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Science Museum, London

The Science Museum is a major museum on Exhibition Road in South Kensington, London. It was founded in 1857 and today is one of the city's major tourist attractions, attracting 3.3 million visitors annually. Like other publicly funded national museums in the United Kingdom, the Science Museum does not charge visitors for admission, although visitors are asked for a donation if they are able. Temporary exhibitions may incur an admission fee, it is part of the Science Museum Group, having merged with the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester in 2012. The museum was founded in 1857 under Bennet Woodcroft from the collection of the Royal Society of Arts and surplus items from the Great Exhibition as part of the South Kensington Museum, together with what is now the Victoria and Albert Museum, it included a collection of machinery which became the Museum of Patents in 1858, the Patent Office Museum in 1863. This collection contained many of the most famous exhibits of. In 1883, the contents of the Patent Office Museum were transferred to the South Kensington Museum.

In 1885, the Science Collections were renamed the Science Museum and in 1893 a separate director was appointed. The Art Collections were renamed the Art Museum, which became the Victoria and Albert Museum; when Queen Victoria laid the foundation stone for the new building for the Art Museum, she stipulated that the museum be renamed after herself and her late husband. This was applied to the whole museum, but when that new building opened ten years the title was confined to the Art Collections and the Science Collections had to be divorced from it. On 26 June 1909 the Science Museum, as an independent entity, came into existence; the Science Museum's present quarters, designed by Sir Richard Allison, were opened to the public in stages over the period 1919–28. This building was known as the East Block, construction of which began in 1913 and temporarily halted by World War I; as the name suggests it was intended to be the first building of a much larger project, never realized. However, the Museum buildings were expanded over the following years.

The Science Museum now holds a collection of over 300,000 items, including such famous items as Stephenson's Rocket, Puffing Billy, the first jet engine, the Apollo 10 command module, a reconstruction of Francis Crick and James Watson's model of DNA, some of the earliest remaining steam engines, a working example of Charles Babbage's Difference engine, the first prototype of the 10,000-year Clock of the Long Now, documentation of the first typewriter. It contains hundreds of interactive exhibits. A recent addition is the IMAX 3D Cinema showing science and nature documentaries, most of them in 3-D, the Wellcome Wing which focuses on digital technology. Entrance has been free since 1 December 2001; the museum houses some of the many objects collected by Henry Wellcome around a medical theme. The fourth floor exhibit is called "Glimpses of Medical History", with reconstructions and dioramas of the history of practised medicine; the fifth floor gallery is called "Science and the Art of Medicine", with exhibits of medical instruments and practices from ancient days and from many countries.

The collection is strong in clinical medicine and public health. The museum is a member of the London Museums of Medicine; the Science Museum has a dedicated library, until the 1960s was Britain's National Library for Science and Technology. It holds runs of periodicals, early books and manuscripts, is used by scholars worldwide, it was, for a number of years, run in conjunction with the Central Library of Imperial College, but in 2007 the Library was divided over two sites. Histories of science and biographies of scientists were kept at the Imperial College Library until February 2014 when the arrangement was terminated, the shelves were cleared and the books and journals shipped out, joining the rest of the collection, which includes original scientific works and archives, in Wroughton, Wiltshire; the Imperial College library catalogue search system now informs searchers that volumes held there are "Available at Science Museum Library Swindon Currently unavailable". A new Research Centre with library facilities is promised for late 2015 but is unlikely to have book stacks nearby.

The Science Museum's medical collections have a global coverage. Strengths include Clinical Medicine and Public Health; the new Wellcome Wing, with its focus on Bioscience, makes the Museum a leading world centre for the presentation of contemporary science to the public. As of 2019 170,000 items which are not on current display are stored at Blythe House in West Kensington, in addition to storage at the Science Museum at Wroughton, a 220-hectare former RAF base near Swindon owned by the Museum since 1979. Blythe House storage is shared with the British Museum and the Victoria and Albert Museum, houses facilities including a conservation laboratory, a photographic studio, a quarantine area where newly arrived items are examined; the museums have to move out of Blythe House. The Science Museum will use £40m from the government to develop the Wroughton site and put many stored items on display there from 2023, in addition to storage, conservation labs, research facilities. In November 2003, the

Koban (coin)

The koban was a Japanese oval gold coin in Edo period feudal Japan, equal to one ryō, another early Japanese monetary unit. It was a central part of Tokugawa coinage; the Keichō era koban, a gold piece, contained about one ryō of gold, so that koban carried a face value of one ryō. However, successive mintings of the koban had varying amounts of gold; as a result, the ryō as a unit of weight of gold and the ryō as the face value of the koban were no longer synonymous. The Japanese economy before the mid-19th century was based on rice; the standard unit of measure was the koku, the amount of rice needed to feed one person for one year. Farmers made their tax payments of rice which made its way into the coffers of the central government; the Portuguese who came to Japan in the 1550s, preferred gold to rice. Some feudal lords began minting their own koban, but the value was debased with alloys of varying gold content. Edo authorities issued one currency reform after another and just about all of them debased the koban further.

Additionally, counterfeit koban circulated after each reform, their value less than that of the current koban. By the time of Commodore Matthew C. Perry's visit in 1853, counterfeit koban from previous eras were preferred by merchants to the newer variants; the fraudulent older pieces were more valuable than newly minted koban. With the Meiji Restoration in 1868 a new series of coins was ordered based on European currency systems and the koban was discontinued. In the successful Konami franchise The Legend of the Mystical Ninja, the lead character Goemon throws koban as shurikens; the Japanese idiom neko ni koban is an equivalent for casting pearls before swine. The Maneki Neko is depicted holding a koban, though the koban most Maneki Neko hold is indicated to be worth ten million ryō. In Super Mario Odyssey, the regional coins in Bowser's Kingdom are kobans with Bowser's face on them


Izhevsk is the capital city of Udmurtia, located along the Izh River in the Western Ural Mountains. Its population is 629,455, up from 627,734 recorded in the 2010 Census, making it the nineteenth-largest city in Russia and the largest in the republic. From 1984 to 1987, the city was called Ustinov, named after late Soviet Minister of Defence Dmitry Ustinov The city is a major hub of industry, politics and education in the Volga Region, it is famous for its defense and metallurgy industries. Izhevsk has the titles of the City of Labor Glory; the pioneer settlements on the territory where modern Izhevsk now stands were founded by Udmurts in the 5th century. There were two fortified settlements situated on the banks of the Karlutka River; this territory joined the Khanate of Kazan. In 1552, Russia conquered the Khanate and, in 1582, Ivan the Terrible conferred the lands by the Karlutka and Izh Rivers on Bagish Yaushev, a Tatar morza; the quit-rent had been imposed on the Udmurt population since. The Yaushevs owned the land until the reign of Peter the Great.

On September 15, 1757, Count Pyotr Shuvalov, owner of seven factories in the Urals, bought land in the Kama Region and got permission from Empress Elizabeth to build three ironworks there. In those days, ironworks were powered with steam, wood was the only fuel. For that reason it was decided to build one of the plants on the forest-rich land near the Izh River and make iron bands and cast iron anchors. Another ironworks was built on the Votka River. In April 10, 1760, serfs from neighboring villages and artisans from other Shuvalov's plants began dam construction under the direction of Alexey Moskvin, a mining engineer and a trustee of Shuvalov; this date is considered to be the date of Izhevsk's foundation. Construction proceeded at a slow pace; the serfs were unhappy with being taken from their villages, with arduous duties and regular physical punishment, leading to tumultuous rebellions. In 1762 Shuvalov died, his son Andrey inherited the factories. In accordance with the ukase of Catherine the Great dated November 15, 1763, all Shuvalov's ironworks, including the one at Izhevsky Zavod, lapsed to the Crown for debts.

