Gulf of California
The Gulf of California is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean that separates the Baja California Peninsula from the Mexican mainland. It is bordered by the states of Baja California, Baja California Sur and Sinaloa with a coastline of 4,000 km. Rivers which flow into the Gulf of California include the Colorado, Mayo, Sinaloa and the Yaqui; the gulf's surface area is about 160,000 km2. Depths range from fording at the estuary near Yuma, Arizona, to in excess of 3,000 meters in the deepest parts; the Gulf is thought to be one of the most diverse seas on the planet, is home to more than 5,000 species of micro-invertebrates. Home to over a million people, Baja California is the second-longest peninsula in the world, after the Malay Peninsula in Southeast Asia. Parts of the Gulf of California are a UNESCO World Heritage Site. AreaThe International Hydrographic Organization defines the southern limit of the Gulf of California as: "A line joining Piastla Point in Mexico, the southern extreme of Lower California".
The Gulf of California is 1,126 km long and 48–241 km wide, with an area of 177,000 km2, a mean depth of 818.08 m, a volume of 145,000 km3. The Gulf of California includes three faunal regions: the Northern Gulf of California the Central Gulf of California the Southern Gulf of CaliforniaOne recognized transition zone is termed the Southwestern Baja California Peninsula. Transition zones exist between faunal regions, they vary for each individual species. Geology Geologic evidence is interpreted by geologists as indicating the Gulf of California came into being around 5.3 million years ago as tectonic forces rifted the Baja California Peninsula off the North American Plate. As part of this process, the East Pacific Rise propagated up the middle of the Gulf along the seabed; this extension of the East Pacific Rise is referred to as the Gulf of California Rift Zone. The Gulf would extend as far as Indio, except for the tremendous delta created by the Colorado River; this delta blocks the sea from flooding the Imperial Valleys.
Volcanism dominates the East Pacific Rise. The island of Isla Tortuga is one example of this ongoing volcanic activity. Furthermore, hydrothermal vents due to extension tectonic regime, related to the opening of the Gulf of California, are found in the Bahía de Concepción, Baja California Sur. Islands The Gulf of California contains 37 major islands – the two largest being Isla Ángel de la Guarda and Tiburón Island. Most of the islands are found on the peninsular side of the gulf. In fact, many of the islands of the Sea of Cortez are the result of volcanic explosions that occurred during the early history of Baja California; the islands of Islas Marías, Islas San Francisco, Isla Partida are thought to be the result of such explosions. The formations of the islands, are not dependent on each other, they were each formed as a result of an individual structural occurrence. Several islands, including Isla Coronados, are home to volcanoes; the gulf has islands which together total about 420 hectares.
All of them as a whole were enacted as "Area Reserve and Migratory Bird Refuge and Wildlife" on August 2, 1978. In June 2000, the islands were given a new category "Protection Area Wildlife". In addition to this effort by the Mexican government, for its importance and recognition worldwide, all islands in the Gulf of California are part of the international program "Man and Biosphere" and are part of the World Reserve Network UNESCO Biosphere as Special Biosphere Reserve. Due to the vast expanse covered by this federal protected area conservation and management is carried out through a system of four regional directorates by way of co-direction. There is a regional directorate in the states of Baja California, Baja California Sur and Sinaloa. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the work of direct and indirect conservation is done in the islands is governed by a single Management Program, published in 2000, complemented by local and specific management programs archipelagos; the Directorate of Protection Area Wildlife California Gulf Islands in Baja California is responsible for 56 islands located off the coast of the state.
These are grouped into four archipelagos: San Luis Gonzaga or Enchanted, Guardian Angel, Bahia de los Angeles and San Lorenzo. Shores and tidesThe three general types of shores found in the Gulf of California include rocky shore, sandy beach, tidal flat; some of the rich biodiversity and high endemism that characterize the Gulf of California and make it such a hotspot for fishing can be attributed to insignificant factors, such as the types of rocks that make up a shore. Beaches with softer, more porous rocks have a higher species richness than those with harder, smoother rocks. Porous rocks will have more cracks and crevices in them, making them ideal living spaces for many animals; the rocks themselves, however need to be stable on the shore for a habitat to be stable. Additionally, the color of the rocks can affect the organisms living on a shore. For example, darker rocks will be warmer than lighter ones, can deter animals that do not have a high tolerance for heat. The
Food and Agriculture Organization
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger. Serving both developed and developing countries, FAO acts as a neutral forum where all nations meet as equals to negotiate arguments and debate policy. FAO is a source of knowledge and information, helps developing countries in transition modernize and improve agriculture and fisheries practices, ensuring good nutrition and food security for all, its Latin motto, fiat panis, translates as "let there be bread". As of August 2018, The FAO has 197 member states, including the European Union and The Cook Islands, the Faroe Islands and Tokelau, which are associate members; the idea of an international organization for food and agriculture emerged in the late 19th and early 20th century advanced by the US agriculturalist and activist David Lubin. In May–June 1905, an international conference was held in Rome, which led to the creation of the International Institute of Agriculture by the King of Italy Victor Emmanuel III.
