Iceland. To date over 1 million wishes have been buried beneath the tower.

The series developed after an installation of one tree in Finland grew into a mini-forest, Ono felt a continuing social need. She has said: As a child in Japan, I used to go to a temple and write out a wish on a piece of thin paper and tie it around the branch of a tree. Trees in temple courtyards were always filled with people's wish knots, which looked like white flowers blossoming from afar. In fall 2010, Ono performed Voice Piece for Soprano, near the MoMA rendition of the piece as part of the museum's collections show. Musician Pharrell Williams wrote on one in New York in 2013

Agustina Woodgate

Agustina Woodgate is an Argentinian artist who lives and works between Amsterdam and Miami. Woodgate was born in 1981 in Argentina; as a child, Woodgate spent weekends illustrating comic books and building experiments with her brother. Woodgate reported being "an avid collector of crap and nonsense things, like the cigarette boxes of different brands, erasers with different shapes, letter papers, bottle caps, coins." Woodgate states she found developed her style as a teenager. She would illustrate her weekend adventures and gift photocopies to friends, she would go on to draw her dreams, describing her drawings as "delirious nonsense images."She received her Bachelor of Fine Arts from the Instituto Universito Nacional de Arte, Buenos Aires in 2004. Shortly after, Woodgate moved to Miami, where she gained recognition for clandestinely sewing labels inscribed with poetry into clothing at thrift stores, a project that Woodgate described as "poetry bombing." Woodgate works in a variety of forms, including radio, public art, sculpture.

Woodgate's solo projects include New Landscapes, Art Positions, Art Basel Miami Beach, Spinello Projects, Miami. Stanley Levine Memorial Bench, commissioned by the Art in Public Places committee of Miami Beach, commissioned by the Bass Museum, Kulturpark, an initiative set in an abandoned amusement park in East Berlin, 1111, Highway Billboards & Bus Shelter Posters, Commissioned by Locust Projects, Concrete Poetry, a permanent urban design project as a part of the Miami Poetry Festival in collaboration with O, Miami and Miami-Dade County's Department of Transportation and Public Works. Woodgate has been a part of many group exhibitions, including the Denver Art Museum, KW Institute for Contemporary Art, Berlin, her work is included in the permanent collection of the Denver Art Museum. Woodgate's work has been commissioned by many institutions, including the Bienal de las Américas, Denver. Paul MN. Woodgate is the recipient honours and awards including the South Florida Cultural Consortium Fellowship, National Association of Latino Arts and Culture, San Antonio, TX.

She was included in the 2019 Whitney Biennial. Her work is included in the permanent collection of the Denver Art Museum. Woodgate's approach has been described as "speculative and site and context-responsive, presenting critical alternatives to concepts on social orders, resource management and information distribution bringing clarity and accessibility."Some of Woodgate's pieces includeThe Ballroom, Milky Ways, Sandcastle and National Times, featured at the 2019 Whitney Biennial. Spinello Projects presented Woodgate at ABC Art Berlin Contemporary with The Ballroom, a collection of 50 outdated hand-sanded world globes kept to roll around on the floor. Spinello Projects' webpage reads, "by sanding away the topographical and political markers of the nations of the world down to homogenous land masses, Woodgate implies a kind of cartographic implosion; the Ballroom becomes a representation of an changing ecology and a cartography that urges for a new assessment of the land and its use."Milky Ways is a continuation of Woodgate's Skin Rug Collection, in which Woodgate sews handmade rugs using the outer skin layer of discarded stuffed animals.

Tower and Sandcastle are a part of Woodgate's I Want to Be a Princess Series, in which Woodgate used human hair to create 3000 bricks for her projects. Tower is four feet tall; the castle's window frame is made of blonde hair, Woodgate used senior citizens' hair for the white necessary for the ledge above the window. Sandcastle is made to look. Hopscotch is a large sidewalk'game' piece charted over the South Elm neighbourhood. According to Elsewhere, a museum and artist residency, "Hopscotch is an invitation to the public to imagine new ways to play in the city, to discover new parts of the neighborhood and to occupy public space; as a drawing that unfolds in real space, it functions as a political map that inscribes the contours of the neighborhood."National Times was featured in the Whitney Biennial 2019. National Times is a display of 40 clocks, spanning all three walls of the room, interconnected by a network of tubing, synchronized by one master system. National Times’ synchronization is attributed to the closed-circuit network set up in a “‘master/slave’ configuration.”

The system is controlled and kept in order by an individual “digital master clock sends power signals to a series of analog slave clocks, commanding synchronized measure across an entire institution.” This frequency of time is synchronized to “the atomic clock at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, which establishes official United States time.” Woodgate had slipped sandpaper around each hand, so that as the h

Oulton Estate

In the early 18th century the Oulton Estate was home to the Egerton family and comprised a manor house and a formal garden surrounded by farmland in Cheshire, England. In the century the farmland was converted into a park; the estate is now the site of the motor racing track called Oulton Park. In 1731, Philip Egerton inherited the estate upon the death of John Egerton. At that time the estate farmland totalling 231 acres. Around 1752, Philip Egerton began to construct a brick wall to enclose the estate plus some additional fields, an area totalling 315 acres. At his death in 1766, Philip was succeeded by his brother John, in 1770, by his son Philip. By this time the fashion for formal gardens had been overtaken by the concept of a landscaped garden with surrounding parkland. Philip Egerton commissioned William Emes to plan this for his estate. Emes' plan was produced about 1770; the plan was to do away with the formal garden, to divert the brook and, by building dams, to create two lakes connected by a cascade.

