Marion Boyd Allen
Marion Boyd Allen was an American painter, known for her portraits and landscapes. Allen was born in Boston in 1862 to Stillman Boyd Allen, an attorney and state legislator, Harriet Smith Allen, née Seaward, she was sister to Willis Boyd Allen, author of The Mountaineers. When Allen was young, her parents took her on a European vacation, where she first decided to become a painter after sketching the Alps. Allen had to postpone her artistic education for several years, as she devoted much of her life as a young adult to caring for her sick mother, she married her father's cousin, William Augustus Allen, in 1905. Allen was widowed only six years in 1911. Encouraged by landscape artist Charles H. Davis, Allen entered the Boston Museum School in 1896 at the age of 36, where she studied under Frank Weston Benson, Edmund C. Tarbell and Philip Hale. After graduation, Allen gained particular recognition for her portraits, she exhibited in group shows at the Société Nationale des Paris. She had one-woman exhibitions at the Copley Society Gallery in 1910 and 1912, Ferargil Galleries in New York in 1928, Bose Galleries in Boston in 1929 and 1930, Argent Galleries in New York in 1931, 1932 and 1934, the Boston Art Club in 1936.
Her painting Enameling was included in the Panama-Pacific International Exposition in 1915, her life-sized portrait of Anna Vaughn Hyatt won the Newport Art Association's popular prize in 1919. On March 8, 1924, her half-length figure study A Girl of the Orient made the cover of The Literary Digest. From 1925 to 1936, she traveled to the American West and Canadian Rockies and painting landscapes, including national landmarks such as the Grand Canyon and Mt. Rainier, she climbed mountains and at times lived in isolated cabins to reach vantage points to paint her subjects. She spent time in Arizona, driving up to one thousand miles across the desert and scaling long ladders to reach Native American ruins. Allen painted several portraits of Native Americans while in the Southwest and exhibited her portraits in frames carved by local craftsmen, she continued to exhibit her work and win awards, like the New Haven Paint and Clay Club prize, the Hudson prize from the Connecticut Academy of Fine Arts, at a time when landscape painting was exclusively a male-dominated field.
Allen's 1915 portrait of Anna Vaughan Hyatt was included in the inaugural exhibition of the National Museum of Women in the Arts, American Women Artists 1830–1930, in 1987
Alfred Gerald Caplin, better known as Al Capp, was an American cartoonist and humorist best known for the satirical comic strip Li'l Abner, which he created in 1934 and continued writing and drawing until 1977. He wrote the comic strips Abbie an' Slats and Long Sam, he won the National Cartoonists Society's Reuben Award in 1947 for Cartoonist of the Year, their 1979 Elzie Segar Award, posthumously for his "unique and outstanding contribution to the profession of cartooning". Comic strips dealt with northern urban experiences until the year Capp introduced "Li'l Abner", the first strip based in the South. Although Capp was from Connecticut, he spent 43 years teaching the world about Dogpatch, reaching an estimated 60 million readers in over 900 American newspapers and 100 foreign papers in 28 countries. M. Thomas Inge says Capp made a large personal fortune through the strip and "had a profound influence on the way the world viewed the American South". Born in New Haven, Connecticut, of East European Jewish heritage, Capp was the eldest child of Otto Philip Caplin and Matilda Caplin.
His brothers and Jerome, were cartoonists, his sister, was a publicist. Capp's parents were both natives of Latvia. "My mother and father had been brought to this country from Russia when they were infants", wrote Capp in 1978. "Their fathers had found that the great promise of America was true — it was no crime to be a Jew." The Caplins were dirt-poor, Capp recalled stories of his mother going out in the night to sift through ash barrels for reusable bits of coal. In August 1919, at the age of nine, Capp was run down by a trolley car and had to have his left leg amputated, well above the knee. According to his father Otto's unpublished autobiography, young Capp was not prepared for the amputation beforehand, he was given a prosthetic leg, but only learned to use it by adopting a slow way of walking which became painful as he grew older. The childhood tragedy of losing a leg helped shape Capp's cynical worldview, darker and more sardonic than that of the average newspaper cartoonist. "I was indignant as hell about that leg", he would reveal in a November 1950 interview in Time magazine.