In 1943, the United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt called a United Nations Conference on Food and Agriculture. Representatives from forty-four governments gathered at The Homestead Resort in Hot Springs, Virginia, US, from 18 May to 3 June, they committed themselves to founding a permanent organization for food and agriculture, which happened in Quebec City, Canada, on 16 October 1945 with the conclusion of the Constitution of the Food and Agriculture Organization. The First Session of the FAO Conference was held in the Château Frontenac in Quebec City from 16 October to 1 November 1945. World War II ended the International Agricultural Institute, though it was only dissolved by resolution of its Permanent Committee on 27 February 1948, its functions were transferred to the established FAO. From the late 1940s on, FAO attempted to make its mark within the emerging UN system, focusing on supporting agricultural and nutrition research and providing technical assistance to member countries to boost production in agriculture and forestry.
During the 1950s and 1960s, FAO partnered with many different international organizations in development projects. In 1951, FAO's headquarters were moved from DC, United States, to Rome, Italy; the agency is directed by the Conference of Member Nations, which meets every two years to review the work carried out by the organization and to Work and Budget for the next two-year period. The Conference elects a council of 49 member states that acts as an interim governing body, the Director-General, that heads the agency. FAO is composed of eight departments: Agriculture and Consumer Protection, Biodiversity and Water Department and Social Development and Aquaculture, Corporate Services and Technical Cooperation and Programme Management. Beginning in 1994, FAO underwent the most significant restructuring since its founding, to decentralize operations, streamline procedures and reduce costs; as a result, savings of about US$50 million, €35 million a year were realized. FAO's Regular Programme budget is funded by its members, through contributions set at the FAO Conference.
This budget covers core technical work and partnerships including the Technical Cooperation Programme, knowledge exchange and advocacy, direction and administration and security. The total FAO Budget planned for 2016–2017 is USD 2.6 billion. The voluntary contributions provided by members and other partners support mechanical and emergency assistance to governments for defined purposes linked to the results framework, as well as direct support to FAO's core work; the voluntary contributions are expected to reach US$1.6 billion in 2016–2017. This overall budget covers core technical work and partnerships, leading to Food and Agriculture Outcomes at 71 per cent; the world headquarters are located in Rome, in the former seat of the Department of Italian East Africa. One of the most notable features of the building was the Axum Obelisk which stood in front of the agency seat, although just outside the territory allocated to FAO by the Italian Government, it was taken from Ethiopia by Benito Mussolini's troops in 1937 as a war chest, returned on 18 April 2005.
Regional Office for Africa, in Accra, Ghana Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, in Bangkok, Thailand Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia, in Budapest, Hungary Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean, in Santiago, Chile Regional Office for the Near East, in Cairo, Egypt Sub-regional Office for Central Africa, in Libreville, Gabon Sub-regional Office for Central Asia, in Ankara, Turkey Sub-regional Office for Eastern Africa, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Sub-regional Office for Mesoamerica, in Panama City, Panama Sub-regional Office for North Africa, in Tunis, Tunisia Sub-regional Office for Southern Africa and East Africa, in Harare, Zimbabwe Sub-regional Office for the Caribbean, in Bridgetown, Barbados Sub-regional Office for the Gulf Cooperation Council States and Yemen, Abu Dhabi Sub-regional Office for the Pacific Islands, in Apia, Samoa Liaison Office for North America, in Washington, DC Liaison Office with J
Micropogonias is a genus of fish in the family Sciaenidae. "Micropogonias". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 25 Mar 2007
Saint Kitts known more formally as Saint Christopher Island, is an island in the West Indies. The west side of the island borders the Caribbean Sea, the eastern coast faces the Atlantic Ocean. Saint Kitts and the neighbouring island of Nevis constitute one country: the Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis. Saint Kitts and Nevis are separated by a shallow 3-kilometre channel known as "The Narrows". Saint Kitts became home to French colonies in the mid-1620s. Along with the island nation of Nevis, Saint Kitts was a member of the British West Indies until gaining independence on September 19, 1983; the island is one of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles. It is situated about 2,100 km southeast of Florida; the land area of St. Kitts is about 168 km2, being 29 km long and on average about 8 km across. Saint Kitts has the majority of whom are of African descent; the primary language is English, with a literacy rate of 98%. Residents call. Brimstone Hill Fortress National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the largest fortress built in the Eastern Caribbean.
