Schuylkill County is a county in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 148,289; the county seat is Pottsville. The county was created on March 1, 1811, from parts of Berks and Northampton counties and named for the Schuylkill River, which originates in the county. On March 3, 1818 additional territory in its northeast was added from Luzerne Counties. Schuylkill County comprises PA Micropolitan Statistical Area, it is located in the heart of the anthracite Coal Region of Eastern Pennsylvania. The lands constituting Schuylkill County were acquired by Penn's proprietors by treaty executed August 22, 1749, with representatives of the Six Nations and the Delaware and Shawnee, who received 500 pounds "lawful money of Pennsylvania"; the territory described included all of Schuylkill County, except the northern part of Union Township, included in the purchase of 1768. In the year 1754, the area that would become Schuylkill County was settled by Germans, as were areas that are now part of Berks, Dauphin and Lehigh counties.
The earliest settlers in southeastern Schuylkill County, part of Northampton County, were Moravian missionaries from Saxony. Other early settlers in southern Schuylkill County were German Palatines. An early mill in the county was built in 1744 by John Finscher, but it burned down; the first log church in the county was built in 1755. Native American massacres were commonplace in Schuylkill County between 1755 and 1765. Warrant for tracts of land in the vicinity of McKeansburg were in existence as early as 1750. Found by Sammy Hepler in 1789. Schuylkill County was created via an Act of Assembly on March 1, 1811, from portions of Berks and Northampton counties. More land was added from Columbia and Luzerne counties. At the time of its creation, the County had a population of about 6,000. An early book of Schuylkill County history was written by Daniel Deibert in 1802. Orwigsburg was the first community in Schuylkill County to be laid out. During the early years of Schuylkill County, there was an attempt to make McKeansburg the county seat, while Orwigsburg was a contender.
Orwigsburg was agreed upon to be the county seat. Beginning in 1831, sentiment began to rise for moving the county seat to Pottsville. In 1846, the Legislature passed the Act, approved by Governor Francis R. Shunk on March 13, submitting the question to the voters; the change was desired principally because the railroad and canal connections with Orwigsburg were problematic to transport the public to that town without losing valuable time, while Pottsville had such facilities and was within easy access from all parts of the county. Kelayres Massacre On November 5, 1934, a parade marched through the Village of Kelayres, Kline Township. A crowd of Democratic Party supporters walked toward the home of Republican Party leader, Joseph Bruno. Frustration with Bruno family control of the school board and other local offices had been growing for years. Shots were fired from the Bruno yard located at Fourth & Centre Streets. Several people were killed and more than 20 marchers were injured. Anthracite coal was discovered near.
In the year 1795 a blacksmith in Schuylkill County named Whetstone learned how to use it for smithing purposes. In the year 1806 coal was found in cutting the tail-race of the Valley Forge, on the Schuylkill, was used by Daniel Berlin, a blacksmith, which led to its general use by the smiths in the neighborhood. However, it wasn't until coal found an industrial use. In 1812, George Shoemaker who with Necho Allen had discovered “stone coal” at Centerville in Schuylkill County delivered some coal to Philadelphia. Most of the coal was given away to persons. Most of the experiments failed and though Shoemaker was nearly run out of town and called an “Imposter”, Mellon and Bishop of Delaware County used it in their rolling mill. Other rolling mills in the area successfully used the fuel and thus a large industrial market was bornThen the Schuylkill Navigation Company was chartered in 1815 to build a series of navigation improvements in the Schuylkill River, nearly as early as the much more ambitious Erie Canal and well ahead of other key canals fueling the Industrial Revolution, such as the Delaware and Hudson, the Lehigh, the Chesapeake and Ohio and Raritan and Morris canals.
The originators of the project did not count upon the coal trade to promote the success of the undertaking. They looked forward to the agricultural products below the mountains, the lumber of Schuylkill county, the grain and other products of the counties between the Susquehanna and Schuylkill Rivers; the first shipments of coal by canal were made in the year 1822, when 1,480 tons were sent down the line. This outlet for a regular supply of anthracite coal existing, public attention was attracted to the southern anthracite coal field. There was a rush to Schuylkill County of capitalists and fortune hunters, who were inspired with the idea of becoming millionaires; this was the first speculative era of the Schuylkill coal trade. Pottsville became the center of the movement; the more successful explorers revealed the existence of a great number of veins of coal, extending over a vast stretch of county and with a inexhaustible quantity of coal. These discoveries brought speculation.
The Cerrito crime family known as the San Jose crime family, was one of the two families that controlled organized crime in San Jose, within the nationwide criminal organization known as the Mafia. The other family that ran organized crime in San Jose was the Bonanno crime family of New York; the first probable organized crime in San Jose, California was founded by Onofrio Sciortino. The family was formed during the second World War. Sciortino would derive a majority of his profits from loansharking and prostitution, he was the first official La Cosa Nostra crime boss of San Jose up till the time of his death on September 10, 1959. The first known Mafia boss of organized crime in San Jose was Onofrio Sciortino. Little is known about the man except that his rackets included gambling, shylocking and extortion. Sciortino ruled over the San Jose Family from the early 1940s until his death in 1959. Joseph Cerrito took over the crime family after the death of Sciortino. Cerrito emigrated to the United States from Palermo, Sicily in the late 1920s and settled in San Jose in the early 1940s.
He owned three car dealerships in the San Jose area. Cerrito gained some popularity for being caught at the 1957 mob meeting in New York. In 1964, he was spotted meeting Bonanno crime family former underboss Frank Garofalo at a hotel in Palermo, Sicily. Many believe. Life Magazine listed Cerrito as the Mafia boss of San Jose in 1968. Angry over the accusation, he sued the company for libel, but the case was thrown out of court. Cerrito died in 1978 from natural causes. A loyal caporegime named Angelo Marino was selected the new don over the San Jose rackets in 1978. Marino had close connections with San Francisco mayor Joseph Alioto, Marino was close with San Francisco crime family boss James Lanza and Los Angeles consigliere and FBI informant Frank Bompensiero, he operated the California Cheese Company. His father, Salvatore, a longtime member of the Pittsburgh crime family, handed the company to Marino, his company controlled eighty-five percent of the cheese distribution in California and fifty percent west of the Mississippi River.
Marino brought over many Sicilian immigrants to work in his cheese factory. Marino was indicted in October 1977 with his son Salvatore for the murder of Peter Catelli. Peter Catelli had tried to get a job with Marino’s company; when Marino refused him a position, Catelli tried to extort $100,000 from Marino. Angelo Marino ordered Catelli's father Orlando to kill him in a trailer on the north side of the California Cheese factory. Orlando refused, Salvatore killed Peter and shot Orlando in the head. Orlando testified against the Marinos. Marino avoided trial for the next three years by claiming illness, but he continued to operate the crime family from a hospital. Joseph Piazza and Thomas Napolitano were arrested for participating in the attack. On October 12, 1980 Angelo Marino was convicted of attempted murder, his conviction was overturned on appeals and he was released. Angelo Marino died of a congestive heart failure due to diabetes in February 1983. Emmanuel J. Figlia was the boss over the remaining crime family.
He was considered an underboss to Marino. In 1998 Salvatore Marino, son of the mentioned Angelo, was released from San Quentin Prison; the crime family took a large blow after the deaths of Vito Frank Adragna. Adragna died on April 7, 2008, he was 90. Figlia died of natural causes on September 25, 2009. Emmanuel Joseph Figlia was the boss over the remaining Cerrito Crime Family from 1983-1995. Salvatore "Sal" Marino was released from San Quentin Prison in 1998 and is said to have taken over the crime family. Figlia died on September 25, 2009, he was 91 years old. They lost Vito Frank Adragna a year earlier. Adragna was a consigliere in the crime family. There has been an increase of Asian and Mexican gangs located where the former position of the Cerrito crime family was; the family is now believed to be defunct. Bonanno crime family San Francisco crime family Pittsburgh crime family Italian-American Mafia DeMaris, Ovid; the Last Mafioso: Aladino "Jimmy the Weasel" Fratianno. New York: Bantam Books, 1981.
ISBN 0-553-27091-5 Capeci, Jerry. The Complete Idiot's Guide To The Mafia. New York: Alpha Books, 2001. ISBN 0028642252 Lavigne, Yves. Hell's Angels. Yves Lavigne, 2000. ISBN 0818405147 Mannion, James; the Everything Mafia Book. Adams Media, 2003
Steven Courtney is a British biologist and environmental policy expert. He has published extensively on bird and insect ecology, on animal behavior, he has pioneered the use of independent scientific review as a way to solve environmental disputes. In 2017 Steven Courtney pleaded guilty to five counts of electronic peeping and was sentenced to County Jail, he is now a registered sex offender. Courtney's scientific research concerns the evolution of behavior. The'hierarchy-threshold' model of diet choice, has been useful in understanding how animals make decisions about resource use. Director of Science at RESOLVE, his programs include conservation planning for threatened and endangered species, as well as large scale ecosystem management plans. He has led several investigations into scientific integrity. Beginning in 1997, Courtney led scientific teams that established scientific consensus in the Headwaters Forest controversy leading to the development of a Habitat Conservation Plan that brought peaceful resolution to many years of confrontation.