"The secret of how to live without resentment or embarrassment in a world in which I was different from everyone else", Capp philosophically wrote, "was to be indifferent to that difference." The prevailing opinion among his friends was that Capp's Swiftian satire was, to some degree, a creatively channeled, compensatory response to his disability. Capp's father, a failed businessman and an amateur cartoonist, introduced him to drawing as a form of therapy, he became quite proficient, learning on his own. Among his earliest influences were Punch cartoonist–illustrator Phil May, American comic strip cartoonists Tad Dorgan, Cliff Sterrett, Rube Goldberg, Rudolph Dirks, Fred Opper, Billy DeBeck, George McManus and Milt Gross. At about this same time, Capp became a voracious reader. According to Capp's brother Elliot, Alfred had finished all of Shakespeare and George Bernard Shaw by the time he turned 13. Among his childhood favorites were Dickens, Mark Twain, Booth Tarkington, Robert Benchley and S. J. Perelman.
Capp spent five years at Bridgeport High School in Bridgeport, without receiving a diploma. The cartoonist liked to joke about, his formal training came from a series of art schools in the New England area. Attending three of them in rapid succession, the impoverished Capp was thrown out of each for nonpayment of tuition—the Boston Museum School of Fine Arts, the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Designers Art School in Boston—the last before launching his career. Capp had decided to become a cartoonist. "I heard that Bud Fisher got $3,000 a week and was marrying French countesses", Capp said. "I decided, for me." In early 1932, Capp hitchhiked to New York City. He lived in "airless rat holes" in Greenwich Village and turned out advertising strips at $2 apiece while scouring the city hunting for jobs, he found work at the Associated Press when he was 23 years old. By March 1932, Capp was drawing Colonel Gilfeather, a single-panel, AP-owned property created in 1930 by Dick Dorgan. Capp soon grew to hate the feature.
He left the Associated Press in September 1932. Before leaving, he met Milton Caniff, the two became lifelong friends. Capp moved to Boston and married Catherine Wingate Cameron, she died in 2006 at the age of 96. Leaving his new wife with her parents in Amesbury, Massachusetts, he subsequently returned to New York in 1933, in the midst of the Great Depression. "I was 23, I carried a mass of drawings, I had nearly five dollars in my pocket. People were sleeping in alleys willing to work at anything." There he met Ham Fisher. During one of Fisher's extended vacations, Capp's Joe Palooka story arc introduced a stupid, oafish mountaineer named "Big Leviticus," a crude prototype. During this period, Capp was working at night on samples for the strip that would become Li'l Abner, he based his cast of characters on the authentic mountain-dwellers he met while hitchhikin
Private schools known to many as independent schools, non-governmental funded, or non-state schools, are not administered by local, state or national governments. Children who attend private schools may be there because they are dissatisfied with public schools in their area, they may be selected for their academic prowess, or prowess in other fields, or sometimes their religious background. Private schools retain the right to select their students and are funded in whole or in part by charging their students for tuition, rather than relying on mandatory taxation through public funding; some private schools are associated with a particular religion, such as Judaism, Roman Catholicism, or Lutheranism. For the past century one in 10 U. S families has chosen to enroll their children in private school. In the United Kingdom and several other Commonwealth countries including Australia and Canada, the use of the term is restricted to primary and secondary educational levels. Private education in North America covers the whole gamut of educational activity, ranging from pre-school to tertiary level institutions.
Annual tuition fees at K-12 schools range from nothing at so called'tuition-free' schools to more than $45,000 at several New England preparatory schools. The secondary level includes schools offering years 7 through 12 and year 13; this category includes university-preparatory schools or "prep schools", boarding schools and day schools. Tuition at private secondary schools varies from school to school and depends on many factors, including the location of the school, the willingness of parents to pay, peer tuitions and the school's financial endowment. High tuition, schools claim, is used to pay higher salaries for the best teachers and used to provide enriched learning environments, including a low student-to-teacher ratio, small class sizes and services, such as libraries, science laboratories and computers; some private schools are boarding schools and many military academies are owned or operated as well. Religiously affiliated and denominational schools form a subcategory of private schools.