The island of Saint Kitts is home to the Warner Park Cricket Stadium, used to host 2007 Cricket World Cup matches. This made St. Kitts and Nevis the smallest nation to host a World Cup event. Saint Kitts is home to several institutions of higher education, including Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, Windsor University School of Medicine, the University of Medicine and Health Sciences; the capital of the two-island nation, its largest port, is the town of Basseterre on Saint Kitts. There is a modern facility for handling large cruise ships there. A ring road goes around the perimeter of the island with smaller roads branching off it. Saint Kitts is 10 km away from Sint Eustatius to 3 km from Nevis to the south. St. Kitts has three distinct groups of volcanic peaks: Mount Misery Range; the highest peak is Mount Liamuiga Mount Misery, a dormant volcano 1,156 m high. The youngest volcanic center is Mt. Liamuiga, 5 km in diameter and rising to an elevation of 1155 m, its last eruption was 1620 years ago, corresponding with the Steel Dust series of pyroclastic deposits on the western flank.
The Mansion Series of pyroclastic deposits and andesite with basalt layers occur on the northern flank, along with mudflows. This volcano has a crater 900 m wide and 244 m deep, plus two distinct parasitic domes consisting of andesite, Brimstone Hill and Sandy Point Hill, coalesced with Farm Flat. Brimstone Hill is noted for having limestone on its flanks, dragged upward with the formation of the dome 44,400 years ago. Mt. Liamuiga overlays the Middle Range to the southeast; this Middle Range is another stratovolcano 976 m in height with a small summit crater containing a lake. Next in line is the 900 m South East Range, 1 Myr in age, consisting of four peaks. Ottley's dome and Monkey Hill dome are on the flanks, while the older volcanoes represented by Canada Hills, Conaree Hills lie past the airport and Bassaterre on the southeast flank; the Salt Dome Peninsula contains the oldest volcanic deposits, 2.3-2.77 Myr in age, consisting of at least nine Pelean domes rising up to 319 m in height, which includes Williams Hill and St. Anthony's Peaks.
During the last Ice Age, the sea level was up to 300 feet lower and St. Kitts and Nevis were one island along with Saba and Sint Eustatius. St. Kitts was settled by pre-agricultural, pre-ceramic "Archaic people", who migrated south down the archipelago from Florida. In a few hundred years they disappeared, to be replaced by the ceramic-using and agriculturalist Saladoid people around 100 BC, who migrated to St. Kitts north up the archipelago from the banks of the Orinoco River in Venezuela. Around 800 AD, they were replaced by members of the Arawak group. Around 1300, the Kalinago, or Carib people arrived on the islands; these agriculturalists dispersed the Igneri, forced them northwards to the Greater Antilles. They named Saint Kitts "Liamuiga" meaning "fertile island", would have expanded further north if not for the arrival of Europeans. A Spanish expedition under Christopher Columbus arrived and claimed the island for Spain in 1493; the first English colony was established in 1623, followed by a French colony in 1625.
