The Jungfrau at 4,158 metres is one of the main summits of the Bernese Alps, located between the northern canton of Berne and the southern canton of Valais, halfway between Interlaken and Fiesch. Together with the Eiger and Mönch, the Jungfrau forms a wall overlooking the Bernese Oberland. The summit was first reached on August 3,1811 by the Meyer brothers of Aarau, the ascent followed a long expedition over the glaciers and high passes of the Bernese Alps. It was not until 1865 that a direct route on the northern side was opened. Along with the Aletsch Glacier to the south, the Jungfrau is part of the Jungfrau-Aletsch area, the Jungfrau is split between the municipalities of Lauterbrunnen and Fieschertal. It is the third-highest mountain of the Bernese Alps after the nearby Finsteraarhorn and Aletschhorn and this, and the extreme steepness of the north face, secured for it an early reputation for inaccessibility. The Jungfrau is the westernmost and highest point of a gigantic 10 km wall dominating the valleys of Lauterbrunnen, the Jungfrau is approximately 6 km from the Eiger, with the summit of the Mönch between the two mountains,3.5 km from the Jungfrau.
The wall is extended to the east by the Fiescherwand and to the west by the Lauterbrunnen Wall, the difference of altitude between the deep valley of Lauterbrunnen and the summit is particularly visible from the area of Mürren. From the valley floor, west of the massif, the gain is more than 3 km for a horizontal distance of 4 km. The landscapes around the Jungfrau are extremely contrasted, instead of the vertiginous precipices of the north-west, the south-east side emerges from the upper snows of the Aletsch Glacier at around 3,500 metres. The 20 km long valley of Aletsch on the south-east is completely uninhabited, the whole area constitutes the largest glaciated area in the Alps as well as in Europe. After the Guttannen porter was sent back alone over the Lötschenlücke and they recrossed the two passes named to their point of departure in Valais, and went home again over the Grimsel. The journey was a most extraordinary one for the time, to settle these another expedition was undertaken in 1812.
In this the two sons and Gottlieb, of Johann Rudolf Meyer, played the chief parts. Next day the party attempted the ascent of the Finsteraarhorn from the Studer névé on the east by way of the southeast ridge. The following day the party crossed the Grünhornlücke to the Aletsch Glacier, at a bivouac, probably just opposite the present Konkordia Hut, the rest of the party, having come over the Oberaarjoch and the Grünhornlücke, joined the Finsteraarhorn party. Gottlieb, Rudolfs younger brother, had more patience than the rest and remained longer at the huts near the Märjelensee, where the adventurers had taken refuge. He could make the ascent of the Jungfrau, the Rottalsattel being reached from the east side as is now usual
Jungfrau-Aletsch protected area
The Jungfrau-Aletsch protected area is located in south-western Switzerland between the cantons of Berne and Valais. The Jungfrau-Aletsch protected area is the first World Natural Heritage site in the Alps, the Jungfrau-Aletsch protected area is located in the Swiss Alps between the Bernese Oberland and north-eastern Valais, about 25 km south of Interlaken and 20 km north of Brig. The site covers the whole Aar massif from the Oeschinensee in the west to the Grimselsee in the east, including the basins of the Aletsch, Fiescher and Grindelwald glaciers. The culminating point is the Finsteraarhorn which, with its 4,270 metres, is the highest mountain in the Bernese Alps. 8 other summits above 4,000 metres are located in the area, Jungfrau, Mönch, Gross Fiescherhorn, the summit ridge separating the cantons of Valais and Berne is the main watersheds of Europe. The southern valleys drain into the southwest running valley of the Rhone which flows into the Mediterranean sea, the climate of the region is strongly influenced by the height of the mountains.
They form a barrier between the wet climate of the north and the dryer climate of the south-facing Valais slopes. On the north side the rainfall exceeds 2,200 mm, most falling in summer, the Valais experiences a subcontinental climate at low and medium altitudes and is markedly semi-arid. Mean annual temperatures range from -8.5 °C at Jungfraujoch to 9.1 °C at Brig, the Jungfrau-Aletsch site is almost untouched, except for trails and mountain huts. About half of the area is higher than 2,600 metres, the total area covered by glacier is 35,000 ha, it constitutes the largest continuous area of ice in the Alps. The largest and longest glacier in the Alps, the Aletsch Glacier is 23 km long and has a thickness of 900 metres at Konkordiaplatz. Glaciers and barren rock constitute 80% of the area, 6% is forested,5. 2% is alpine meadow, altitude is the strongest factor influencing the distribution and diversity of the vegetation. Within the nominated area there are 1,800 species of plants and 700 mosses.