Some such schools teach religious education, together with the usual academic subjects to impress their particular faith's beliefs and traditions in the students who attend. Others use the denomination as more of a general label to describe on what the founders based their belief, while still maintaining a fine distinction between academics and religion, they include parochial schools, a term, used to denote Roman Catholic schools. Other religious groups represented in the K–12 private education sector include Protestants, Jews and the Orthodox Christians. Many educational alternatives, such as independent schools, are privately financed. Private schools avoid some state regulations, although in the name of educational quality, most comply with regulations relating to the educational content of classes. Religious private schools simply add religious instruction to the courses provided by local public schools. Special assistance schools aim to improve the lives of their students by providing services tailored to specific needs of individual students.
Such schools include tutoring schools to assist the learning of handicapped children. Private schools are one of three types of school in Australia, the other two being government schools and religious. Whilst private schools are sometimes considered "public" schools, the term "public school" is synonymous with a government school. Private schools in Australia may be favored for many reasons: prestige and the social status of the "old school tie"; some schools offer the removal of the purported distractions of co-education. Student uniforms for Australian private schools are stricter and more formal than in government schools – for example, a compulsory blazer. Private schools in Australia are always more expensive than their public counterpartsThere are two main categories of private schools in Australia: Catholic schools and Independent schools. Catholic schools form the second largest sector after government schools, with around 21% of secondary enrollments. Most Australian Catholic schools belong to a system, like government schools, are co-educational and attempt to provide Catholic education evenly across the states.
These schools are known as "systemic". Systemic Catholic schools are funded by state and federal government and have low fees. Catholic schools, both systemic and independent have a strong religious focus, most of their staff and students will be Catholic. Independent schools make up the last sector and are the most popular form of schooling for boarding students. Independent schools are non-government institutions that are not part of a system. Although most are non-aligned, some of the best known independent schools belong to the large, long-established religious foundations, such as the Anglican Church, Uniting Church and Pres
The visual arts are art forms such as ceramics, painting, printmaking, crafts, video and architecture. Many artistic disciplines involve aspects of the visual arts as well as arts of other types. Included within the visual arts are the applied arts such as industrial design, graphic design, fashion design, interior design and decorative art. Current usage of the term "visual arts" includes fine art as well as the applied, decorative arts and crafts, but this was not always the case. Before the Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain and elsewhere at the turn of the 20th century, the term'artist' was restricted to a person working in the fine arts and not the handicraft, craft, or applied art media; the distinction was emphasized by artists of the Arts and Crafts Movement, who valued vernacular art forms as much as high forms. Art schools made a distinction between the fine arts and the crafts, maintaining that a craftsperson could not be considered a practitioner of the arts; the increasing tendency to privilege painting, to a lesser degree sculpture, above other arts has been a feature of Western art as well as East Asian art.
In both regions painting has been seen as relying to the highest degree on the imagination of the artist, the furthest removed from manual labour – in Chinese painting the most valued styles were those of "scholar-painting", at least in theory practiced by gentleman amateurs. The Western hierarchy of genres reflected similar attitudes. Training in the visual arts has been through variations of the apprentice and workshop systems. In Europe the Renaissance movement to increase the prestige of the artist led to the academy system for training artists, today most of the people who are pursuing a career in arts train in art schools at tertiary levels. Visual arts have now become an elective subject in most education systems. Drawing is a means of using any of a wide variety of tools and techniques, it involves making marks on a surface by applying pressure from a tool, or moving a tool across a surface using dry media such as graphite pencils and ink, inked brushes, wax color pencils, charcoals and markers.
Digital tools that simulate the effects of these are used. The main techniques used in drawing are: line drawing, crosshatching, random hatching, scribbling and blending. An artist who excels in drawing is referred to as a draughtsman. Drawing goes back at least 16,000 years to Paleolithic cave representations of animals such as those at Lascaux in France and Altamira in Spain. In ancient Egypt, ink drawings on papyrus depicting people, were used as models for painting or sculpture. Drawings on Greek vases geometric developed to the human form with black-figure pottery during the 7th century BC. With paper becoming common in Europe by the 15th century, drawing was adopted by masters such as Sandro Botticelli, Raphael and Leonardo da Vinci who sometimes treated drawing as an art in its own right rather than a preparatory stage for painting or sculpture. Painting taken is the practice of applying pigment suspended in a carrier and a binding agent to a surface such as paper, canvas or a wall. However, when used in an artistic sense it means the use of this activity in combination with drawing, composition, or other aesthetic considerations in order to manifest the expressive and conceptual intention of the practitioner.
Painting is used to express spiritual motifs and ideas. Like drawing, painting has its documented origins on rock faces; the finest examples, believed by some to be 32,000 years old, are in the Chauvet and Lascaux caves in southern France. In shades of red, brown and black, the paintings on the walls and ceilings are of bison, cattle and deer. Paintings of human figures can be found in the tombs of ancient Egypt. In the great temple of Ramses II, his queen, is depicted being led by Isis; the Greeks much of their work has been lost. One of the best remaining representations are the Hellenistic Fayum mummy portraits. Another example is mosaic of the Battle of Issus at Pompeii, based on a Greek painting. Greek and Roman art contributed to Byzantine art in the 4th century BC, which initiated a tradition in icon painting. Apart from the illuminated manuscripts produced by monks during the Middle Ages, the next significant contribution to European art was from Italy's renaissance painters. From Giotto in the 13th century to Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael at the beginning of the 16th century, this was the richest period in Italian art as the chiaroscuro techniques were used to create the illusion of 3-D space.
Painters in northern Europe too were influenced by the Italian school. Jan van Eyck from Belgium, Pieter Bruegel the Elder from the Netherlands and Hans Holbein the Younger from Germany are among the most successful painters of the times, they used the glazing technique with oils to achieve luminosity. The 17th century witnessed the emergence of the great Dutch masters such as the versatile Rembrandt, remembered for his portraits and Bible scenes, Vermeer who specialized in interior scenes of Dutch life; the Baroque started from the late 16th century to the late 17th century. Main artists of the Baroque included Caravaggio. Peter Paul Rubens was a flemish painter who studied in Italy, work
Graham de Conde Gund is an American architect and the president of the Gund Partnership, an American architecture firm based in Cambridge and founded by Gund in 1971. An heir to George Gund II, he is a collector of contemporary art, whose collection has been exhibited and published. A native of Cleveland, Gund was educated at Westminster School, Kenyon College, the Rhode Island School of Design. Gund graduated from the Harvard University Graduate School of Design, with a Master of Architecture degree in 1968 and a Master of Urban Design degree in 1969. Graham Gund is one of six children of George Gund II, former chairman of the Cleveland Trust Company and namesake for the Graduate School of Design's George Gund Hall, completed in 1971, his siblings are George III b. 1937. 1944. After graduation, Gund worked at The Architects' Collaborative in Massachusetts. Gund himself undertook property development for a number of his firm's projects, he is a noted collector of art. Gund funded the Gund Gallery at the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston.
Gund was the driving force behind the founding of the Gund Gallery at Kenyon College. He designed the museum's building, a LEED Silver-certified project that garnered multiple architectural awards. With his wife Ann, he gave a substantial gift of over 80 modern and contemporary artworks to start the museum's permanent collection. After working with modern architect Walter Gropius at the Architects' Collaborative, Gund began his career with significant projects that drew from a modernist vocabulary; the Hyatt Regency Cambridge, with its stepped massing, recalled legendary projects by architects Adolf Loos and Henri Sauvage, while utilizing red brick characteristic of Cambridge's collegiate river-side architecture. For Boston's Institute for Contemporary Art, Gund created an unexpected, angular interior that played against the rigid geometry of a historic Richardsonian Romanesque building; the firm became well known during the 1980s for extending this creative take on architecture through significant national projects, some of which were prominent adaptive uses while others were new buildings.