The English and French united to massacre the local Kalinago, partitioned the island, with the English colonists in the middle and the French on either end. In 1629, a Spanish force sent to clear the islands of foreign settlement seized St. Kitts; the English settlement was rebuilt following the 1630 peace between Spain. The island alternated between English and French control during the 17th and 18th centuries, as one power took the whole island, only to have it switch hands due to treaties or military action. Parts of the island were fortified, as exemplified by the UNESCO World Heritage Site at Brimstone Hill and the now-crumbling Fort Charles. Since 1783, St. Kitts has been affiliated with the Kingdom of Great Britain, which became the United Kingdom; the island produced tobacco. The labour-intensive cultivation of sugar cane was the reason for the large-scale importation of African slaves; the importation began immediately upon the arrival of Europeans to the region. The purchasing o
Atractoscion is a genus of fish in the family Sciaenidae found in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean. The genus is distinguished by having a lower jaw that protrudes beyond the upper jaw and position of the swim bladder, the lack of barbels and sensory pores on the chin, teeth that are cardiform or pluriserial, caudal fin, emarginate to lunate. There are 5 recognized species in this genus: Atractoscion aequidens Atractoscion atelodus Atractoscion macrolepis Y. S. Song, J. K. Kim, J. H. Kang & S. Y. Kim, 2017 Atractoscion microlepis Y. S. Song, J. K. Kim, J. H. Kang & S. Y. Kim, 2017 Atractoscion nobilis
The black drum known as the drum or drummer, is a saltwater fish similar to its cousin, the red drum. It is the only species in the genus Pogonias. Though most specimens are found in the 5-30 lb range, the black drum is well known as the largest of all the drum family with some specimens reaching excesses of 90 lb; the world record black drum was just over 113 lb. They are black and/or gray in color with juvenile fish having distinctive dark stripes over a gray body, their teeth are rounded and they have powerful jaws capable of crushing oysters and other shellfish. It is recommended. Black drum are capable of producing tones between 500 Hz when performing mating calls; the black drum is found in or near brackish waters. Larger, older fish are more found in the saltier areas of an estuary near oyster beds or other plentiful food sources. Juvenile fish have 4 to 5 bold vertical black bars on a light background and can be mistaken for Sheepshead at first glance, but are distinguished on closer inspection because sheepshead have teeth and black drum have chin barbels.
These stripes fade to dull grey as the fish grow from 12 in to 24 in in length. Juvenile fish are more found in less salty areas and relate more to structure and cover. In the western Atlantic, black drum are found from Nova Scotia to Florida, the Gulf of Mexico, the Antilles, the southern Caribbean coast, they are common between the Delaware Bay and Florida coasts, most abundant along the Texas coast. After reaching maturity by the end of their second year, black drum spawn in and around estuarine waters. In Texas, most spawning takes place in March. Black drum larvae eat zooplankton, young black drum eat worms and small fish. Black drum are bottom feeders, with adults eating mollusks and crabs. In shallow water, they have been reported to feed with their heads down so that their tails show above the water surface, their sensitive chin barbels help locate food, strong pharyngeal teeth crush the shells of these preferred foods. It has been reported that, in captivity, large drum were able to eat more than two commercial-sized oysters per kilogram of body weight each day.
This translates into the potential for a 20 kg drum to eat 40 oysters a day. Fishing advice for black drum along the east and southeast coasts of the United States includes the suggestion to locate an oyster bed. However, this preference has caused black drum to be a nuisance for those who raise oysters commercially. A group of black drum can do great damage to an oyster bed in a single day. Annual growth rate for ages 1–3 is 100–150 mm/year-1and slows to 10–50 mm/year for ages 10–20. Studies have reported black drum weighing more than 60 kg on the Atlantic coast and they are believed to live up to 60 years. Other studies suggest that black drum in the Gulf of Mexico do not live as long; the Length vs. Age graph shows; the Weight vs. Length graph shows; this kind of information can be used to estimate weight based on length. More scientifically, it can be used to determine whether a given sample of black drum is above or below expected weight, which may be related to a number of environmental conditions.
Black drum are bottom feeders, so they are most caught with bait either on the bottom or suspended within a couple feet of the bottom. Bottom fishing methods are used both in inshore fishing. Shrimp is a typical bait. There are times when the older, larger fish are more caught on a half or a quarter of a blue crab with the top shell removed and cut or broken to fit on a 4/0 to 9/0 hook; this type of fishing is combined with chumming, a baiting practice that involves scattering bits of fish parts and blood into the water as an attractant. Sometimes black drum are caught on jigs. Black drum are reported to mouth a natural bait, so anglers need to wait a few seconds before setting the hook. Once a big adult drum grabs the bait, it takes off with gusto, can put up quite a fight. An unsecured rod can be pulled into the water. Landing these big fish on light tackle can be challenging, since drum are scent-based feeders, there is little disadvantage in using heavier line and tackle. A 40-lb braided line with a comparable weight fluorocarbon leader is a good compromise between castability and strength.