Since that time, it has been under the authority of the Collegium of Mining, an institution in charge of the Russian mining industry. The ironworks on the Izh and Votka Rivers were called Kama Plants. In 1763 construction of the dam and ironworks was completed and the first bloomery iron was smelted; as a result of the dam construction, the Izhevsk Reservoir, one of the biggest in Europe was formed. Near the ironworks, the settlement was built; this settlement was named meaning "the factory on the Izh" in Russian. The ironworks made palm-wide iron bands from 3–6 metres long; these bands were supplied to Moscow for the rebuilding of the Kremlin. The iron from Izhevsky Zavod was used for construction in Saint Petersburg. In October 1773, the news of the popular revolt against Catherine II on the Yaik and the manifestos of Yemelyan Pugachev reached Izhevsky Zavod; the Cossak passing himself off as Peter III proclaimed liberty for serfs and called for killing nobles and factory owners. This had the backing of the artisans.

So Colonel Feodor Wenzel, the manager of the Goroblagodat and Kama plants, Aleksey Alymov, the manager of Izhevsky Zavod ironworks, were forced to escape to Kazan. On January 1, 1774, a detachment of Yemelyan Pugachev's rebel army reached the town; the rebels destroyed the ironworks, burned its office buildings, wrecked the houses of the managers. They distributed the food to the people; the ironworks money was sent to the staff near Ufa. The serfs were freed; some of them joined the detachment. Iron production stopped for a while. In April 1774, Pugachev's army fought losing battles everywhere and was forced to leave Izhevsky Zavod; the managers returned and cowed serfs and artisans into submission, forcing them to pledge allegiance to Catherine the Great. A list of workers who had joined the rebel army was compiled for future reprisal. In spite of opposition from the forces of Wenzel and Alymov Brothers, Pugachev's army occupied the town again on June 27, 1774; the crowds hailed Yemelyan Pugachev.

He dealt with the complaints of workers for two days. Forty-two persons, including Wenzel and Alymovs, were executed. On June 29, Pugachev set out for Kazan. Many workmen of Izhevsky Zavod joined his detachments and fought selflessly in last battles of the Rebellion, crushed by early September 1775. In spite of the defeat of the rebel army and the execution of its leader, bands of rebels continued to fight. New managers of the ironworks suppressed serfs and brought back artisans by force, cracking down on the bands of rebels; the ironworks was restored and began to function by the end of 1775. The former order was reinstated; the forced laborers weren't interested in boosting productivity and the practice fell into decay by the 19th century. In 1800, Emperor Paul I ordered an arms factory built in the Urals in view of a mounting threat from Napoleonic France. Andrew Deryabin, a mining engineer, chief of Goroblagodat, Perm and Bogoslov plants, chose the site for the new plant, he saw several places in the Perm and Vyatka governorates and concluded that the most suitable place for plant foundation was Izh Zavod.

It occurred to him to turn the ironworks into the armory. Alexander I approved of Deryabin's project and construction began on the arms factory building on June 10, 1807, considered the year of Izhevsk's second birth; the new factory had a

Coon Creek Formation

The Coon Creek Formation is a geologic formation located in western Tennessee and extreme northeast Mississippi. It is Late Cretaceous in age, about 70 million years old; the formation is known for producing mosasaurs and plesiosaurs at Coon Creek in McNairy County, which the formation is named for. Additionally, the formation produces many other marine invertebrates such as Turritella and the state fossil of Tennessee, the bivalve Pterotrigonia thoracica, as well as other fossils such as crabs; the story of Coon Creek began near the end of the Cretaceous Period, around 71 million years ago. At that time western Tennessee, eastern Arkansas, western Kentucky, southeast Missouri were submerged beneath the Mississippi Embayment, a bay of the Gulf of Mexico. Coon Creek was formed in shallow coastal water less than 100 feet deep; the sea floor was populated with shellfish and lobsters. Huge plesiosaurs, marine crocodiles, sea turtles, mosasaurs shared the waters with sharks and fierce fanged-tooth fishes.