A banqueting hall was to be built on an island in the larger lake. There was to be extensive planting of shrubs; the park was to include gravel paths and a boathouse. In 1715, John Egerton commissioned the building of the new house. Tradition has it; the new house was in Baroque style. Its main front was in 15 bays, the middle three bays being occupied by a Corinthian centrepiece, its pediment filled with carvings of trophies. A drawing exists showing a central dome, but if this dome in fact existed, it did not survive to the 19th century. On the sides were curved pediments; the entrance hall rose through the building's two storeys. It contained Corinthian had a plaster groined vault. Around 1773, the gates and gate piers, built around 1725 were removed to St Oswald's Church, Malpas, they were replaced by an entrance lodge comprising an arch with screen walls designed by Joseph Turner. In 1786, the house was inherited by John Egerton, he and his successors did carry out some improvements during the 19th century.

Between about 1816 and 1820, Lewis Wyatt added stables and a terrace. In 1926, the house was destroyed by fire, in 1940, it was bombed; the grounds are now used as a motor racing circuit. Some buildings that were part of the estate still exist; the entrance gates and screen designed by Joseph Turner in about 1775 are designated as a Grade II* listed building. In the grounds is a monument of 1846 to the memory of John Francis Egerton of the Bengal Horse Regiment, designed by Scott and Moffatt, it is a Grade II* listed building. The stable block designed by Lewis Wyatt is still present and is listed at Grade II. A farm building close to the stable block is listed at Grade II. Citations Sources

Ruby Theater (Chelan, Washington)

The Ruby Theater is a small movie theater located at 135 East Woodin Avenue in Chelan, Washington. Built in 1914, it was named after the daughter of its manager, Frank Potter; the original owners were Morrison M. Kingman. Original seating capacity was 125 in the balcony; the theater was equipped as a vaudeville house. With the exception of 1972-1974, the Ruby has been showing movies for over ninety years, is one of the oldest movie theaters in Washington. Harry Potter moved his operation from the storefront Gem Theater to the Kingman's new Ruby when the Kingman's purpose-built theater opened. Competition came from the Auditorium, which burned shortly after the Ruby opened in 1914. Potter and his wife were killed in 1918; the next year the Kingmans sold the theater to a barber named Kelsey from Omak. The Kelseys operated the theater themselves until 1937 leased it to operators through 1972; the theater reopened in 1974. The Ruby theater is located in the central business district of Chelan; the facade is stuccoed, with a central snack bar window flanked by recessed arched entries.

The entries are sheltered by a prominent projecting marquee guyed from the facade, lit with bare electric light bulbs. The marquee spans the width of the building, with a shallow central arch; the upper level of the facade features a pair of windows flanked by single sash windows in a recessed bay, with a prominent RUBY THEATRE above. The original entrance was in the center; the lobby spans the width of the building with entries into the house on either side of the shallow space. The house is a narrow rectangular space with a small horseshoe-shaped balcony over the last few rows of seats; the twelve-foot-deep stage features a gilded plaster proscenium. Additional depth is provided by a non-historic thrust stage extension, about 12 feet deep; the stage retains its trap doors and lighting, as well as storerooms and ventilation equipment under the stage. The projection room is on the upper level behind the balcony; the Ruby Theater was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 7, 1991.

Ruby Theatre


Glisas, or Glissas, was a town of ancient Boeotia, mentioned by Homer in the Iliad's Catalogue of Ships in the same line with Plataea. It was celebrated in Greek mythology as the place where the Epigoni fought against the Thebans, where the Argive chiefs were buried who fell in the battle. Pausanias, in his description of the road from Thebes to Chalcis, says that Glisas was situated beyond Teumessus, at the distance of seven stadia from the latter place. Strabo places it on Mt. Hypatus, Herodotus describes the Thermodon as flowing between Glisas and Tanagra. Glisas figures in a tale in Greek mythology. Phocus of Glisas was father of a beautiful daughter Callirhoe, she was wooed by thirty suitors. At last he announced. Callirhoe had to flee from the suitors. During the festival of Pamboeotia, she went to the shrine of Athena Itonia at Coroneia and revealed the crime of her suitors to the public; those sought refuge first in Orchomenus, in the town of Hippotae which lay between Thisbe and Coroneia.

The inhabitants of Hippotae refused to deliver them up, so the Boeotian army under command of the Theban governor Phoedus captured the town, enslaved its citizens and stoned the suitors to death. The town was destroyed, the land divided between Thisbe and Coroneia; the night before the capture of Hippotae, a voice coming from Mount Helicon had been heard at the town. On the day the suitors were executed, Phocus' tomb ran with saffron. Phoedus, on his way back home, received the news that a daughter was born to him, decided to name her Nicostrate, its site is located near modern Ypato/Syrtzi. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "Glisas". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray