The lumbar nerves are the five pairs of spinal nerves emerging from the lumbar vertebrae. They are divided into anterior divisions; the lumbar nerves are five spinal nerves which arise from either side of the spinal cord below the thoracic spinal cord and above the sacral spinal cord. They arise from the spinal cord between each pair of lumbar spinal vertebrae and travel through the intervertebral foramina; the nerves split into an anterior branch, which travels forward, a posterior branch, which travels backwards and supplies the area of the back. The middle divisions of the posterior branches run close to the articular processes of the vertebrae and end in the multifidus muscle; the outer branches supply the erector spinae muscles. The nerves give off branches to the skin; these pierce the aponeurosis of the greater trochanter. The anterior divisions of the lumbar nerves increase in size from above downward; the anterior divisions communicate with the sympathetic trunk. Near the origin of the divisions, they are joined by gray rami communicantes from the lumbar ganglia of the sympathetic trunk.
These rami consist of long, slender branches which accompany the lumbar arteries around the sides of the vertebral bodies, beneath the Psoas major. Their arrangement is somewhat irregular: one ganglion may give rami to two lumbar nerves, or one lumbar nerve may receive rami from two ganglia; the first and second, sometimes the third and fourth lumbar nerves are each connected with the lumbar part of the sympathetic trunk by a white ramus communicans. The nerves pass obliquely outward behind the Psoas major, or between its fasciculi, distributing filaments to it and the Quadratus lumborum; as the nerves travel forward, they create nervous plexi. The first three lumbar nerves, the greater part of the fourth together form the lumbar plexus; the smaller part of the fourth joins with the fifth to form the lumbosacral trunk, which assists in the formation of the sacral plexus. The fourth nerve is named the nervus furcalis, from the fact that it is subdivided between the two plexuses; the first lumbar spinal nerve originates from the spinal column from below the lumbar vertebra 1.
The three terminal branches of this nerve are the iliohypogastric and the genitofemoral nerves. L1 supplies many muscles, either directly or through nerves originating from L1, they may be innervated with L1 as single origin, or be innervated by L1 and by other spinal nerves. The muscles are: quadratus lumborum iliopsoas muscle The second lumbar spinal nerve originates from the spinal column from below the lumbar vertebra 2. L2 supplies many muscles, either directly or through nerves originating from L2, they may be innervated with L2 as single origin, or be innervated by L2 and by other spinal nerves. The muscles are: quadratus lumborum iliopsoas The third lumbar spinal nerve originates from the spinal column from below the lumbar vertebra 3. L3 supplies many muscles, either directly or through nerves originating from L3, they may be innervated with L3 as single origin, or be innervated by L3 and by other spinal nerves. The muscles are: quadratus lumborum iliopsoas obturator externus Vasti Adductors The fourth lumbar spinal nerve originates from the spinal column from below the lumbar vertebra 4.
L4 supplies many muscles, either directly or through nerves originating from L4. They are not innervated with L4 as single origin, but by L4 and by other spinal nerves; the muscles are: quadratus lumborum gluteus medius muscle gluteus minimus muscle tensor fasciae latae obturator externus inferior gemellus quadratus femoris tibialis anterior The fifth lumbar spinal nerve 5 originates from the spinal column from below the lumbar vertebra 5. L5 supplies many muscles, either directly or through nerves originating from L5, they are not innervated with L5 as single origin, but by L5 and by other spinal nerves. The muscles are: gluteus maximus muscle S1 gluteus medius muscle gluteus minimus muscle tensor fasciae latae tibialis anterior tibialis posterior extensor digitorum brevis extensor hallucis longus Lumbar plexus This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 924 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Hsu, Philip S. MD, Carmel Armon, MD, Kerry Levin, MD. "Lumbosacral Radiculopathy: Pathophysiology.
Clinical and Diagnosis." Www.uptodate.com. Uptodate, 11 Jan. 2011. Web. 26 Sept. 2012. Http://www.physiologie.uni-mainz.de/physio/mittmann/ThalFallZ3.pdf. Loizidez, Alexander, MD, Siegfried Peer, MD, Michaela Plaikner, MD, Verena Spiss, MD, HannesGruber, MD. "Ultrasound-guided Injections in the Lumbar Spine." Www.medultrason.ro. Medical Ultrasonography, 20 Jan. 2011. Web. 26 Sept. 2012. Http://www.medultrason.ro/assets/Magazines/Medultrason-2011-vol13-no1/10loizides.pdf Zhu, Jie, MD, Obi Onyewu, MD. "Alternative Approach for Lumbar Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injections." Www.painphysicianjournal.com. Pain Physician, 21 Apr. 2011. Web. 26 Sept. 2012. Http://www.painphysicianjournal.com/2011/july/2011.