Additional museums and education buildings represented the continued expansion of Gund's practice in these years. Among the adaptive uses was the Norwalk Maritime Center in Connecticut, a museum and aquarium project housed in a salvaged iron works complex, with a new IMAX theater. New institutional buildings included major structures for Plimoth Plantation in Plymouth, MA, for the Fernbank Museum of Natural History in Atlanta. At this time, Gund played a role as both architect and developer to reclaim threatened or damaged historic buildings, as in the Church Court Condominiums in Boston and Bulfinch Square in Cambridge; such activity led to his being described by Vincent Scully as a "convinced preservationist," comparing Gund to Charles Bulfinch. Among Gund's early work was the Rockefeller residence in Cambridge, the Hyatt Regency Cambridge and the former Institute for Contemporary Art, now the Boston Architectural College. Much of Gund's work in this period involved renovations or residential adaptive reuse projects in the Boston area.
Other projects included the Johnston Guardhouse at Harvard Yard, adaptive reuse of an ironworks building for the Maritime Aquarium at Norwalk, the Art Deco Revival 31-story 75 State Street, Boston, in association with Skidmore and Merrill. In the 1990s Gund's work expanded to include considerable work with Disney Company in Florida and Paris. Gund was featured on This Old House in 1992 as the architect for the television show's Igoe Residence project. By the 2000s Gund's work was focused on school and university projects. Recent notable buildings designed by the firm include the headquarters for the National Association of Realtors in Washington, D. C. occupying a prominent location on New Jersey Avenue, the conservatory for the Cleveland Botanical Garden, the Lansburgh Theater for the Folger Shakespeare Library in Washington, DC, The Fannie Cox Math and Science Center for Friends' Central School in Wynnewood, PA, the synagogue building for Young Israel of Brookline, the Kenyon Athletic Center, buildings on many American college campuses, including those of Harvard University, Denison University, Kenyon College.
Gund designed the Boston Ballet Headquarters on Clarendon Street in Boston, Massachusetts. Gund has designed a number of projects in the Disney Company's planned community of Celebration, noted for a high concentration of work by major architectural firms invited by Disney. Coronado Springs Resort, Walt Disney World, Florida Celebration Hotel and Celebration High SchoolOther work by Gund for Disney includes the International Retail and Manufacturers' Showcase at Euro Disney; the firm is known for historic redevelopment projects including Bulfinch Square in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Major museum projects include the Plimoth Plantation Visitor Center in Plymouth and the Fernbank Museum of Natural History in Atlanta, Georgia. Gund's work has been published throughout his career, with articles by major critics in national publications; the firm's architecture has been the subject of two books: Gund Partnership 1994-2007, with an extensive foreword by New York Times architecture critic Paul Goldberger, Graham Gund Architects, published in 1993, with an introduction by Vincent Scully.
He is married to Ann Gund née Landreth, with whom he has Graydon. He is a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects. Church Court Condominiums, Boston - re-modelled Mt. Vernon Church, corn
Frederick Warren Allen
Frederick Warren Allen was an American sculptor of the Boston School. One of the most prominent sculptors in Boston during the early 20th century and a master teacher at the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Allen had a career in the arts that spanned more than 50 years. Allen was born May 5, 1888 in North Attleboro, the son of Frank West Allen, a jewelry maker, Esther Belcher Allen. Named after his grandfather, Frederick Deane Allen, he was fifth of six children and was expected to go into the family business. However, he was an enterprising young man and worked in the jewelry sweatshops in the summers, learning various techniques that he used in modeling and casting sculpture instead of making jewelry. Upon his graduation from Attleboro High School in 1907, Frederick W. Allen presented a bas-relief to his alma mater, the first work he had cast, he studied for a year at the Rhode Island School of Design in Providence under Manatt and Hazelton and, having determined to be a sculptor, enrolled at the School of the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston where he attended Bela Lyon Pratt's modeling classes for three-and-a-half years, winning many prizes and scholarships for the excellence of his work.