In 2004 Courtney led a team that summarized all scientific information regarding the northern spotted owl. This scientific synthesis altered the tenor of the debate over this iconic species, contributing to a recognition that fire and invasion by the barred owl were just as important threats as timber harvest; this scientific panel recommended the development of the first Recovery Plan to be finalized for the species. However the federal planning process was marred with controversy and accusations of political interference, leading to Courtney's recall to provide transparent and independent scientific evaluations; the panel recommended significant changes, which led to a final Recovery Plan, the current conservation strategy which distinguishes between fire-prone east-side forests and moister west-side forests. The shooting of barred owls to save spotted owls remains controversial. Courtney has provided independent scientific evaluations for other controversial issues, such as management of marbled murrelet, sage grouse, the Everglades, several large North American river systems.
He has led teams investigating allegations of scientific misconduct. In 2014 he led a team of scientists that evaluated the genetics and taxonomic analysis underlying the proposed removal of ESA protections from the wolf; the panel unanimously concluded that the science used was not the best available, a finding that fueled the ongoing controversy over management of the species In 2000, Courtney survived the crash of Singapore Airlines flight 006. He was recognized with a Red Cross Good Samaritan award for rescue of other passengers. In October 2016, Courtney was arrested for installing multiple hidden cameras in the bedroom and shower of a Montecito house he sublet to acquaintances. A police search of Courtney’s computer and cell phone files showed he had been viewing the footage for sexual gratification. In 2017 he was sentenced to two months in County Jail and will serve 3 years of probation plus restitution fees for the victims, he pleaded guilty to five counts of electronic peeping and had been spying on his tenants for sexual gratification for more than a year.
Courtney sought to rent out his front house to people he knew while he lived in the back unit. He was caught after one of the tenants found the miniature camera disguised as USB chargers and called the police, he must complete 18-month sex offender therapy and refrain from owning recording devices, including smartphones, for the next three years. Steven Courtney is now a registered sex offender
The Polytantric Circle was an organization that helped organize the yearly Summer solstice celebrations at Stonehenge, England. These celebrations, called the Stonehenge Free Festival, ran from 1972 to 1984. By the early 1980s, the festival had begun to attract a large following, the people who helped to put the festival together year after year began to take on specific roles. Willy X put together an annual festival list and had contact lists for bands, the loose-knit Polytantric, an offshoot of the White Panthers, took the lead in organising the stage and pyramid roof. PA. Bands. Nik Turner of Hawkwind offered valuable experience in use of setting up of the pyramid, a free alternative space, a legendary stage, which had made its debut with Sphinx at the Edinburgh festival Greenham, Stonehenge, Hyde Park. Brixton. From festival to campaign gigs to legalise it to peace protest to benefit, the pyramid epitomised the ambitions of a radical and vibrant alternative popular youth counter culture. In the winter huge blocks of quartz crystals were hung inside the pyramid to purify the energies.
Stonehenge begun to grow rapidly: in 1980, 12,000 people had attended, but by'82 there were 35,000. However, coordination between English Heritage, the National Trust, the Polytantric Circle seemed to be breaking down. In 1983 it was decided to move the stage to the field closer to the woods and further away from the Stones. Sid Rawle and Big Steve the polytantric stage manager wandered across the fields past the mounds clutching a dowsing rod. Six days and six nights of live music followed. In 1985 celebrations at Stonehenge were banned by English courts; this ban was lifted in 1999, the campaign for a new free festival summer solstice celebration continues. The group published "The Polytantric Newsletter" and were the first to organise what became The Stonehenge Campaign. Willy X - Polytantric stage and free festival activist Polytantric Newsletter 17 - 1986 reproduced in IT Dice George - Big Steve on Stonehenge and rise of rave sound systems
James Dearing was a Confederate States Army officer during the American Civil War who served in the artillery and cavalry. Dearing entered West Point in 1858 and resigned on April 22, 1861 when Virginia seceded from the Union. Dearing was mortally wounded at the Battle of High Bridge during the Appomattox Campaign of 1865, making him one of the last officers to die in the war. Despite serving as a commander of a cavalry brigade and using the grade of brigadier general after he was nominated to that grade by Confederate President Jefferson Davis, Dearing did not achieve the grade of brigadier general because the Confederate Senate did not approve his nomination, his actual permanent grade was colonel. Dearing was born in Virginia, he was a great-grandson of Colonel Charles Lynch, a famous revolutionary war veteran who gave his name to what is now known as "lynching". A graduate of Hanover Academy he received an appointment to the United States Military Academy in 1858, where he was described as "a reckless, handsome boy" who introduced the tune "Dixie" to the academy, earning him the reputation of a secessionist and demerits from his superiors.