The piriformis is a muscle in the gluteal region of the lower limbs. It is one of the six muscles in the lateral rotator group, it was first named by Adriaan van den Spiegel, a professor from the University of Padua in the 16th century. The piriformis muscle originates from the anterior part of the sacrum, the part of the spine in the gluteal region, from the superior margin of the greater sciatic notch, it exits the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen to insert on the greater trochanter of the femur. Its tendon joins with the tendons of the superior gemellus, inferior gemellus, obturator internus muscles prior to insertion; the piriformis is a flat muscle, pyramidal in shape, lying parallel with the posterior margin of the gluteus medius. It is situated within the pelvis against its posterior wall, at the back of the hip-joint, it arises from the front of the sacrum by three fleshy digitations, attached to the portions of bone between the first, second and fourth anterior sacral foramina, to the grooves leading from the foramina: a few fibers arise from the margin of the greater sciatic foramen, from the anterior surface of the sacrotuberous ligament.
The muscle passes out of the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen, the upper part of which it fills, is inserted by a rounded tendon into the upper border of the greater trochanter behind, but partly blended with, the common tendon of the obturator internus and superior and inferior gemellus muscles. In 17 % of people, the piriformis muscle is pierced by all of the sciatic nerve. Several variations occur, but the most common type of anomaly is the Beaton's type B, when the common peroneal nerve pierces the piriformis muscle, it may be united with the gluteus medius, send fibers to the gluteus minimus, or receive fibers from the superior gemellus. It may have two sacral attachments; the piriformis muscle is part of the lateral rotators of the hip, along with the quadratus femoris, gemellus inferior, gemellus superior, obturator externus, obturator internus. The piriformis laterally rotates the femur with hip extension and abducts the femur with hip flexion. Abduction of the flexed thigh is important in the action of walking because it shifts the body weight to the opposite side of the foot being lifted, which prevents falling.
The action of the lateral rotators can be understood by crossing the legs to rest an ankle on the knee of the other leg. This causes the femur to point the knee laterally; the lateral rotators oppose medial rotation by the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus. When the hip is flexed to 90 degrees, piriformis abducts the femur at the hip and reverses primary function, internally rotating the hip when the hip is flexed at 90 degrees or more. Piriformis syndrome occurs when the piriformis irritates the sciatic nerve, which comes into the gluteal region beneath the muscle, causing pain in the buttocks and referred pain along the sciatic nerve; this referred. Seventeen percent of the population has their sciatic nerve coursing through the piriformis muscle; this subgroup of the population is predisposed to developing sciatica. Sciatica can be described by pain, tingling, or numbness deep in the buttocks and along the sciatic nerve. Sitting down, climbing stairs, performing squats increases pain. Diagnosing the syndrome is based on symptoms and on the physical exam.
More testing, including MRIs, X-rays, nerve conduction tests can be administered to exclude other possible diseases. If diagnosed with piriformis syndrome, the first treatment involves progressive stretching exercises, massage therapy and physical treatment. Corticosteroids can be injected into the piriformis muscle. Findings suggest the possibility that Botulinum toxin type B may be of potential benefit in the treatment of pain attributed to piriformis syndrome. A more invasive, but sometimes necessary treatment involves surgical exploration. Surgery should always be a last resort; the piriformis is a important landmark in the gluteal region. As it travels through the greater sciatic foramen, it divides it into an inferior and superior part; this determines the name of the vessels and nerves in this region – the nerve and vessels that emerge superior to the piriformis are the superior gluteal nerve and superior gluteal vessels. Inferiorly, it is the same, the sciatic nerve travels inferiorly to the piriformis.