Allen fell in love with the lovely Agnes H. Horner and, on the day after her graduation from Attleboro High School as valedictorian, they married and departed for Paris, he studied and sculpted for the summer at the Académie Julian under Paul Landowski and the Académie Colarossi under Paul Wayland Bartlett. While in Paris he took the opportunity to spend time at the Luxembourg Museum where he studied Rodin and other contemporary sculptors and spent hours sketching from the rich offerings in the galleries of the city; when he returned to Boston in the fall of 1913, he began teaching at the School of the Museum of Fine Arts as assistant instructor, a position Bela Pratt helped him secure. He continued teaching until his retirement in 1954, becoming the gifted head of the department in 1929, he was known affectionately by his students as "F. W." and earned the respected title of Emeritus, the first awarded by the school. Among his students was Mary Moore. During the time he was sculpting and teaching, he raised and educated a family of five children while surviving the Great Depression and two World Wars.
He supported his studio on Tavern Road a block from the museum, a colonial home for his family in Concord, Massachusetts, a cottage on North Haven Island in Maine and a country cabin and a home in Rumney, New Hampshire where he retired after selling his studio in 1954. He had said he wouldn't mind if death tapped him on the shoulder there. Early in his career Pratt had encouraged the Allens to buy the cottage next to his own home on the rocky shores of a protected harbor on North Haven Island overlooking the Camden Hills, they purchased the property in 1914 and became part of a colony of Boston artists now known as the Bartlett's Harbor Artists' Colony. Allen, Frank Benson, Bela Pratt, Beatrice Van Ness and their families and students, all spent many productive and happy summers in this inspiring spot; the island's natural beauty combined with the little colony's isolated location inspired their creative pursuits away from the pressures of their normal working lives. Bela Pratt, his mentor and friend provided Allen with his first major commission, to sculpt in granite one of three bas-reliefs to be installed on the Museum of Fine Art's new Evans Wing On the Fenway façade of the building.
This brought immediate attention from the leaders of the Boston art community and was the beginning of a productive sculpting period for him between 1913 and 1920. He exhibited during that time at the Museum of Fine Arts, the Guild of Boston Artists, of which he was a founding member, the Boston Art Club and the St. Botolph Club and frequented the other meeting place for artists, the Tavern Club, he was a regular exhibitor at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts throughout the 1920s. He was the Boston representative at an exhibit at the MOMA in 1933 and a regular at his hometown museum, the Concord Art Association. Allen crafted the small and popular Beaux-Arts style bronzes, medical models for Harvard using the "lost wax" process, memorial tablets, portrait busts, portrait reliefs, "imaginative" pieces, garden fountains and life and death masques, as well as large memorials and architectural installations, his best-known large work is the pediment and statues atop the Supreme Courthouse in Manhattan.
His sculptures are included in the collections of Boston's Museum of Fine Arts, the Metropolitan Museum, the Farnsworth Art Museum in Rockland Maine, the Concord Art Association, the Smithsonian American Art Museum in DC. His own favorite piece, the heroic size Egyptian Head, was displayed in the New York World's Fair in 1939. On July 4, 1942, Allen unveiled a monument of George Washington in Fall River, Massachusetts, reported to be "of such artistic merit and patriotic intent as to attract nation-wide interest." The monument, carved from Deer Island granite, depicts a central portrait bust of Washington upon a pedestal. Curved benches on either side of the bust extend toward carvings of a girl; the monument was paid for by Catholic children of Fall River. It was the form that he turned to during the 1920s, carvings made directly from pieces of stone granite boulders from Maine that became the works closest to his heart and those for which he wanted to be remembered, he died January 9, 1961 at his retirement home in Rumney, New Hampshire at the age of 73.