Nonetheless he was ranked first in his class of 1862. When his home state seceded he resigned, just short of the premature graduation of his class, on April 22, 1861. Dearing traveled to Richmond, getting a commission as lieutenant of artillery in the Virginia Militia, he joined the arrived Washington Artillery from New Orleans, Louisiana. He participated in the First Battle of Bull Run while being assigned to the 1st company as part of the 4th Brigade of Colonel Jubal Early in the Army of the Potomac, served as volunteer aide to his battalion commander Major James B. Walton. Dearing was promoted to 1st Lieutenant in July 1861. Dearing's Battery was attached to George E. Pickett's Brigade and supported it in the Peninsular Campaign, where Dearing was praised by Lieutenant General James Longstreet, in the Second Battle of Bull Run; when Pickett was elevated to division command in Longstreet's First Corps in September Dearing's battery was assigned to the division and fought in the Battle of Fredericksburg.
Captain Dearing was promoted to Major in early 1863, was appointed Chief of Artillery in Pickett's Division. In April his battalion - made up of the batteries of Captains Stribling, Caskie and Blount - was organized as 38th Battalion, Virginia Light Artillery, he led his unit with the division into the Siege of Suffolk. At the Battle of Gettysburg Dearing's Battalion was in camp near Chambersburg and marched on morning of July 2. While his men were on the march Major Dearing rode ahead to the battlefield and offered his services to Lieutenant Colonel E. Porter Alexander of the corps reserve artillery. Alexander, who's battalion supported the division of Major General Lafayette McLaws in its assault of the Peach Orchard, gave Dearing the command of two of his batteries; those batteries, Jordan's "Bedford" and Woolfolk's "Ashland", were on the right of Alexander's line. On July 3 Dearing's battalion took part in the massive artillery barrage prior to Pickett's Charge, positioned right in the center supporting Pickett's division.
Inflicting heavy damage Dearing's batteries suffered from counter-battery fire, but stayed in position and was reinforced by numerous guns and sections on Col. Alexander's orders. After the initial charge Dearing's guns supported the advance of Anderson´s brigades and put shell against the counterattack of George Stannard´s 2nd Vermont Brigade, wounding the later. Afterwards of Gettysburg Pickett was assigned to command the Department of Southern Virginia and North Carolina; when Pickett needed a mounted force for his operations he selected Major Dearing to command it, Dearing gathered some 200 men for a provisional battalion. On January 12, 1864 a new cavalry regiment was proposed for service with Pickett, he recommended Dearing as the commanding officer. Secretary of war James A. Seddon approved it the next day and Dearing a Lieutenant Colonel of artillery, was promoted to provisional Colonel of cavalry, his regiment, known as 8th Confederate Cavalry, was composed of the former 12th North Carolina Cavalry Battalion and several other companies, as well as a battery of light artillery.
In April 1864, while Dearing participated in the operations again New Bern and Plymouth, he was ordered back to the Army of Northern Virginia with his official rank of Lieutenant Colonel. At the same time the opening phases of the Siege of Petersburg changed Colonel Dearing's service branch again. On April 29, 1864 he was slated for promotion to brigadier general. Still in the Department of Southern Virginia and North Carolina, now under command of P. G. T. Beauregard and his confederate brigade served as scout and fire brigade. In July Dearing was given a command in the ANV again, serving in the cavalry division of Major General W. H. F. "Rooney" Lee. His new brigade consisted of the 8th Georgia, 4th and 65th North Carolina cavalry regiments as well as the 16th North Carolina Battalion, he was fal
The Lion Has Wings is a 1939 British, black-and-white, documentary-style, propaganda war film, directed by Adrian Brunel, Brian Desmond Hurst, Alexander Korda and Michael Powell. The film was produced by London Film Productions and Alexander Korda Film Productions and'was preparing the nation and shining a light on the power of the RAF'; the Lion Has Wings was made at the outbreak of World War II and was released to cinemas quickly. It helped convince the British government of film's value for disseminating both propaganda and information; the Lion Has Wings is recounted in various'chapters' with a linking story revolving around a senior Royal Air Force officer, played by Ralph Richardson, his wife and his family. The film opens with a newsreel-style documentary comparing life in Britain to life in Nazi Germany, narrated by E. V. H. Emmett in the upbeat and patriotic narrative style common to such newsreels in Britain; this uses existing newsreel footage with some additional footage shot for the film.