This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 476 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy "Piriformis" University of Washington Anatomy photo:13:st-0408 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Gluteal Region: Muscles" Anatomy photo:43:15-0101 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "The Female Pelvis: The Posterolateral Pelvic Wall"
The pelvis is either the lower part of the trunk of the human body between the abdomen and the thighs or the skeleton embedded in it. The pelvic region of the trunk includes the bony pelvis, the pelvic cavity, the pelvic floor, below the pelvic cavity, the perineum, below the pelvic floor; the pelvic skeleton is formed in the area of the back, by the sacrum and the coccyx and anteriorly and to the left and right sides, by a pair of hip bones. The two hip bones connect the spine with the lower limbs, they are attached to the sacrum posteriorly, connected to each other anteriorly, joined with the two femurs at the hip joints. The gap enclosed by the bony pelvis, called the pelvic cavity, is the section of the body underneath the abdomen and consists of the reproductive organs and the rectum, while the pelvic floor at the base of the cavity assists in supporting the organs of the abdomen. In mammals, the bony pelvis has a gap in the middle larger in females than in males, their young pass through this gap.
The pelvic region of the trunk is the lower part of the trunk, between the thighs. It includes several structures: the bony pelvis, the pelvic cavity, the pelvic floor, the perineum; the bony pelvis is the part of the skeleton embedded in the pelvic region of the trunk. It is subdivided into the pelvic spine; the pelvic girdle is composed of the appendicular hip bones oriented in a ring, connects the pelvic region of the spine to the lower limbs. The pelvic spine consists of the coccyx; the pelvic cavity defined as a small part of the space enclosed by the bony pelvis, delimited by the pelvic brim above and the pelvic floor below. Each hip bone consists of 3 sections, ilium and pubis. During childhood, these sections are separate bones, joined by the triradiate cartilage. During puberty, they fuse together to form a single bone; the pelvic cavity is a body cavity, bounded by the bones of the pelvis and which contains reproductive organs and the rectum. A distinction is made between the lesser or true pelvis inferior to the terminal line, the greater or false pelvis above it.
The pelvic inlet or superior pelvic aperture, which leads into the lesser pelvis, is bordered by the promontory, the arcuate line of ilium, the iliopubic eminence, the pecten of the pubis, the upper part of the pubic symphysis. The pelvic outlet or inferior pelvic aperture is the region between the subpubic angle or pubic arch, the ischial tuberosities and the coccyx. Ligaments: obturator membrane, inguinal ligament Alternatively, the pelvis is divided into three planes: the inlet and outlet; the pelvic floor has two inherently conflicting functions: One is to close the pelvic and abdominal cavities and bear the load of the visceral organs. To achieve both these tasks, the pelvic floor is composed of several overlapping sheets of muscles and connective tissues; the pelvic diaphragm is composed of the coccygeus muscle. These arise between the symphysis and the ischial spine and converge on the coccyx and the anococcygeal ligament which spans between the tip of the coccyx and the anal hiatus; this leaves a slit for the urogenital openings.
Because of the width of the genital aperture, wider in females, a second closing mechanism is required. The urogenital diaphragm consists of the deep transverse perineal which arises from the inferior ischial and pubic rami and extends to the urogential hiatus; the urogenital diaphragm is reinforced posteriorly by the superficial transverse perineal. The external anal and urethral sphincters close the urethra; the former is surrounded by the bulbospongiosus which narrows the vaginal introitus in females and surrounds the corpus spongiosum in males. Ischiocavernosus clitoridis. Modern humans are to a large extent characterized by large brains; because the pelvis is vital to both locomotion and childbirth, natural selection has been confronted by two conflicting demands: a wide birth canal and locomotion efficiency, a conflict referred to as the "obstetrical dilemma". The female pelvis, or gynecoid pelvis, has evolved to its maximum width for childbirth—a wider pelvis would make women unable to walk.
In contrast, human male pelvises are not constrained by the need to give birth and therefore are more optimized for bipedal locomotion. The principal differences between male and female true and false pelvis include: The female pelvis is larger and broader than the male pelvis, taller and more compact; the female inlet is oval in shape, while the male sacral promontory projects further. The sides of the male pelvis converge from the inlet to the outlet, whereas the sides of the female pelvis are wider apart; the angle between
Anatomical terms of neuroanatomy
This article describes anatomical terminology, used to describe the central and peripheral nervous systems - including the brain, spinal cord, nerves. Neuroanatomy, like other aspects of anatomy, uses specific terminology to describe anatomical structures; this terminology helps ensure that a structure is described with minimal ambiguity. Terms help ensure that structures are described depending on their structure or function. Terms are derived from Latin and Greek, like other areas of anatomy are standardised based on internationally accepted lexicons such as Terminologia Anatomica. To help with consistency and other species are assumed when described to be in standard anatomical position, with the body standing erect and facing observer, arms at sides, palms forward. Anatomical terms of location depend on the location and species, being described. To understand the terms used for anatomical localisation, consider an animal with a straight CNS, such as a fish or lizard. In such animals the terms "rostral", "caudal", "ventral" and "dorsal" mean towards the rostrum, towards the tail, towards the belly and towards the back.