The climate was warmer than today. Coon Creek was semi-tropical, like present-day southern Florida. Heavy waves from severe tropical storms churned up shallower parts of the sea floor. A couple of miles to the east lay a marshy lowland bordering the limestone bluffs of the Western Highland Rim of the Nashville Done, home to duckbill and theropod dinosaurs. Sluggish rivers annually washed tons of driftwood, along with the occasional dinosaur carcass, from this forested area into the bay; this thumb print-shaped bay extends north-south from central Mississippi to southern Illinois. It was formed when rocks, weakened by gradual spreading of the North American continent, sagged into a wide, shallow trough; the Gulf of Mexico filled the trough on several occasions between 50 million years ago. The Mississippi Embayment stretched West from the Tennessee Valley to the area of Little Rock, Arkansas, it may have been 1,000 feet deep. The embayment filled with sand and gravel brought in by rivers on uplands to the north and west.

The margins of the bay teemed with marine life. Crabs, lobsters, scallops, nautilus and other familiar animals lived in the warm, shallow sea, eating and being eaten. Giant reptilian mosasaurs ornamented cephalopods, other less familiar sea creatures lived in the water, their shells, carapaces and other hard parts were being buried in the sandy mud of the sea floor. The lack of distinct layering indicates that clams and other burrowing organisms mixed the bottom sediments. Periodic hurricanes may have brought in heavy loads of river sediment to bury the plants and animals living there. Conditions for life were ideal. Wave action ensured sufficient oxygenation for animal life. Many rivers fed into the sea bringing leaves and driftwood from the land; these served as the base of the food chain. Bacteria and other microscopic scavengers ate the decaying wood. Plankton ate the bacteria. Clams filtered the small plankton. Snails were eaten in turn by crabs and fish. Mosasaurs and cephalopods ate crabs; some organisms were swimmers or floaters.

This layer of sandy clay and shells became the Coon Creek Formation. Most organisms are not preserved as fossils. Unless covered after death, their bodies are consumed by other animals and plants or destroyed by weather; the bones and shells of animals which were buried after death may be dissolved by groundwater. The clay in the sediment at Coon Creek sealed off the fragile fossils from the corrosive action of water and the hard parts of the clams, snails and shrimps were well preserved; the bones of vertebrates are found, as well as the cartilaginous vertebrae of sharks. Fish scales and plant leaves are sometimes found as well; the Coon Creek Formation has one of the highest densities of fossil in Eastern North America. Crustacean fossils have been unearthed in the Coon Creek Formation as well; as of 2016, the only known dinosaurs found in this region include the remains of indeterminate hadrosaur remains, as complete fossil skeletons of dinosaurs are a rarity in Appalachia. Sometimes the dried carcasses of dinosaurs were washed out to sea by rivers.

Dinosaur bones and teeth have been found in marine deposits in Mississippi. It is possible; the remains of at least two mosasaurs have been found. They were not dinosaurs but large aquatic lizards, they would have been the top of the food chain in the Coon Creek area. Coon Creek has been named as one of the country's top twelve fossils sites for several reasons. • The fossils are found in their original state. The hard shells have not been permeated by groundwater and not replaced by minerals. • The number of fossils is stupendous. Many times you will find fossils on top of fossils. Most fossil sites require concentrated efforts to find a representative sample of the fossils.• There is a rich diversity of the animals with over 600 different species of organisms found.• Because the Coon Creek Formation sediment is unconsolidated, it makes it easy to collect and prepare the fossils. Geologists employ biostratigraphy, the use of index fossils, for dating sedimentary rock units like the Coon Creek. Index fossils are species of plants or animals that existed over a wid