However, big drum are caught with everything from 8-lb monofiliment to 100-lb braided lines with heavy steel leaders. An effective strategy for fishing from a boat is to select a spot with a sandy bottom or oyster bed where food is plentiful at a time of day with some tidal movement. Pier or bank fishing should target jetties, structure, or a boat channel near a rapid increase in depth and some tidal movement. With stout tackle, black drum above 10 lb are easy for children to catch because they are not skittish and do not come off once they are hooked; because bigger drum can make a long, strong run right after taking the bait, preventing broken line requires a light drag setting early in the fight
Gars are members of the Lepisosteiformes, an ancient holosteian order of ray-finned fish. The family Lepisosteidae includes seven living species of fish in two genera that inhabit fresh and marine, waters of eastern North America, Central America and the Caribbean islands. Gars have elongated bodies that are armored with ganoid scales, fronted by elongated jaws filled with long, sharp teeth. All of the gars are large fish, but the alligator gar is the largest, as specimens have been reported to be 3 m in length. Unusually, their vascularised swim bladders can function as lungs, most gars surface periodically to take a gulp of air. Gar flesh is edible and the hard skin and scales of gars are used by humans; the name gar was used for a species of needlefish found in the North Atlantic and taking its name from the Old English word for "spear". Belone belone is now more referred to as the "garfish" or "gar fish" to avoid confusion with the North American gars of the family Lepisosteidae. Confusingly, the name "garfish" is used for a number of other species of the related genera Strongylura and Xenentodon of the family Belonidae.
The genus name Lepisosteus comes from the Greek lepis meaning "scale" and osteon meaning "bone". Atractosteus is derived from Greek, in this case from atraktos, meaning arrow. Fossil gars are found in Europe, South America, North America, indicating that in times past, these fish had a wider distribution than they do today. Gars are considered to be a remnant of a group of bony fish that flourished in the Mesozoic, are most related to the bowfin; the distribution of the Gar Lepisosteidae in North America, lies in the shallow, brackish waters off of Texas and Louisiana, off the eastern coast of Mexico. A few populations are present in the Great Lakes region of the United States, living in similar shallow waters. Gar bodies are elongated armored with ganoid scales, fronted by elongated jaws filled with long, sharp teeth, their tails are heterocercal, the dorsal fins are close to the tail. As their vascularised swim bladders can function as lungs, most gars surface periodically to take a gulp of air, doing so more in stagnant or warm water when the concentration of oxygen in the water is low.
Experiments on the swim bladder has shown that the temperature of the water affects which respiration method the gar will use: aerial or aquatic. They will increase the aerial breathing rate. Gars can live submerged in oxygenated water without access to air and remain healthy while being able to survive in deoxygenated water if allowed access to air; this adaptation can be the result of behavioral factors. As a result of this organ, they are resilient and able to tolerate conditions that most other fish could not survive in; the gar has paired appendages, including pectoral fins, pelvic fins, while having an anal fin, caudal fin, a dorsal fin. The bone structures within the fins are important to study as they can show homology throughout the fossil record; the pelvic girdle resembles that of other actinopterygians yet still having some of its own characteristics. Gars have a postcleithrun -, a bone, lateral to the scapula, but do not have postpectorals. Proximally to the postcleithrum, the supracleithrum is important as it plays a critical role in opening the gar's jaws.
This structure has a unique internal coracoid lamina only present in the Gar species. Proximal to the supracleithrum is the posttemporal bone, smaller than other actinopterygians. Gars have no clavicle bone, although there have been observations of elongated plates within the area. All the gars are large fish, but the alligator gar Atractosteus spatula is the largest; the largest alligator gar caught and recorded was 8 ft 5 1⁄4 in long, weighed 327 lb, was 47 in around the girth. The smaller species, such as Lepisosteus oculatus, are large reaching lengths of over 60 cm, sometimes much more. Gars tend to be slow-moving fish except, they prefer the shallow and weedy areas of rivers and bayous congregating in small groups. They are voracious predators, catching their prey with their needle-like teeth, obtained with a sideways strike of the head, they feed extensively on invertebrates such as crabs. Gars are found across much of North America. Although gars are found in freshwater habitats, several species enter brackish waters and a few, most notably Atractosteus tristoechus, are sometimes found in the sea.
Some gars travel from rivers through sewers to get to ponds. The gar family contains seven extant species, in two genera: Family Lepisosteidae Genus Atractosteus Rafinesque, 1820 †Atractosteus africanus Atractosteus spatula Atractosteus tristoechus Atractosteus tropicus Gill, 1863 Genus Lepisosteus Linnaeus, 1758 †Lepisosteus bemisi Grande, 2010 †Lepisosteus cominatoi Santos, 1984 †Lepisosteus fimbriatus †Lepisosteus indicus Lepisosteus oculatus Winchell, 1864 †Lepisosteus opertus Estes, 1964 Lepisosteus osseus (Lon