For a full discussion of those terms, see anatomical terms of location. For many purposes of anatomical description and directions are relative to the standard anatomical planes and axes; such reference to the anatomical planes and axes is called the stereotactic approach. Standard terms used throughout anatomy include anterior / posterior for the front and back of a structure, superior / inferior for above and below, medial / lateral for structures close to and away from the midline and proximal / distal for structures close to and far away from a set point; some terms are used more in neuroanatomy, particularly: Rostral and caudal: In animals with linear nervous systems, the term rostral is synonymous with anterior and the term caudal is synonymous with posterior. Due to humans having an upright posture, their nervous system is considered to bend about 90°; this is considered to occur at the junction of the diencephalon. Thus, the terminology changes at either side of the midbrain-diencephalic junction.
Superior to the junction, the terminology is the same as in animals with linear nervous systems. Inferior to the midbrain-diencephalic junction the term rostral is synonymous with superior and caudal is synonymous with inferior. Dorsal and ventral: In animals with linear nervous systems, the term dorsal is synonymous with superior and the term ventral is synonymous with inferior. In humans, however the terminology differs on either side of the midbrain-diencephalic junction. Superior to the junction, the terminology is the same as in animals with linear nervous systems. However, inferior to the midbrain-diencephalic junction the term dorsal is synonymous with posterior and ventral is synonymous with anterior. Contralateral and ipsilateral referring to a corresponding position on the opposite left or right side and on the same side respectively. Standard anatomical planes and anatomical axes are used to describe structures in animals. In humans and most other primates the axis of the central nervous system is not bent.
This means that there are certain major differences that reflect the distortion of the brains of the Hominidae. For example, to describe the human brain, "rostral" still means "towards the face", or at any rate, the interior of the cranial cavity just behind the face. However, in the brain "caudal" means not "towards the tail", but "towards the back of the cranial cavity". Alternative terms for this rostro-caudal axis of the brain include antero-posterior axis. "Dorsal" means "in the direction away from the spinal cord i.e. in the direction of the roof of the cranial cavity". "Ventral" means downwards towards floor of the cranial cavity and thence to the body. They lie on the superior-inferior or Dorsoventral axis; the third axis passes through the ears, is called the left-right, or lateral axis. These three axes of the human brain match the three planes within which they lie though the terms for the planes have not been changed from the terms for the bodily planes; the most used reference planes are: Axial, the plane, horizontal and parallel to the axial plane of the body in the standard anatomical position.
It contains the medial axes of the brain. Coronal, a vertical plane that passes through both ears, contains the lateral and dorsoventral axes. Sagittal, a vertical plane that passes from between the nostrils, between the cerebral hemispheres, dividing the brain into left and right halves, it contains the medial axes of the brain. A parasagittal plane is any plane parallel to the sagittal plane. Specific terms are used for peripheral nerves. An afferent nerve fiber is a fibre originating at the present point. For example, a striatal afferent is an afferent originating at the striatum. An efferent nerve fiber is one. For example, a cortical efferent is a fibre coming from elsewhere, arriving to the cortex. Note that, the opposite of the direction in which the nerve fibre conducts signals. Specific terms are used to describe the route of a nerve or nerve fibre: A chiasm i
Common peroneal nerve
The common fibular nerve is a nerve in the lower leg that provides sensation over the posterolateral part of the leg and the knee joint. It divides at the knee into two terminal branches: the superficial fibular nerve and deep fibular nerve, which innervate the muscles of the lateral and anterior compartments of the leg respectively; when the common fibular nerve is damaged or compressed, foot drop can be the end result. The common fibular nerve is the smaller terminal branch of the sciatic nerve; the common fibular nerve has root values of L4, L5, S1, S2. It arises from the superior angle of the popliteal fossa and extends to the lateral angle of the popliteal fossa, along the medial border of the biceps femoris, it winds around the neck of the fibula to pierce the fibularis longus and divides into terminal branches of superficial fibular nerve and deep fibular nerve. Before its division, the common fibular nerve gives off several branches in the popliteal fossa. Lateral sural cutaneous nerve - supplies the skin of the upper two-thirds of the lateral side of leg.