His assistant Elizabeth MacLean Smith wrote, "Here his teachings will go on, through his children and his pupils. And the granite boulders which he carved shall remain witness to a true sculptor". Augustus St. Gaudens > Bela Pratt >Frederick Allen, Rodin > Joh
Northeastern University is a private research university in Boston, established in 1898. It is categorized as an R1 institution by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education; the university offers undergraduate and graduate programs on its main campus in the Fenway-Kenmore, South End, Back Bay neighborhoods of Boston. The university has satellite campuses in Charlotte, North Carolina. Northeastern purchased the New College of the Humanities in London and plans to open an additional campus in Vancouver, Canada; the university's enrollment is 18,000 undergraduate students and 8,000 graduate students. Northeastern features a cooperative education program, more known as "co-op", that integrates classroom study with professional experience and contains over 3,100 partners across all seven continents; the program has been a key part of Northeastern's curriculum of experiential learning for more than a hundred years and is one of the largest co-op/internship programs in the world.
While it is not required for students of all academic disciplines to participate in the co-op program, participation is nearly universal among undergraduate students as it helps distinguish their university experience from that of other universities. Northeastern is ranked 1st on the "Best Schools for Internships" list by the Princeton Review and has ranked in the top five for over a decade. Northeastern has a comprehensive study abroad program that spans more than 170 universities and colleges. Northeastern is a large residential university. Most students choose to live on campus but upperclassmen have the option to live off campus. More than 75% of Northeastern students receive some form of financial aid. In the 2017–18 school year, the university offered $266.58 million in grant and scholarship assistance. The university's sports teams, the Northeastern Huskies, compete in NCAA Division I as members of the Colonial Athletic Association in 18 varsity sports; the men's and women's hockey teams compete in Hockey East, while the men's and women's rowing teams compete in the Eastern Association of Rowing Colleges and Eastern Association of Women's Rowing Colleges, respectively.
Men's Track and Field has won the CAA back to back years in 2015 and 2016. In 2013, men's basketball won its first CAA regular season championship, men's soccer won the CAA title for the first time, women's ice hockey won a record 16th Beanpot championship; the Northeastern men's hockey team won the 2018 and 2019 Beanpot beating out Boston University, Boston College, Harvard. The Evening Institute for Younger Men, located at the Huntington Avenue YMCA, held its first class on October 3, 1898, starting what would transform into Northeastern University over the course of four decades; the School of Law was formally established that year with the assistance of an Advisory Committee, consisting of Dean James Barr Ames of the Harvard University School of Law, Dean Samuel Bennett of the Boston University School of Law, Judge James R. Dunbar. In 1903, the first Automobile Engineering School in the country was established followed by the School of Commerce and Finance in 1907. Day classes began in 1909.
In 1916, a bill was introduced into the Massachusetts Legislature to incorporate the institute as Northeastern College. After considerable debate and investigation, it was passed in March 1916. On March 30, 1917, Frank Palmer Speare was inaugurated as the new College's first President. Five years the school changed its name to Northeastern University to better reflect the increasing depth of its instruction. In March 1923, the University secured general degree-granting power from the Legislature, with the exception of the A. B. the S. B. and the medical degrees. The College of Liberal Arts was added in 1935. Two years the Northeastern University Corporation was established, with a board of trustees composed of 31 University members and 8 from the YMCA. In 1948 Northeastern separated itself from the YMCA. Following World War II Northeastern began admitting women. During the postwar educational boom, the University created the College of Education, University College, the Colleges of Pharmacy and Nursing.
The College of Criminal Justice followed the College of Computer Science. By the early 1980s the one-time night commuter school had grown to nearly 50,000 enrollees including all full- and part-time programs at both the undergraduate and graduate level. By 1989–1990 University enrollment had reduced to about 40,000 full, part-time, evening students, in 1990 the first class with more live-on-campus than commuter students was graduated. Following the retirement of President Kenneth Ryder 1989, the University adopted a slow and more thoughtful approach to change, it had been accepting between 7,500 and 10,000 students per year based on applications of about 15,000 to 20,000 with acceptance rates between 50% and 75% depending on the program. Attrition rates were huge, with a 25% freshmen dropout rate and graduation rate below 50%, with only 40% of 5,672 undergraduate full-time day students enrolled in the Fall of 1984 graduating by 1989; when President John Curry left office in 1996 the university population had been systematically reduced to about 25,000.
Incoming President Richard Freeland decided to focus on recruiting the type of students who were graduating as the school's prime demographic. I