Eden Valley, South Australia

Eden Valley is a small South Australian town in the Barossa Ranges. It was named by the surveyors of the area. Eden Valley has an average annual rainfall of 716.2 mm. Eden Valley is in the Barossa Council local government area, the state electoral district of Schubert and the federal divisions of Barker and Mayo. Eden Valley gives its name to a wine growing region that shares its western boundary with the Barossa Valley wine region; the region is of similar size to the Barossa Valley wine region, is well known for producing high quality riesling and shiraz wines. Englishman Joseph Gilbert planted the first Eden Valley vineyard, Pewsey Vale, in 1847. Within the Eden Valley region there is a sub-region called High Eden, located higher in the Barossa Ranges, giving cooler temperatures. List of wineries in the Eden Valley Media related to Eden Valley, South Australia at Wikimedia Commons Eden Valley Wine Region South Australian Tourism Bureau webpage

Horn (acoustic)

An acoustic horn or waveguide is a tapered sound guide designed to provide an acoustic impedance match between a sound source and free air. This has the effect of maximizing the efficiency with which sound waves from the particular source are transferred to the air. Conversely, a horn can be used at the receiving end to optimize the transfer of sound from the air to a receiver. Acoustic horns are found in nature in the form of the burrows constructed by male mole crickets to amplify their song; the earliest appearance of the horn in connection to sound in The Times was published in 1786: Red-cross Knight, approach the Gate. Acoustic horns are used in: horn loudspeakers brass and woodwind musical instruments vehicle horns such as those used on cars, trains and bicycles megaphones used by lifeguards at public swimming pools. Ear horns, used by people who are hard of hearing pickup horns, used e.g. on acoustic phonograph players Loudspeakers are built into horn-shaped enclosures or use horns. Most the higher-frequency elements use horns, sometimes with acoustic diffraction lenses to spread the sound waves in a horizontal pattern at ear-level and limit the vertical pattern.

An audio driver is mounted at the inner end. Horn loudspeakers are efficient, but have a sharp cutoff frequency, depending on the area of the horn mouth, with little sound output below. Bass sounds are produced by conventional speaker cones, since a circular horn mouth sufficient to reproduce 20 Hz would have a diameter of about 18 feet, except when a building, ground surface, or room itself is considered an extension of the horn. Large bass speakers take advantage of the surroundings as part of the horn. For example, they can be put in the corners of a room, so the walls act as part of the horn. Outdoors, the ground can form part of the horn surface, thus a partial horn can help provide a good impedance match to ground, or one or more walls at low frequencies. In agriculture, dry material handling sound horns are used to start material flow or to force release of impacted materials. In a grain silo, such a horn may be mounted inside the silo and sounded as the silo is emptied to loosen stuck granules.

These use any fundamental frequency from around 120–250 Hz, are about 120 dB SPL, are powered by compressed air. They are sometimes called acoustic horns. Many wind instruments have some kind of flaring bell shape; these are not exponential in configuration, are used to modify the standing wave patterns of the instrument, thereby the musical notes which can be produced. "The flared section of the bore in many instruments are conical. First let. In the page about pipes and harmonics, we saw that closed conical pipes have resonances whose frequencies are both higher and more spaced than those of a closed cylindrical pipe. So one can think of introducing a conical or flared section of the pipe as raising the frequencies of the standing waves, raising the frequencies of the low pitched resonances most of all; the bell contributes to this effect: in the flaring bell, the long waves are least able to follow the curve of the bell and so are reflected earlier than are the shorter waves. One might say therefore that the long waves'see' an shorter pipe."This has the effect of providing both the "brassy" sound of horn instruments versus woodwinds or metal instruments which lack a flare, of increasing the perceived loudness of the instrument, as harmonics in the range to which the ear is most sensitive are now delivered more efficiently.

However, this enhanced radiation in the higher frequencies means by definition less energy imparted to the standing waves, thus less stable and well-defined notes in the higher registers, making the instrument more difficult to play. Acoustic horns are found in nature in the form of the burrows constructed by male mole crickets to amplify their song. Gryllotalpa vineae digs a smoothed burrow with no irregularities larger than 1 millimetre, its song is loud enough to make the ground vibrate. The song can be heard up to 600 metres away