Sural communicating nerve - it runs on the posterolateral aspect of the calf and joins the sural nerve. Superior lateral genicular nerve - accompanies artery of the same name and lies above the lateral femoral condyle. Inferior lateral genicular nerve - accompanies artery of the same name and lies just above the head of the fibula. Recurrent genicular nerve - It arises from the point of division of the common fibular nerve. There is only one motor branch that arises directly from common fibular nerve, the nerve to the short head of the biceps femoris muscle; the common fibular nerve innervates the short head of the biceps femoris muscle via a motor branch that exits close to the gluteal cleft. The remainder of the fibular-innervated muscles are innervated by its branches, the deep fibular nerve and superficial fibular nerve, it provides sensory innervation to the skin over the upper third of the lateral aspect of the leg via the lateral sural cutaneous nerve. It gives the aural communicating nerve.
Chronic fibular neuropathy can result from, among other conditions, bed rest of long duration, hyperflexion of the knee, peripheral neuropathy, pressure in obstetric stirrups, conditioning in ballet dancers. The most common cause is habitual leg crossing that compresses the common fibular nerve as it crosses around the head of the fibula. Transient trauma to the nerve can result from peroneal strike. Damage to this nerve results in foot drop, where dorsiflexion of the foot is compromised and the foot drags during walking. A common yoga kneeling exercise, the Vajrasana, has been linked to a variant called yoga foot drop. Surgical procedures involving the nerve involve: Fibular nerve decompression To surgically decompress the common fibular nerve, an incision is made over the neck of the fibula. Fascia surrounding the nerves to the lateral side of the leg is released. Deep fibular nerve decompression In the surgical treatment of deep peroneal nerve entrapment in the foot, a ligament from the extensor digitorum brevis muscle that crosses over the deep peroneal nerve, putting pressure on it and causing pain, is released.
Deep fibular nerve Peroneal strike Peroneal vein Peroneus muscles This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 964 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:14:st-0501 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center Peroneal_nerve at the Duke University Health System's Orthopedics program latleg at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman arteries-nerves%20LE/nerves4 at the Dartmouth Medical School's Department of Anatomy Overview at okstate.edu
The spinal cord is a long, tubular structure made up of nervous tissue, that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column. It encloses the central canal of the spinal cord; the brain and spinal cord together make up the central nervous system. In humans, the spinal cord begins at the occipital bone where it passes through the foramen magnum, meets and enters the spinal canal at the beginning of the cervical vertebrae; the spinal cord extends down to between the second lumbar vertebrae where it ends. The enclosing bony vertebral column protects the shorter spinal cord, it is around 45 cm in men and around 43 cm long in women. The spinal cord has a varying width, ranging from 13 mm thick in the cervical and lumbar regions to 6.4 mm thick in the thoracic area. The spinal cord functions in the transmission of nerve signals from the motor cortex to the body, from the afferent fibers of the sensory neurons to the sensory cortex, it is a center for coordinating many reflexes and contains reflex arcs that can independently control reflexes.
It is the location of groups of spinal interneurons that make up the neural circuits known as central pattern generators. These circuits are responsible for controlling motor instructions for rhythmic movements such as walking; the spinal cord is the main pathway for information connecting the brain and peripheral nervous system. Much shorter than its protecting spinal column, the human spinal cord originates in the brainstem, passes through the foramen magnum, continues through to the conus medullaris near the second lumbar vertebra before terminating in a fibrous extension known as the filum terminale, it is about 45 cm long in men and around 43 cm in women, ovoid-shaped, is enlarged in the cervical and lumbar regions. The cervical enlargement, stretching from the C5 to T1 vertebrae, is where sensory input comes from and motor output goes to the arms and trunk; the lumbar enlargement, located between L1 and S3, handles sensory input and motor output coming from and going to the legs. The spinal cord is continuous with the caudal portion of the medulla, running from the base of the skull to the body of the first lumbar vertebra.