It includes scenes from Fire Over England with Queen Elizabeth I giving her speech to the troops at Tilbury about repelling invaders. It compares the relaxed lifestyles and openness of the British Royal Family and the British people with the militarism of Nazi Germany by including footage from the Nazi propaganda documentary Triumph of the Will; the second chapter shows an early bombing raid on German warships in the Kiel Canal. Although it was recreated in the studio, with special effects, it includes some footage of the real bombers and their crews returning from the raid; the third chapter shows an attack by Luftwaffe bombers, how it is repelled by the RAF, with assistance from the Observer Corps and barrage balloons. The epilogue has Mr. and Mrs. Richardson taking a break from their duties, enjoying an afternoon by the river, she gives a stirring speech about how the women of Britain have in the past given their sons and lovers to the land and to the sea, must now give them to the air. They will do so willingly to defend all, fair and kind about the British way of life.
But Wing Commander Richardson is so tired. Merle Oberon as Mrs. Richardson Ralph Richardson as Wing Commander Richardson June Duprez as June Flora Robson as Queen Elizabeth I Robert Douglas as Briefing officer Anthony Bushell as Pilot Brian Worth as Bobby Austin Trevor as Schulemburg Ivan Brandt as officer G. H. Mulcaster as Controller Herbert Lomas as Holveg Milton Rosmer as Head of Observer Corps Ronald Adam as Bomber Chief Robert Rendel as Chief of Air Staff Archibald Batty as Air Officer Derrick De Marney as Bill Bernard Miles as Observer Controller E. V. H. Emmett as Narrator, UK Lowell Thomas as Narrator, US At the outbreak of war, there were fears that all film production would be halted and cinemas closed, as they were during World War I. Alexander Korda was close friends with Winston Churchill, was aware of current events; as soon as war was declared, Korda pulled staff from other productions to fulfill his promise to Churchill that he would have a feature propaganda film ready within one month of the outbreak of war.
Since The Lion Has Wings was made before the attacks on Britain had begun, the film had to rely on existing stock footage, including sequences lifted from the air raid featurette, The Gap. Contemporary aircraft, many of which were obsolete by 1939, are a noticeable jarring element; the footage of a German bomber taking off is a German airliner. The addition of footage, shot at operational bases, RAF Hornchurch, Essex, RAF Mildenhall, England, combined with studio work at Denham Studio, Buckinghamshire, UK, lent an air of authenticity to the production. To ensure rapid progress, the film had three directors, was shot in various locations. Michael Powell was assigned the task of recreating the RAF bomber raids, his taut and well-structured section stands up the best, while Brian Desmond Hurst's sequences include Merle Oberon and Ralph Richardson which brought'the undoubted stardust he managed to sprinkle with the help of his leading actors' which helped fill the cinemas. Adrian Brunel, the last of the three credited directors, was responsible for the spy and'crisis' scenes.
Powell remarked that the project was'all shop-made and directed in less than a month'. The speed of production and the multiple directors shows in the final result, but it is an effective'message' film, it was all shot in 12 days, completed in about four weeks, at a cost of just £30,000, a notable achievement in those times. Within days of its release, copies had been shipped to 60 countries. Although it is difficult to determine its actual impact on the public, The Lion Has Wings was considered a significant factor in persuading the British government to allow the film industry to continue to work, the film was regarded as a model of how filmmakers could be an asset to the war effort. Like many propaganda films, The Lion Has Wings does not tell the whole truth, but there are many elements of truth in it; the use of radar as a defensive measure was not mentioned. However, the bombing raids were shown first being reported by spies confirmed by the Observer Corps, a tactic, occurring as part of Britain's defensive measures.
The film shows Luftwaffe bombers trying to attack London, but being turned back by barrage balloons, which in reality had little effect on the raids. The use of RAF fighters intercepting and attacking