The growing period decreases with altitude, but there are 529 species of phanerogams, broadleaf montane forest extends from 900 m to 1,300 m on north- facing slopes. On south-facing slopes the same zone is approximately 200 m higher, the subalpine zone lies between 1,300 m to 2,000 m, between the broadleaf and alpine zone. Characteristic species are the Swiss Pine and the Norway Spruce on the north and south side respectively, an example of Pinus cembra forest is the Aletsch Forest above the Aletsch Glacier and near the tree line. It developed on the moraine of the glacier after its extension in 1850. The zone directly above the line forms a girdle of moorland vegetation
The Nesthorn is a mountain in the Bernese Alps. It is located in the Swiss canton of Valais north of Brig, the mountain lies between the Oberaletsch Glacier on the north and east side and the Gredetschtal on the south side. It is part of the subrange of the Bernese Alps that culminates at the Aletschhorn, the Nesthorn was first ascended from Belalp in 1865 by B. George and H. Mortimer, with Christian Almer and his son, passing the base of the peak nearly to the head of the west branch of the Beich Firn, they had on their left a steep iceslope, broken in five places by protruding masses of rock
The Aletschhorn is a mountain in the Alps in Switzerland, lying within the Jungfrau-Aletsch region, which has been designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. The mountain shares part of its name with the Aletsch Glacier lying at its foot, the Aletschhorn, the second highest mountain of the Bernese Alps after the Finsteraarhorn, is the only one of the higher peaks that lies completely in Valais. It is the point of a chain running parallel with the dividing ridge. The Aletschhorn is often thought to command the finest of all the views from Alpine summits. On its northern flank lies the Aletschfirn, which is part of the Aletsch Glacier, on the southwest lies the Oberaletsch Glacier and, on the southeast, lies the Mittelaletsch Glacier. Both are in the catchment area of the Massa river, which originates in the Aletsch Glacier, the Aletschhorn was first climbed almost 50 years after the first ascent of the Jungfrau. When the Jungfrau was first climbed, the climbers used base camps on the Aletschfirn, the Aletschhorn was climbed first in 1859 by Francis Fox Tuckett, J. J.
Bennen, V. Tairraz and P. Bohren. But the summit could be reached without too much difficulty, like many other climbers, Tuckett took with him a barometer and made scientific observations. He noted the icy temperature and the strong wind, blowing the snow. After they reached the summit, Tuckett separated from Bennen and descended via the face with Bohren. He wanted to directly to the Lötschental, but soon after they began the descent. They cautiously went back and descended on the Mittelaletsch, Aletschhorn on Summitpost Photo Aletschhorn from Lötschenlücke Photo Aletschhorn from Mischabelhuts
Jungfraujoch is a notable saddle in the Bernese Alps, connecting the two four-thousander peaks Jungfrau and Mönch, at an elevation of 3,466 metres above sea level. The Jungfraujoch railway station, at an elevation of 3,454 metres is the highest in Europe and it lies east of the saddle, below the Sphinx station, and is connected to the Top of Europe building, which includes several panoramic restaurants and a post office. Several tunnels lead outside, where secured hiking trails on the glacier can be followed. The Sphinx Observatory, one of the highest astronomical observatories in the world and it can be reached by an elevator from the Jungfraujoch. The observatory houses one of the Global Atmosphere Watchs atmospheric research stations, the Jungfraujoch radio relay station, which is not accessible to the public, is installed west of the Jungfraujoch, on the Jungfrau ridge. It is Europes highest radio relay station, four such routes were found, with the Jungfraujoch and the Eigerjoch being among the most difficult passes in the Alps.