It does not run the full length of the vertebral column in adults. It is made of 31 segments from which branch one pair of sensory nerve roots and one pair of motor nerve roots; the nerve roots merge into bilaterally symmetrical pairs of spinal nerves. The peripheral nervous system is made up of these spinal roots and ganglia; the dorsal roots are afferent fascicles, receiving sensory information from the skin and visceral organs to be relayed to the brain. The roots terminate in dorsal root ganglia, which are composed of the cell bodies of the corresponding neurons. Ventral roots consist of efferent fibers that arise from motor neurons whose cell bodies are found in the ventral gray horns of the spinal cord; the spinal cord are protected by three layers of tissue or membranes called meninges, that surround the canal. The dura mater is the outermost layer, it forms a tough protective coating. Between the dura mater and the surrounding bone of the vertebrae is a space called the epidural space; the epidural space is filled with adipose tissue, it contains a network of blood vessels.
The arachnoid mater, the middle protective layer, is named for its spiderweb-like appearance. The space between the arachnoid and the underlying pia mater is called the subarachnoid space; the subarachnoid space contains cerebrospinal fluid, which can be sampled with a lumbar puncture, or "spinal tap" procedure. The delicate pia mater, the innermost protective layer, is associated with the surface of the spinal cord; the cord is stabilized within the dura mater by the connecting denticulate ligaments, which extend from the enveloping pia mater laterally between the dorsal and ventral roots. The dural sac ends at the vertebral level of the second sacral vertebra. In cross-section, the peripheral region of the cord contains neuronal white matter tracts containing sensory and motor axons. Internal to this peripheral region is the grey matter, which contains the nerve cell bodies arranged in the three grey columns that give the region its butterfly-shape; this central region surrounds the central canal, an extension of the fourth ventricle and contains cerebrospinal fluid.
The spinal cord is elliptical in cross section, being compressed dorsolaterally. Two prominent grooves, or sulci, run along its length; the posterior median sulcus is the groove in the dorsal side, the anterior median fissure is the groove in the ventral side. The human spinal cord is divided into segments. Six to eight motor nerve rootlets branch out of right and left ventro lateral sulci in a orderly manner. Nerve rootlets combine to form nerve roots. Sensory nerve rootlets form off right and left dorsal lateral sulci and form sensory nerve roots; the ventral and dorsal roots combine to form one on each side of the spinal cord. Spinal nerves, with the exception of C1 and C2, form inside the intervertebral foramen; these rootlets form the demarcation between the peripheral nervous systems. The grey column, in the center of the cord, is shaped like a butterfly and consists of cell bodies of interneurons, motor neurons, neuroglia cells and unmyelinated axons; the anterior and posterior grey column present as projections of the grey matter and are known as the horns of the spinal cord.
Together, the gr
Quadratus femoris muscle
The quadratus femoris is a flat, quadrilateral skeletal muscle. Located on the posterior side of the hip joint, it is a strong external rotator and adductor of the thigh, but acts to stabilize the femoral head in the acetabulum, it originates on the lateral border of the ischial tuberosity of the ischium of the pelvis. From there, it passes laterally to its insertion on the posterior side of the head of the femur: the quadrate tubercle on the intertrochanteric crest and along the quadrate line, the vertical line which runs downward to bisect the lesser trochanter on the medial side of the femur. Along its course, quadratus is aligned edge to edge with the inferior gemellus above and the adductor magnus below, so that its upper and lower borders run horizontal and parallel. At its origin, the upper margin of the adductor magnus is separated from it by the terminal branches of the medial femoral circumflex vessels. A bursa is found between the front of this muscle and the lesser trochanter. Sometimes absent.
Groin pain can be a disabling ailment with many potential root causes: one such cause overlooked, is quadratus femoris tendinitis. Magnetic resonance imaging can show abnormal signal intensity at the insertion of the right quadratus femoris tendon, which suggests inflammation of the area. Since the muscle works to laterally rotate and adduct the femur, actions involving the lower body can strain the muscle. In addition, patients present with hip pain and an increased signal intensity of the MRI of the quadratus femoris have been shown to have a narrower ischiofemoral space compared to the general populace; the ischiofemoral impingement may be a cause of the hip pain associated with quadratus femoris tendinitis. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 477 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Mcminn, R. M. H.. Last's Applied. Elsevier Australia. ISBN 0-7295-3752-8. Platzer, Werner. Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Vol 1: Locomotor system. Thieme. ISBN 3-13-533305-1. Thieme Atlas of Anatomy.
Thieme. 2006. ISBN 978-1-60406-062-1. PTCentral Anatomy photo:13:st-0409 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center