The first passage of Jungfraujoch succeeded in July 1862, by a party of six English climbers and six Swiss guides, Leslie Stephen, F. J. Hardy, H. B. George, Living and Morgan, with Christian Almer and Peter Michel, Ulrich Kauffmann, P. Baumann, the time of ascent from Wengernalp was nine hours. The party turned back on the first day at a bergschrund, returning on the day with a ladder 25 ft in length, carried by Peter Rubi. The way lay at first by the buttress of the Mönch, separating the Eiger. From the buttress the route descended a short distance in order to reach the Guggi Glacier and this halting place was reached in about three hours. Above the bergschrund was a second and smaller plateau which was situated immediately under the slopes of broken neve that lay below the saddle. The final and very arduous stage in the ascent was a patch of dark rocks jutted out from the snow in the ridge connecting the Jungfrau with the Mönch. At a point where the pathway thinned out nearly to a point, and was cut across by a transverse crevasse and this was the last serious obstacle, a moderate slope of névé, unbroken by crevasses, led up to the summit of the saddle.
After reaching the first patch of rocks, a way below the saddle on the south side. Kaufmann went down to the Eggishorn, while the remainder of the party returned to Grindelwald by the Mönchsjoch. Adolf Guyer-Zeller First thought of the idea of a tunnel in 1893, the building of the tunnel started on July 27,1896 and took 16 years to complete. The construction phase was troubled by problems including monetary shortages, inclement weather
A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically, a summit is a maximum in elevation. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous, the UIAA definition is that a summit is independent if it has a prominence of 30 metres or more, it is a mountain if it has a prominence of at least 300 metres. This can be summarised as follows, A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top, Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route. In many parts of the western United States, the term refers to the highest point along a road, highway. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit while the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit, geoid Hill List of highest mountains Maxima and minima Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder
The Wetterhorn is a mountain in the Swiss Alps towering above the village of Grindelwald. The Mittelhorn and Rosenhorn are mostly hidden from view from Grindelwald, the Grosse Scheidegg Pass crosses the col to the north, between the Wetterhorn and the Schwarzhorn. The Mittelhorn was first summitted on 9 July 1845 by the guides, this time accompanied by a third guide, Kaspar Abplanalp. The son of a Scottish physician, Speer lived in Interlaken, a September 1854 ascent by a party including Alfred Wills is much celebrated in Great Britain. In 1866, Lucy Walker was the first documented female ascendant of the peak, the 24-year-old English mountaineer William Penhall and his Meiringen guide Andreas Maurer were killed by an avalanche high up on the Wetterhorn on 3 August 1882. The famed guide and Grindelwald native Christian Almer climbed the many times in his life, including on his first of many trips with Meta Brevoort. His last ascent was in 1898 at the age of 72 together with his wife to celebrate their anniversary on the summit.
Winston Churchill climbed the Wetterhorn in 1894, the Wetterhorn summit was the intended terminal for the worlds first passenger carrying aerial tramway, but only the first quarter was built. It was in operation until the beginning of World War I, the Wetterhorn on Summitpost The Wetterhorn from Grindelwald First The Wetterhorn from the Eiger Trail
The Gross Fiescherhorn is a mountain of the Bernese Alps, located on the border between the cantons of Bern and Valais, halfway between the Mönch and the Finsteraarhorn. At 4,049 metres above sea level, its summit culminates over the whole Fiescherhorn massif, from the north both are well hidden behind other mountains and can only been seen from the village of Grindelwald. The mountain is shared between the municipalities of Grindelwald and Fieschertal, ascents are usually made from one of these three popular routes, one starts from the Mönchsjoch Hut, one from the Konkordia Hut, and the third from the Finsteraarhorn Hut. The summit was first reached on 23 July 1862 by H. B, george and Adolphus Warburton Moore, with guides Christian Almer and Ulrich Kaufmann. They used what is now the route, the south-west ridge. The north side of the mountain was first climbed in 1926, on 13 August, W. Amstutz and P. von Schumacher reached the summit after a 15-hour ascent via the north ridge, which is the northern boundary of the Fiescherwand.
The first direct ascent on the Fiescherwand was made by W. Welzenbach, Welzenbach was an expert climber, who disputed the common idea of his time that an ascent of the Fiescherwand was impossible. The previous year, in 1929, Welzenbach and Tillmann climbed the ridge in only 8.5 hours. The following year started the ascent of the Fiescherwand on the morning of 5 September 1930. They reached the top that evening, after a 12-hour ascent, Gross Fiescherhorn on SummitPost Gross Fiescherhorn